有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Book project: where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Christoffel Blindenmission (CBM) - 瑞士
Not problematic with regard land degradation. It provides efficient and sustainable use of available land resources.
The inclusive, flood-resilient cluster village provides safe housing, food security and income generation for multiple families, including persons with disabilities, in a highly flood prone area of Gaibandha District in northern Bangladesh. The land was raised above flood level and is protected by deep rooted fruit trees to prevent soil erosion and provide income for the land users.
The inclusive, flood-resilient cluster village was introduced in a rural area with a high risk of recurring monsoon floods. The purpose of the technology is to provide safe housing, safe shelter for livestock, food security and income generation for ten families, including persons with disabilities.
The main components of the technology are:
1) The raising of a piece of land by seven feet (213cm), to three feet (91cm) above expected highest flood levels. Solid soil was banked up to encircle a 30'000 square feet (roughly 50x57m) piece of land and then the space within was filled up with sand collected from a nearby river bank. A one-foot layer of solid soil was added to cover the entire area.
2) The protection of the raised land from soil erosion during floods by planting a combination of deep-rooted fruit- and medicine trees around the border of the raised land. The trees include a number of different types of deep-rooted and light-rooted fruit trees and one type of medicine tree, Azadirachta Indica, locally known as "Neem". In addition, the slope of the border area was covered by grass turf to protect the soil from being washed out by rain. Two types of deep-rooted and flood resistant grasses were used. A drainage system was installed to facilitate water runoff.
3) The planting of a 150 square feet (14m2) commonly used homestead vegetable garden at the center of the cluster village. The cultivated vegetables include red spinach, jute leaf, basella leaf, spinach, radish, cabbage, okra, bottle-guts, cucumber and beans, allowing for a summer and a winter harvest. Together with the fruit trees, the vegetable garden provides food security during prolonged flooding. They also provide improved nutrition and income generating opportunities through selling of a part of the harvest in the market.
4) Making the village accessible for persons with disabilities through different accessibility measures, including the construction of a ramp, connecting the cluster village entrance with the road, and of accessible common Water-, Sanitation- and Hygiene (WASH) facilities, including a latrine, deep bore hole water source and water storage tank.
5) Installation of a solar panel to ensure uninterrupted, flood-resilient power supply. The level of power supply is sufficient to ensure coverage of electricity needs during flood season, when regular supply is around 15% below annual average.
The Cluster village was constructed as part of a disaster risk reduction project by CDD (Center for Disability in Development) from Bangladesh, with the support of CBM (Christoffel Blindenmission), an international development organization and funded by a donor from Germany. The main cost for inputs were provided to the land users by the project, including rent of construction machinery, paid labor, soil and construction material for the ramp and WASH facilities. The land users contributed labor and seedlings for the planning of the border trees and the homestead vegetable garden.
The main benefits of the technology from the perspective of land users are the protection it provides for houses and livestock, which would otherwise be in danger of loss during floods. The availability of food, water and electricity allows land users to remain in their homes during floods and avoid evacuation and the risk associated with it, including for example protection risks or the risk of theft. The flood protected vegetable gardens and fruit trees provide a year-round, sustainable source of food and income, providing food security and improved nutrition. The Neem tree provides medical and hygiene uses of the branches and leaves.
The cluster village is used as a safe space for the land users and other members of the community and their livestock during floods. Land users who are persons with disabilities or elderly benefit from the accessible infrastructure. With multiple families sharing land, the cluster villages provides optimal utilization of land resources. An additional benefit mentioned by land users is that the joint use by multiple families led to a more progressive social culture.
Horipur Union, Sundargonj Sub district,
Kani Charitabari, Horipur Union, Sundargonj sub district, Gaibandha District.
The technology was introduced as part of a disaster risk reduction project, implemented the Center for Disability in Development (CDD) with the support of Christoffel Blindemission (CBM) and with participation and leadership of the local community. The project was financially supported a group of donors from Germany.
Summer and winter
Livestock are available in every household.
The drawing shows the layout of the disability inclusive, flood resilient Cluster village. The components of the technology are:
Raised land/plinth: 1) Purchase of land of a total area of 18'000 square feet (ca. 40x40m). Land ownership transferred to joint ownership of 10 families. 2) Collect 15'000 cubic feet (425m3) of solid soil from different pieces of land in the community. The soil was donated by members of the community, who were either related to the land users of the cluster village or donated in support of the construction of a safe space which can be used by the community during floods. 3) Banking up of 3 feet (91cm) of solid soil along the borders of the land. 4) Filling of area with 140'000 cubic feet (3965m3) of sand, extracted from a nearby riverbank with a rented sand extraction machine, raising the land to 6 feet (183cm). 5) Covering the entire area with one additional foot of solid soil, rasing the land to 7 feet (213cm), which means 3 feet (91cm) above the maximum expected flood levels.
Soil protected through deep-rooted trees: 1) Planting of deep-rooted and light-rooted fruit trees, surrounding the entire border of the raised land. The trees include deep rooted fruit trees like mango, black berry, jack-fruit, guava, coconut and areca nut, light-rooted fruit trees like banana and Papaya, a deep-rooted medicine tree, locally called "Neem" and the light-rooted Dhol Kalmi tree (pink morning glory). The number of deep-rooted threes was 100, with a spacing of around 5 feet in between each. They were planted to cover the entire perimeter of the raised land. In between the deep-rooted trees, 60 light-rooted trees were planted. In front of the deep-rooted trees, 60 bamboo bushes were planted to provide additional protection from wind and rain. 2) Turfing of the entire slope surrounding the cluster village with two flood resistant grasses: Durva (Cynodon dactylon) and Catkin grass. 3) Installation of a central drainage system with 15 plastic pipes ensuring water runoff from the wastewater pond.
Road access through ramp: The connecting ramp of the cluster village is 90 feet length, 6 feet width. There are five landing point of this ramp with smooth slopping. The construction material includes class one brick, brick stone, cement, sand, polythene and red oxide color for color contrast, which is appropriate for low vision and visually impaired persons. There is a 5 inch border on both sides of the ramp for safe movement of a wheel chair user.
Accessible household water and sanitation facilities: Latrine and wash-room are constructed for every house in the cluster village, following universal design standards. Latrines are connected to the wash room and the main house through ramps. There is a railing on both sides of the latrine and the entrance is wider for access of a wheel chair users. Water system for the latrine and wash room is provided from a water tank on three pillars behind the latrine, which is also connected to the main house for provision of drinking water. The tank is filled by hand pump ('magic pump') which functions with minimal hand pressure. The WASH facilities are accessible and usable by everyone including persons with disabilities, pregnant women or aged persons.
Home vegetable gardens: Every household has an individual homestead vegetable gardens where land users cultivate seasonal vegetables year-round. Gardens vary in size between averaging about 1.5 decimal (60m2) in size and are surrounded by bamboo fencing. The land owners are using organic fertilizer/compost for the vegetable production of their choice. By using cow's manure and wastage they are producing the compost in the behind of their houses in a ditch.
Solar system: A mini solar system is installed on the roof for each house by using a small panel with a 12-volt battery . Each system has the capacity of providing power for light for 8 hours. An introduction to system maintenance was given to the land users by the provider of the solar system.
18'000 square feet piece of land
|1.||Selecting the place for cluster village construction||管理||During rainy season in 2015|
|2.||Establish collaboration with 10 families who will become land users||管理||December 2015|
|3.||Land Raising & Ramp construction||结构性的||December 2015 to March 2016|
|4.||Reconstruction the existing houses of the land users on the raised land||结构性的||April 2016, before onset of rainy season 2016|
|5.||Planting of deep- and light-rooted fruits trees, bamboo bushes and grass turfing along the boundery||农业学的||February 2016 to March 2016|
|6.||Install accessible water & sanitation system||结构性的||April-June 2016|
|7.||Establish home garden in front of each house||植物性的||June-July 2016|
|8.||Install mini solar system for each house||其它措施||Aug-sep 2016|
|9.||Prepare livestock shed for each house||结构性的||October 2016|
|劳动力||Land raising, tree planting and turfing on slope||person days||290.0||300.0||87000.0||10.0|
|劳动力||Ramp construction||person days||115.0||350.0||40250.0||10.0|
|劳动力||House reconstruction and WASH facilities||person days||200.0||400.0||80000.0||10.0|
|劳动力||Solar system installation||person days||10.0||300.0||3000.0||10.0|
|设备||WASH equipment (latrine, magic pump, water tank, pipes, switch, pillars and other)||pieces||10.0||46658.0||466580.0|
|植物材料||Deep rooted trees||pieces||100.0||40.0||4000.0||100.0|
|植物材料||Seed for vegetable||KG||5.0||1000.0||5000.0||100.0|
|植物材料||Light rooted tree||pieces||60.0||30.0||1800.0|
|肥料和杀菌剂||Organic fertilizer (compost)||KG||600.0||10.0||6000.0||100.0|
|施工材料||Rent for shallow machine for sand extraction||Daily rent||10.0||28800.0||288000.0|
|施工材料||Grass turfing||square feet||15000.0||10.0||150000.0|
|施工材料||Allowance for house reconstruction material||House||10.0||2000.0||20000.0|
|其它||Project management (monitoring and support)||persons-days||180.0||2400.0||432000.0|
The project, human resource supported by CBM, CDD and a funded by private donor.
Labor for tree plantation, home stead gardening & house reconstruction was contributed by the land users.
|1.||Turfing: Repair leakages, replace grass etc.||结构性的||before onset of rains|
|2.||Tree maintenance: Cutting branches, manure of roots etc.||农业学的||Rainy season|
|3.||Vegetable gardening||植物性的||Summer & Winter season|
|4.||Housing repairs||结构性的||After harvesting season/ once in a year|
|5.||Water and Sanitation system servicing and repairs||管理||After harvesting season/once in a year|
|6.||Solar system maintenance||管理||Winter season/once in ayear|
|7.||Village group meeting for decision making and conflict resolution||管理||Once in a month|
|8.||Organic composting/fertilizer production||其它措施||Continuous|
|劳动力||House repairs||person days||10.0||300.0||3000.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Ramp repairs||person days||10.0||300.0||3000.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Plingth raising and plantation||person days||30.0||300.0||9000.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Solar system servicing by technical experts||piece||10.0||500.0||5000.0||100.0|
|植物材料||Seed for vegetable gardening||KG||5.0||1000.0||5000.0|
|施工材料||Soil for slope maintenance||square feet||5000.0||10.0||50000.0|
|施工材料||Sand for slope maintenance||KG||5000.0||2.0||10000.0|
Land users are agreed to contribute 100% maintenance cost
Market fluctuation and scarcity of goods in the flood season.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Heavy rainfalls are one of the causes for flooding
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
- > 收入的50%
Age of land users includes children, youth, middle-aged as well as elderly.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
Land users jointly own the land of the cluster village. They do not own any additional agricultural land and work as daily laborers and sharecropers.
Land users own the land of the cluster village jointly, including a proportional share of land- and water use rights.
Fruit and vegetable production increased after introduction of the cluster village. Because of decreased loss of home and property during floods, labor is freed for crop production which increased overall crop production in the wider area.
Fruit and vegetable quality is improved because of availability of Irrigation.
Livestock mortality rate is reduced because of safe space in Cluster village.
Homestead vegetable garden and fruit tree plantation above flood level has a significantly reduced risk of production failure.
The flood-protected homestead vegetable garden allows for higher product diversity.
Increased availabilty of flood protected land for vegetable gardening.
Energy supply was not available before installation of solar panel.
Installation of deep tube well water source.
Significantly higher water quality during flood, because of flood protected water source in cluster village.
Installation of deep tube well water source.
Significantly higher water quality during flood, because of flood protected water source in cluster village.
Irrigation available to land users after installation of deep tube well.
Demand for irrigation water increased because of vegetable garden.
Increase of farm income through selling of fruit and vegetables.
Additional income source through selling of fruit and vegetables.
Decreased income disparities between the land users of the cluster village due to fruit and vegetable production available to all land users, Decrease income disparities between land users of the cluster village and other members of the communty because of the reduction of loss from flood damage.
Somewhat increased workload for maintenance of technology but decreased because of avoidance of damaged from floods.
Increased food security through flood prodected homestead garden and tree plantation.
Higher attendance of health workers because the cluster village offer suitable group meeting rooms and accomodation. Cluster village was constructed in vicinity of community clinic. Better hygiene through WASH facilities.
The cluster village is a suitable meeting point for the entire community, for social gatherings or festivals.
Cluster village offers common space for children and other land users for Joint recreational activities.
Much improved situation for persons with disabiltiies who are part of the land users. All persons with disabiltiies in the wider community use the cluster village as a safe space during floods. Improved situation for all land users who are from marginalized parts of society (daily laborers and share croppers).
Soil erosion during floods decreased because of deep- and light-rooted border tree plantation.
Raised land as safe space above flood level.
Drought impact in summer season decreased because of Irrigation.
available shelter and safe space
Cluster village provides additional safe space/shelter for the wider community.
Around 10-15% of households which equals roughly 70 households.
The technology is replicated by households who receive assistance from local government for families at risk of flood damage.
Peoples of cluster villages are selling vegetables and fruits in the local market and some of them are carrying the fruits in the distance market. They are becoming more interested to plant more fruit trees in the cluster village. If it is continue in future it would be a fruits and vegetable market in the cluster village. At the same time they started selling cows milk in the local market and its demand is increasing day to day.
|Ownership of the land user's are there. Its a community driven initiative & disability inclusive in all respect. They are happy to give shelter to the other villagers during flood season. There is an opportunity to create an example of a model village in this area.|
|Its an innovative program. Peoples participation and their contribution is the main asset. Universal accessibility of the cluster village communicating benefit to other villagers during rainy as well as flood season. This pilot program can be replicated to other riverine areas in Bangladesh.|
|The intensity of floods is difficult to predict. With average flood levels rising, land users still have to live with the risk of flood levels going beyond the level of their rised land.||More research on changing weather/climatic patterns and scientific measurement of expected flood levels.|
|Government and Non government organizations extension services are not available in this area. Livelihood of the cluster village peoples depending on seasonal agriculture.||Income raising multiple activity need to be introduces. A small scale disability inclusive comprehensive project could be implemented here.|