技术

Rotational grazing to restore degraded pastures [阿富汗]

Ploni ba navbat charonidani mol ba khotiri behbudi charogoh

technologies_671 - 阿富汗

完整性: 90%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
Researcher:
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar, Afghanistan (LIPT)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Potential and limitations for improved natural resource management (NRM) in mountain communities in the Rustaq district, Afghanistan (Rustaq NRM Study)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Terre des Hommes (Terre des Hommes) - 瑞士
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (DEZA / COSUDE / DDC / SDC) - 瑞士
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - 瑞士

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

17/10/2016

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 所述技术的可持续性声明

这里所描述的技术在土地退化方面是否存在问题,导致无法被认为是一种可持续的土地管理技术?:

1.5 请参阅有关SLM方法的问卷

Watershed Associations (WSA) and Natural Resource Management Committees (NRMC)
approaches

Watershed Associations (WSA) and Natural Resource Management Committees ... [阿富汗]

Two Watershed Associations (WSA), in Chaker and Nahristan watershed areas respectively, are registered at the national level with the Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) and at the regional level with the Department of Agriculture. Both associations are strong, active, dynamic, and have the capacity to coordinate and support ...

  • 编制者: Bettina Wolfgramm

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

A plan for rotational grazing has been developed to control pasture use and prevent overgrazing of rehabilitated pastures.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

Livestock keeping is one of the key livelihood strategies in rural Rustaq, in addition to cultivation of cereals. Families rely on their livestock not only for consumption of meat from cattle, goats and sheep, and dairy products such as milk and sour milk, but also as means of transportation (donkeys), labour in agriculture (oxen, donkeys) and as a source of income through sales. Naturally, every family strives to increase their household’s livestock as much as they can, which increases the pressure on the local pastures - leading to extensive overgrazing. The pastures in Jawaz Khana and Sari Joy are characterized by poor vegetation cover, low carrying capacity and severe erosion with deep rills clearly visible. Heavy rains in spring and autumn wash off the topsoil on pastures, resulting in heavy erosion, landslides and gully formation. These severely degraded pastures continue to be used though "open access" - without any management schemes or regulations in place. Some pastures that are not suitable for grazing have been converted to arable lands and tree plantations. The quantity and quality of livestock fodder is insufficient for all the livestock, and this affects animal health.

Plans for rotational grazing were prepared for the communities in Sari Joy and Jawaz Khana to organize the use of local pastures and prevent their further degradation. Rotational grazing plans regulate the frequency and intensity of livestock grazing on the pastures. The area is seeded with alfalfa to improve the fodder stock and enhance the quality of the pasture. For up to three years the seeded area is closed to grazing, during which period the community is provided with stocks of hay and straw to feed their livestock as an alternative. After the end of the closure period, the grazing area is divided into 6-7 sections (paddocks) depending on the area of the pasture. The livestock graze the first paddock for 7 days and move to the next paddock. Each paddock is grazed for the period of 7 days during April and May. From the month of May the grazing area is closed for resting. The livestock move to the summer pastures for the rest of the summer months.

The community is key in preparing the grazing plans and identifying the pastures where these plans will be applied, as well as the conditions which are part of it, such as the frequency of the grazing period. Frequent meetings need to be held with the community livestock holders to explain the purpose of the rotational grazing and how it can be beneficial in pasture improvement. The Natural Resources Management Committee and the technical staff of the Livelihood Improvement Project (LIPT) are in charge of engaging the local pasture users to meet their needs and consider their views accordingly.

The actual implementation of the rotational grazing plans is difficult to assess for the time being. The grazing area is not fully restored and the fodder stock remains low. Many land users do not fully understand the concept behind the rotational grazing plans or their purpose. In an area where there is a severe shortage of livestock fodder and very limited grazing land, accepting and following these plans will require more time and additional support in terms of awareness-raising and support feeding of the livestock during the exclusion period. The villagers have some doubts about the costs and benefits of grazing and rotation. They have no full understanding of the benefits of the rotational grazing for their household and are likely to be not ready to adhere to such schemes.

Women are part of the livestock management system, and are in charge of feeding and taking care of the livestock. However, they are not aware about the plans for rotational grazing in their village and how are these plans are applied in practice.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

阿富汗

区域/州/省:

Takhar Province, Rustaq District

有关地点的进一步说明:

Sari Joy and Jawaz Khana Villages

2.6 实施日期

注明实施年份:

2015

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

Livelihood Improvement Project in Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des hommes (Tdh) Switzerland

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 改良生产
  • 减少、预防、恢复土地退化

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

牧场

牧场

粗放式放牧场:
  • 半游牧/游牧
集约放牧/饲料生产:
  • 改良牧场
主要动物种类及产品:

Cow, Sheep, Goat. Alfalfa

如果由于技术的实施而导致土地用途发生变化,则在技术实施前说明土地利的用途。:

Some areas under the Technology are former croplands, which have been completely degraded and no longer suitable for crop cultivation.

3.3 有关土地利用的更多信息

该技术所应用土地的供水:
  • 雨养
每年的生长季节数:
  • 1

3.4 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 畜牧业和牧场管理

3.5 技术传播

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果该技术均匀地分布在一个区域上,请注明覆盖的大致区域。:
  • 0.1-1 平方千米
注释:

6 ha

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

管理措施

管理措施

  • M2:改变管理/强度级别

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
土壤风蚀

土壤风蚀

  • Et:表土流失
物理性土壤退化

物理性土壤退化

  • Pc:压实
生物性退化

生物性退化

  • Bc:植被覆盖的减少
  • Bq:数量/生物量减少
其它

其它

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 修复/恢复严重退化的土地

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

作者:

LIPT

4.2 技术规范/技术图纸说明

After the end of the exclusion period the grazing area is divided into 6-7 sections (paddocks) depending on the area of the pasture. The livestock graze the first paddock for 7 days and move to the next paddock after 7 days. Each paddock is grazed for the period of 7 days during April and May. From the month of May the grazing area is closed for resting. The livestock move to the summer pastures for the rest of the summer months.

4.3 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

具体说明成本和投入是如何计算的:
  • 每个技术区域
注明尺寸和面积单位:

1 ha

具体说明成本计算所用货币:
  • 美元
注明美元与当地货币的汇率(如相关):1美元=:

67.0

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

5.2-5.3 USD

4.4 技术建立活动

活动 措施类型 时间
1. Selection of the pasture area and awareness raising among people 管理 Fall
2. Leveling of the land 农业学的 Fall
3. Sowing alfalfa seed 农业学的 Spring
4. Site under quarantine 管理 Three years
5. Preparation of the grazing plan and community meetings 管理 Fall
6. Protection of the site during quarantine 管理 Three years

4.5 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Leveling the land with a rake person-day 150.0 5.3 795.0 71.0
劳动力 Sowing alfalfa person-day 5.0 5.3 26.5 71.0
劳动力 Preparation of grazing plan person-day 2.0 9.0 18.0
劳动力 Protection of the site year 1.0 447.0 447.0 100.0
设备 Shovel piece 1.0 3.8 3.8 100.0
设备 Rope Meter 50.0 0.15 7.5 100.0
设备 Rake piece 1.0 3.0 3.0 100.0
植物材料 Alfalfa seed kg 17.5 0.42 7.35
肥料和杀菌剂 DAP kg 125.0 0.9 112.5
肥料和杀菌剂 Urea kg 125.0 0.45 56.25
技术建立所需总成本 1476.9
如果土地使用者负担的费用少于100%,请注明由谁负担其余费用:

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des hommes (Tdh) Switzerland

4.6 维护/经常性活动

活动 措施类型 时间/频率
1. Community agrees to leave the pasture for resting/ exclusion 管理 Three years
2. Rotational grazing 其它措施 Spring/week/grazing plot
3. Reseeding alfalfa 植物性的 After 5 years
4. Protection of the site 管理 Three years

4.7 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Reseeding alfalfa person day 5.0 5.3 26.5 100.0
劳动力 Protection during exclusion year 2.0 447.0 894.0 100.0
植物材料 Alfalfa seed kg 17.5 0.42 7.35 100.0
技术维护所需总成本 927.85
注释:

Costs calculated for a Technology area of 1ha was only done for the purpose of the WOCAT documentation. In reality SLM plots are on average 0.4 ha or 2 jiribs. Costs were simply multiplied by 2.5. The actual costs for a 1ha plot might be slightly different.

4.8 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

Due to the remoteness of the villages where the technology has been implemented, all the inputs for establishment, such as agricultural equipment, plant material, fertilizers, etc., are purchased in Rustaq town. The expenses for traveling and delivering the inputs affect the establishment costs.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

Average annual precipitation for the area was calculated with 580 mm, with minimum in dry years (2000 and 2001) of 270 mm and maximum in wet years (2009/2010) of 830 mm. The absolute maximum rainfall was calculated for 1986 with 1024 mm. The data series covers the period from 1979 to 2014.

农业气候带
  • 半干旱

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
土壤质地(地表以下> 20厘米):
  • 粗粒/轻(砂质)
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
表土有机质:
  • 低(<1%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

Local land users differentiate between the following soil types where the technology is implemented:
- Red: shallow; texture medium, coarse; low organic matter
- Light: moderately deep; texture medium; medium, low organic matter

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

5-50米

地表水的可用性:

中等

水质(未处理):

良好饮用水

水的盐度有问题吗?:

该区域正在发生洪水吗?:

规律性:

偶然

关于水质和水量的注释和进一步规范:

Floods occur mainly during the rainy seasons in spring and autumn. Availability of surface water differs for the villages of Sari Joy and Jawaz Khana. Sari Joy has good surface water availability. Jawaz Khana has poor water availability as water has to be fetched from a stream lower down.

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
栖息地多样性:

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

定栖或游牧:
  • 半游牧的
生产系统的市场定位:
  • 生计(自给)
非农收入:
  • 低于全部收入的10%
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 团体/社区
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
性别:
  • 男人
土地使用者的年龄:
  • 中年人
  • 老年人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

The land users in the area where the Technology is applied belong to the Uzbek ethnic minority group Qarluq.
Although the men are generally the main land users, women and children also take active part in the related work. The functions of men and women are clearly distinguished within Afghan society. At the same time within the family this division of work and functions also results in men and women working hand-in-hand. An improvement of the family’s livelihood situation is expected to positively affect all family members. While, it is recognized that the involvement of women is key in order to secure basic human rights for everyone, to achieve good governance, sustainable development, and to efficiently contribute to poverty reduction (SDC 2004), it is also clear that a context sensitive approach is of high importance.
Women in rural Afghanistan are involved in many production and income generating activities that contribute to the overall household income, however, very few women own resources such as land and livestock, and their income generating options are fewer in comparison to that of men.

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者拥有或租用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 中等规模的

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 社区/村庄
土地使用权:
  • 社区(有组织)
用水权:
  • 社区(有组织)
注释:

Those who own land and use water for irrigation are obliged to pay for the water. The payment is made both in kind and in cash to the Mirob - the person in charge of distributing water in the community. The amount of the payment varies from village to village.

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

作物生产

降低
增加

饲料生产

降低
增加

畜牧生产

降低
增加

木材生产

降低
增加

非木材林业生产

降低
增加

产品多样性

降低
增加

生产区域

降低
增加

生态影响

水循环/径流

地表径流

增加
降低
土壤

土壤流失

增加
降低
生物多样性:植被、动物

植被覆盖

降低
增加

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

下游洪水

增加
减少

下游淤积

增加
降低

缓冲/过滤能力

减少
改良
有关影响评估的意见:

These comments apply to 6.1 and 6.2:
- Socio-economic impacts: Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the benefits from the technology. They were asked to indicate production increase of crops; fodder; animals; wood; non-wood forest products; increase in prduct diversity; or production area. The most important increase they rated with 3, the second most with 2, others with 1 point. Averages of the points given by all terrace implementers are reflected here.
- Similarly for the "ecological impacts" and on "off-site impacts": Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the on-site and off-site impacts of the technology on water; soil; and vegetation. They were asked to indicate the strength of impacts with three, two or one points. Averages of the points given by all terrace implementers are reflected here.
- Socio-cultural impacts: This section is answered by the scientists, based on information collected during focus group discussions, and interviews conducted with persons from the 3 villages where the LIPT project implemented the technology.

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地暴雨 非常好
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱
注释:

SLM implementers from three villages were asked to jointly discuss and rate how much the SLM technology reduced the lands vulnerability to drought and local rainstorms. Only vulnerability to the most prevalent climate extremes (drought and local rainstorms) was discussed. SLM technologies were rated as reducing vulnerability poorly, well, or very well. The average points reflected here are from multi-criteria matrixes compiled in three villages where the SLM technology had been implemented.

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

非常积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

非常积极

注释:

SLM implementers from three villages were asked to jointly discuss and rate the SLM technologies short term (1-3 years) and long-term (10 years) return. As most of the technologies have only been implemented 1-2 years ago, it is too early to compare benefits to maintenance costs. Farmers have little experience so far on the actual benefits of the SLM technologies. The ratings are mostly based on expected benefits and not on actual benefits.

6.5 技术采用

  • 单例/实验
如若可行,进行量化(住户数量和/或覆盖面积):

6 ha

注释:

Rotational grazing plans are developed for common lands used by the whole village. There is one common grazing plan for each village.

6.6 适应

最近是否对该技术进行了修改以适应不断变化的条件?:

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
If implemented according to the plan and the pasture area is allowed to rest, the quality and quantity of the fodder will be enhanced.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
The land users have no full knowledge about the plans for rotational grazing and how they should be applied Increase awareness raising among the land users

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

  • 与土地使用者的访谈

Focus group discussions were organized to collect information from SLM implementers in Sari Joy and Jawaz Khana.

  • 与SLM专业人员/专家的访谈

Close collaboration took place during the compilation of this material with the technical staff of the LIPT project in Rustaq.

  • 根据报告和其他现有文档进行编译

Information provided in the reports of Tdh LIPT Project in Rustaq served as an initial source of information during the preparatory phase and also solidifying the description of the technology and area of implementation. Other background papers on Afghanistan were referred to for general information on agriculture and natural resource management in Afghanistan.

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Guidelines for Focus Groups Discussions

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Methods section of the Rustaq NRM study

模块