有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）People in Need (PIN) (People in Need (PIN)) - 阿富汗
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)
Stone masonry reservoir linked with roof rain water through a pipe scheme to provide safe drinking/low cost water supply in the remote areas.
Kishendeh district is extremely mountainous with low precipitation and with a shortage of water storage facilities. Underground reservoirs, called kandas, traditionally serve as water storage, catching rain water over the two/three wet months of the year for use throughout the rest of the year. The kandas tend to run out of water before the next rains come, and tend to be positioned very far away from villages in difficult to reach spots. Alika village, where this technology is implemented, suffers from the scarcity and unavailability of irrigation, livestock and even safe drinking water. Scarcity of water during the summer season makes the lives of the community members more difficult and results in their immigration from the village in the past.
Purpose of the Technology: To ease water shortage in the target community, in addition to the introduction of drought-resistant crops and soil and water conservation techniques, People in Need (PIN) has applied roof rain water harvesting technology in Alika elementary school, Alika village, Chakana cluster. The site where this technology has been applied belongs to the state. The water use right is common and poor families that do not have access to kandas are given priority for using this reservoir. The school and households near the school use this water for drinking and washing.
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The project started in October, 2014 and was completed in April, 2015. For the establishment of the roof rain water harvesting technology the following inputs were used:
360 square meter tin was used to cover the roof. The pipe system is 45 meters in total. Three inch PVC pipes as well as elbows and T-joints were used. The water reservoir’s dimension of 0.80x0.50 m stone masonry foundation and 0.60x1.50x24.4 m wall; The dry stone masonry is 30cm wide; the surface of the reservoir, reinforced concrete (RCC) is 15cm wide. The reservoir was plastered with water proofing. The roof of the reservoir was constructed using wooden sketch covered with hard plastic material.
141 person/day were required for accomplishing this project. The establishment cost was 5,296$. The total value of community contribution is 7,500 Afghani/145 US$. Excavation by community members of a 50 m3 area is valued at 20,000 Afghani/385 US$. Thus the total community contribution is 10% of the total costs.
The head master of the school assumes the responsibility for maintenance. The reservoir needs to be cleaned five times a year, this is a low cost exercise. In the rainfall season it needs to be done once a month. Cleaning can be done by one person. The estimated cost for the maintenance is 500 Afghani or 10 US$ and is fully contributed by the community members.
Natural / human environment: Balkh province has a semi-arid climate and receives about 280 mm rainfall per year. The main economic activities are agriculture and livestock. The community members of the Kishendeh district have a low access to health services, employment, roads and transport and to drinking water and sanitation. Lack and scarcity of water in this village has caused many internal displacements as well.
- < 0.1 平方千米（10 公顷）
The area where the technology is applied is 35*30 m which is equal to 1050m2
The project started in October, 2014 and was completed in April, 2015.
- access to water
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Scarcity of drinking water for human and livestock consumption and as well as unavailability of irrigation water for the home gardening. Loss of roof rain water, Soil erosion, Occurrence of flash floods and environmental pollution
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Carrying water from distant places by donkeys is very time consuming and a burden on families.
Constraints of settlement / urban: no constraints
Number of growing seasons per year: 1
Longest growing period in days: 150; Longest growing period from month to month: February till end of June
Secondary types of degradation addressed: Hg: change in groundwater / aquifer level
Main causes of degradation: disturbance of water cycle (infiltration / runoff), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts), population pressure
Secondary causes of degradation: poverty / wealth
Secondary goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation
Detailed technical drawing of the water reservoir constructed for roof rain water harvesting in Alika village, Kishendeh district.
Location: Alika village. Kishendeh district, Balkh province
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate
Main technical functions: water harvesting / increase water supply
Secondary technical functions: water spreading, improvement of water quality, buffering / filtering water
Structural measure: Water reservoir
Eng. Saboor Popal, People In Need (PIN)
|1.||Excavation of the foundationConstruction of the reservoirExtending pipes from roof coverage to the reservoir|
|劳动力||Excavation of the foundation Construction of the reservoir||persons/day||141.0||5.0||705.0||10.0|
|设备||Tools and pipes||ha||1.0||344.0||344.0|
Duration of establishment phase: 7 month(s)
|1.||Cleaning of the reservoir (5 times a year)||5 times a year|
|劳动力||Cleaning of the reservoir||persons/day||1.0||50.0||50.0||100.0|
Labor, cement and stone are the main factors affecting the total cost. After couple of years as well pipes may require to be changed.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Thermal climate class: temperate
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil fertility is low
Soil drainage / infiltration is medium
Soil water storage capacity is low
Land users applying the Technology are mainly disadvantaged land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: In Afghanistan the constructional and heavy physical activities which are done outside of the houses are mainly done by men.
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
Relative level of wealth: rich, average, poor
5% of the land users are rich.
55% of the land users are average wealthy.
40% of the land users are poor.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
livelihood and human well-being
It has provided the access to drinking water for human beings and livestock. As well as it provides irrigation water to kitchen gardens for the HHs who lives near by the Alika Elementary School.
Once roof rain water harvesting project is implemented and constructed in a place, It will not need much recurrent costs.
24 households covering 10 percent of stated area
24 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
Comments on spontaneous adoption: The land users has not implemented the technology with the same specifications but has implemented it with using their own available local materials.
There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Provides low cost safe drinking water to the community members (Alika school and HHs who lives near the reservoir free of charge). Further more it provides irrigation water for the kitchen gardens in some extent.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Safe drinking water can be easily available during the winter season but during the three months of summer the water should be carefully used only for drinking.
Requires minimum maintenance when constructed properly.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Pipe scheme, roof coverage area of the reservoir, should be cleaned, if any leakages occurs in the pipes or reservoir , they should be sealed.
Application of the technology has provided the chance of having leisure time for the families.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Families and community members should use the water effectively.
Roof rain water harvesting technology has supported the community members, economically.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Community members should take active participation in the maintenance of the reservoirs.
|This technology is difficult to be applied without external financial support.||Adoption of local materials should be promoted and as well as reservoirs be properly cleaned after the heavy rainfalls.|
|Technical knowledge is required for the application of this technology.||The technical knowledge should be transferred to the extension workers or local people to provide technical support in the future.|
|During the drought season with no rain fall enough water cannot be harvested inside the reservoir.||Water can be transferred to this reservoir through water tanks from other villages.|
|Social conflicts can occur during the distribution of water.||Meetings and awareness sharing events should be held. Water in keeper can be introduced by CDCs for the distribution of water.|