UNCCD

Sand Dune Stabilization in Drylands of Pakistan with Participation of Farmers [Pakistan]

Reporting Entity: Pakistan

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights: Geen

Completeness: 77%

General Information

General Information

Title of best practice:

Sand Dune Stabilization in Drylands of Pakistan with Participation of Farmers

Country:

Pakistan

Reporting Entity:

Pakistan

Property Rights

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights:

Geen

Specifications

Section 1. Context of the best practice: frame conditions (natural and human environment)

Short description of the best practice

The Sustainable Land Management Project (SLMP) and its Implementing Partner i.e the Bannu Forest division collaborated with local community to use Kana as a source of protection against this eroding factor of sand dunes. The Kana being a local species is highly resistant to water stress and has high growth rate in adverse conditions. The Kana crop grown in strips can provide effective protection to crops in between the strips as it breaks the wind velocity and stop shifting sand particles. But most of all, the Kana as a plant has already provided a boost to local cottage industry in the form of products like ropes, furniture, local household pots and roofing material. There is now a considerable number of local community members, mostly women, who are dependent upon this cottage industry to earn their livelihood.

Location

Village Zangikhel, District Lakki Marwat, Pakistan.|

Brief description of the natural environment within the specified location.

The terrain is flat and the soil is sandy comprising loose sand dunes in most parts
Undulating sand dunes and sandy plains, traversed by torrents from nearby hills causing severe gully erosion|
The village Zangi Khel is situated at a distance of about 20 KM from Town of Lakki on the Southern Side of the main Tajazai Road at an elevation of 350 meters above Sea level. The area falls in semi arid zone where both summers and winters are extreme. The average rain fall is about 250-400 mm per annum.

Prevailing socio-economic conditions of those living in the location and/or nearby

The main source of income of the local community is subsistence agriculture, however the cottage industry(Kana-Saccharum spontaneum) is providing additional income and the majority of women are involved in Kana cottage industry business. The other income sources include rearing of livestock, labour inside and outside the villages, government and private jobs and small scale business activities. |
Owing to extreme dry & arid condition, agriculture has never been a rewarding practice for the local farming community. Therefore the income level of community is generally low. |
Ninety percent (90%) of the inhabitant own the agriculture land while rest of the people are landless. The big land owner lease their agriculture land on 50-50% profit sharing basis to small land owners or landless. 50% of the land is under rainfed agriculture, 10% is under rangelands, 24% is classified under wasteland (which includes water channels, settlements, roads etc), a mere 1% is under forest trees, while 15% of the land is under kana production.

On the basis of which criteria and/or indicator(s) (not related to The Strategy) the proposed practice and corresponding technology has been considered as 'best'?

•This practice helped local farmers in reclaiming their sand dunal lands against strong pressure of winds, while adding to the fertility of soil also.
•This practice was found very in-expensive and easily implemented by local farmers.
•The practice not only addressed environmental and SLM issues but also directly contributed to income generation through support to Kan Cottage industry in the area.
•As all the input material and required skills are available locally, the sustainability of activity is more.

Section 2. Problems addressed (direct and indirect causes) and objectives of the best practice

Main problems addressed by the best practice

Wind erosion has been a problem in the area since long. Heavy wind storms in summer are common feature of the area that move the sand dunes and damage crops. Kana cultivation helped in stabilization of sand dunes gradually into cultivable lands. |Kana cultivation on farmlands helped conserve soil against wind storms. It also helped in preventing crop damages due to wind.|Shortage of water and scarcity of rainfall prevented the plantation of trees in this area. Farmers did not find it worth investing into plantations. Kana being hardy, drought resistant and easily propagated species provided a good option for plantation in this area|With very little income from farm based activity, the farming community dearly needed additional sources of income to support their livelihoods. Kana cottage  industry was income generating but  needed raw material on regular basis. The increase in Kana cultivation could solve this problem.

Outline specific land degradation problems addressed by the best practice

Lakki Marwat in southern parts of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa is one of the driest districts. Considerable part of this region is under sand dunes. The area faces extreme water shortage due to scarcity of rainfall and high cost involved in tapping the ground water. The area also faces extreme conditions both  in summer and winter. In these circumstances, farmers have very little options for land based activities. Wheat and gram are drought resistant crops grown on land with some fertility. Trees plantation involved high costs and success rate was very low. The  already existing natural vegetation was being depleted due to over-grazing by animals.
Farmers found a very suitable alternative in the form of Kana. Kana could be easily propagated from suckers and did not require regular watering. It is the most drought hardy species in the region. It is a perennial crop and gives production for many years after plantation. |

Specify the objectives of the best practice

Stabilization of shifting sand dunes and prevention of wind erosion on farmlands.|Provide additional source of income to poor farmers by providing support to local Kana cottage industry.

Section 3. Activities

Brief description of main activities, by objective

1. Introduction of mechanization in Kana cottage industry to enhance quality and quantity of products and to increase income from this activity. The activity was also to relieve the women and children from manual exertion.
1. Growing Kana on 100 acres land for the specific purpose of sand dune stabilization and control of soil erosion and crop damage due to winds.
2. Using Kana leaves to conserve soil and support crop cultivation on 50 acres.

Short description and technical specifications of the technology

1. Kana growing:
Kana clumps (consisting of bunch of Kana stalks with root portion) were obtained from other areas. The clumps were planted in sand at a spacing of 5 feet x 5 feet.
The clumps were planted in sand at a spacing of 5 feet x 5 feet. This activity was completed immediately after rainfall to take advantage of available moisture in the soil.
2. Using Kana leaves:
In this practice, Kana leaves are spread on sites with poor soil conditions. The leaves act as filters to capture moving sand particles from the wind and conserve it on-site for cultivation. The cultivation of gram has showed better results with this activity.
3. Mechanization in Kana industry:
Under this activity, 7 hammering machines and 7 Ban making machines were installed and people trained in their operation. The hammering machines take the toll of heavy physical work involved in separating and softening the Kana leave fiber to produce high quality ropes used for a number of purposes. The Ban machines save time and add quality to the ban produced locally.

Section 4. Institutions/actors involved (collaboration, participation, role of stakeholders)

Name and address of the institution developing the technology

Provincial Coordination Unit, Sustainable Land Management Project|Provincial Coordination Unit, Planning & Development Department, Civil Secretariat, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Phone: 0092 91 9213012

Was the technology developed in partnership?

Ja

List the partners:

Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Forest Department, Bannu Forest Division, district Bannu.|

Specify the framework within which the technology was promoted

Specify:

NULL
NULL

Was the participation of local stakeholders, including CSOs, fostered in the development of the technology?

Ja

List local stakeholders involved:

1. Community Based Organization
|2. District Office Soil Conservation|3. Private sector

For the stakeholders listed above, specify their role in the design, introduction, use and maintenance of the technology, if any.

1. Community Based Organization:
Offered their support and cooperation in implementing the activities by offering their land for cultivation of Kana. They also ensured to protect the  activity sites from damaging agencies and maintenance of sites after the project.
2. District Office Soil Conservation:
Provided technical support in Kana cultivation on sand dunes and on farmlands as shelterbelts.
3. Private sector:
Private sector was explored to arrange mechanized units for Kana cottage industry. The private sector provided mechanized units, training to local community in operation and maintenance of the units and installation of units. On other side, private sector helped in marketing of Kana products.

Was the population living in the location and/or nearby involved in the development of the technology?

Ja

Specify:

The local people took keen interest in the activity. They provided their lands for initial cultivation of land. They participated in project meetings and stakeholder consultations for the activities and provided their inputs from their past experiences. They also provided labour during field work.

Analysis

Section 5. Contribution to impact

Describe on-site impacts (the major two impacts by category)

The kana plantation will be able to protect the sand dunes from wind erosion and thus making the farming feasible over an area of 100 acres. The wheat and gram are the most suitable and valuable crops that could be grown on this land.
The Kana becomes a perennial cash crop for farmers. The raw material harvested from Kana plants amounts to 4000 Kg per acre. Fetching a local price of Rs. 21 per Kg, the raw material from 100 acres would earn an income of Rs 840,000 for the farmers.|
In addition to this, the gram crop cultivated on land spread with Kana leaves showed an increase of 29% in yield. Gram is the main cash crop and the impact would be an enhanced income from this activity.|
As mostly women and children from the marginalized groups are involved cottage industry, the mechanization process has facilitated them a long way by relieving them from heavy physical work and saving their time which they could use in other household chores.|
The kana plantation will be able to protect the sand dunes from wind erosion and thus making the farming feasible over an area of 100 acres. The wheat and gram are the most suitable and valuable crops that could be grown on this land.
In addition to this, the gram crop cultivated on land spread with Kana leaves showed an increase of 29% in yield. Gram is the main cash crop and the impact would be an enhanced income from this activity.|
The Kana becomes a perennial cash crop for farmers. The raw material harvested from Kana plants amounts to 4000 Kg per acre. Fetching a local price of Rs. 21 per Kg, the raw material from 100 acres would earn an income of Rs 840,000 for the farmers.|
As mostly women and children from the marginalized groups are involved cottage industry, the mechanization process has facilitated them a long way by relieving them from heavy physical work and saving their time which they could use in other household chores.|

Describe the major two off-site (i.e. not occurring in the location but in the surrounding areas) impacts

The activity inspired other farmers in areas with sand dunes who adopted the activity on their lands.
The activity inspired other farmers in areas with sand dunes who adopted the activity on their lands.
No Answer

Impact on biodiversity and climate change

Explain the reasons:

Kana cultivation plays major role in conservation of soil against wind erosion and other degrading agencies. Soil is the base for all type of vegetation and hence support to regeneration of local flora is increased that adds to biodiversity conservation. In addition, the activity provided safety net to poor farmers who were most affected by climate change due to reduced rainfalls and prolonged droughts. Kana is most drought resistant and thrives well in water scarce situations. This helps farmers to adapt to the effects of climate change and new circumstances. |

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?

Ja

Section 6. Adoption and replicability

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?

Ja

Where?

This activity was introduced on pilot basis in this area. The SLMP has planned to implement the activity on larger area with larger farmer groups during the Up-scaling phase.

Can you identify the three main conditions that led to the success of the presented best practice/technology?

Simple techniques involved, easily implement able.|
Motivated farmers and their functional organizations (CBOs)
Dearth of alternative strategies for land management in arid and semi-arid regions

Replicability

In your opinion, the best practice/technology you have proposed can be replicated, although with some level of adaptation, elsewhere?

Ja

At which level?
  • Local
  • Sub-national
  • National

Section 7. Lessons learned

Related to human resources

Farmers are usually more receptive and keen for land based interventions that do not require much technical skills and that are easily executed.

Related to technical aspects


NULL

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