Manure separation to better distribute organic matter at farm level [Países Bajos]

Mestscheiding om organische stof op bedrijfsniveau beter te verdelen (NL)

technologies_1256 - Países Bajos

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación de la Tecnología

Persona(s) de referencia clave

Especialista MST:
Especialista MST:

Smit Annemieke

Wageningen Environmental Research (Alterra)

Países Bajos

Especialista MST:

Leever Henk


Países Bajos

Especialista MST:

Rienks Willem


Países Bajos

Nombre del proyecto que financió la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care (EU-RECARE )
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Hoe Duurzaam - Países Bajos
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
ROM3D - Países Bajos
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Wageningen Environmental Research (Alterra) - Países Bajos
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Provincie Gelderland - Países Bajos
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Vitens - Laat Water Voor Je Werken - Países Bajos

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT:

2. Descripción de la Tecnología MST

2.1 Breve descripción de la Tecnología

Definición de la Tecnología:

Separation of cow manure is a common practice on dairy farms in The Netherlands to improve the nutrient use efficiency.

2.2 Descripción detallada de la Tecnología


Het primaire doel van mestscheiding is de productie van een dikke
fractie met hoge gehalten aan organische stof en mineralen en een laag vochtgehalte. Een dergelijke geconcentreerde
fosfaatrijke fractie is een waardevolle organische meststof en kan over grote afstand vervoerd worden. De
dunne waterige fractie, met daarin het grootste deel van de stikstof, kan op eigen grond of in de nabije omgeving als
meststof worden aangewend of verder worden gezuiverd tot loosbaar water.

Slurry manure is fed through a manure separator that separates much of the thick material from the liquid portion. These fractions differ in the proportion between P and N; the thick fraction contains relatively more P than the thin fraction.
The thick fraction is used on maize fields or as substrate in cow stables; the thin fraction, with the larger part of the nitrogen, can be used on other parts of the farm or is exported from the farm to be treated for discharge in the environment. Due to stricter regulations for the application of N and P to crop land and grassland, less manure may be applied to the land. If manure must be exported because the threshold for P is reached, this implies that also N is exported from the farm.

Purpose of the Technology: Slurry from livestock consists of more than 90% of water. The primary purpose of manure separation is to produce a thick fraction with high contents of organic matter and nutrients and a low moisture content. The thick fraction is a valuable fertiliser and can be transported over large distances. The thin fraction, with the larger part of the nitrogen, can be applied as fertiliser on the farm, on farmland in the proximity, or can be treated into a quality suitable for discharge in the environment or water drainage system.

Manure separation allows farmers to use organic matter from manure more efficiently at the farm level. Manure separation increases the efficiency of processing and using manure in 5 ways:

1. By concentrating phosphorus in the thick fraction the volume of manure to be exported can be decreased, and also the export of nitrogen from the farm.
2. Manure separation creates three types of manure (thick, thin and mixed), which allows for differentiated application to different fields and crops, and reductions on requirements for artificial fertiliser.
3. Manure separation decreases the volume of manure to be exported from farms, and therefore saves energy and transport costs.
4. The thick fraction can be stored in stacks, taking up less space.
5. The thick fraction can be used as substrate in stables, replacing costly sawdust.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Purchase a manure separator. Periodically feed your collected slurry manure through the separator and then apply the thick portion to your fields. Discard the liquid portion.

Natural / human environment: Dairy farming on sandy soils in the eastern part of The Netherlands. Stricter manure regulation originting from the Nitrates Directive sets a limit on the amounts of animal manure for farms on sandy and loess soils in the eastern and southern part of The Netherlands.

2.3 Fotografías de la Tecnología

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde la Tecnología fue aplicada y que se hallan comprendidos por esta evaluación


Países Bajos

Región/ Estado/ Provincia:


Especifique más el lugar :

Haarlo - Oude Eibergen

Especifique la difusión de la Tecnología:
  • distribuida parejamente sobre un área
Si se desconoce el área precisa, indique el área aproximada cubierta:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

The thick manure fraction is applied to corn fields. There is 240 ha of corn in the area amongst 44 farmers. Only 2 farmers are applying this technology.

2.6 Fecha de la implementación

Si no se conoce el año preciso, indique la fecha aproximada:
  • hace menos de 10 años (recientemente)

2.7 Introducción de la Tecnología

Especifique cómo se introdujo la Tecnología:
  • mediante proyectos/ intervenciones externas
Comentarios (tipo de proyecto, etc.):

The land users's initiative was through the application for the project Healthy Sand by a group of farmers. During the Gezond Zand Project the group organised themselves in the Foundation HOEDuurzaam. The project ran from 2012-2014 and is followed by the new project BodemRijk.
The external initiative was from the drinking water company Vitens and the Province of Gelderland in the same period.

3. Clasificación de la Tecnología MST

3.2 Tipo(s) actuales de uso de la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología

Tierras cultivadas

Tierras cultivadas

  • Cosecha anual
Cosechas anuales - Especifique cultivos:
  • cereales - maíz
  • cereales - otros
  • cultivos para forraje - pastos
  • cultivos de raíces/ tubérculos - patatas
Número de temporadas de cultivo por año:
  • 1

Longest growing period in days: 250Longest growing period from month to month: March-November

Tierra de pastoreo

Tierra de pastoreo

Pastoreo intensivo/ producción de forraje:
  • Cortar y llevar/ cero pastoreo
  • Pastoreo mejorado

Major cash crop annual cropping: Potatoes
Major food crop annual cropping: Maize, cereals
Major food crop perennial (non-woody) cropping: Grass

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Decrease of soil organic matter content.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): The group of farmers in the area expeience decreasing organic matter content in soil.

Cut-and-carry/ zero grazing: feeding in stables

Improved pasture: feeding in field

Livestock density: > 100 LU /km2

3.4 Provisión de agua


Water supply: rainfed, mixed rainfed - irrigated, rainfed, mixed rainfed - irrigated

3.5 Grupo MST al que pertenece la Tecnología

  • manejo integrado de la fertilidad del suelo

3.6 Medidas MST que componen la Tecnología

medidas agronómicas

medidas agronómicas

  • A2: materia orgánica/ fertilidad del suelo

Main measures: agronomic measures

Type of agronomic measures: manure / compost / residues

3.7 Principales tipos de degradación del suelo encarados con la Tecnología

deterioro químico del suelo

deterioro químico del suelo

  • Cn: reducción de la fertilidad y contenido reducido de la materia orgánica del suelo (no ocasionados por la erosión)

Main type of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

Main causes of degradation: soil management (Intensive ploughing)

Secondary causes of degradation: crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (Intensive crop management)

3.8 Prevención, reducción o restauración de la degradación del suelo

Especifique la meta de la Tecnología con relación a la degradación de la tierra:
  • restaurar/ rehabilitar tierra severamente degradada

Main goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Especificaciones técnicas, actividades de implementación, insumos y costos

4.1 Dibujo técnico de la Tecnología

Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

Slurry manure is the influent placed into the separator. A drill-press pushes the slurry and pressure squeezes out the liquid portion (Liqour). The thick manure (cake) is pressed out the end. The screen holds the solid material in the drill press.

Location: not applicable. not applicable

Date: 13-01-2008

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (The agricultural advisor should advise on options for application of the thick fraction of manure based on composition.)

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (Farmer has to calculate and strategize distribution of thick manure fractions and RDM(slurry) to reach balanced application rates and consider impact between fields.)

Technical knowledge required for technical advisor from machine company: moderate (Technical advisor should advise on type of manure separator (screw or roller) depending on the intended use of the thick and thin fractions.)

Main technical functions: increase in organic matter

Secondary technical functions: increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…)

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: Thick fraction obtained by separation of manure from dairy cows.
Quantity/ density: 10 t/ha
Remarks: The thick fraction is applied separately from the slurry.


Extension, http://www.extension.org/pages/27470/solids-separation-in-swine-manure-handling-systems#.VU9uDk0cRoI

4.2 Información general sobre el cálculo de insumos y costos

otra / moneda nacional (especifique):


Si fuera relevante, indique la tasa de cambio de dólares americanos a la moneda local (ej. 1 U$ = 79.9 Reales Brasileros): 1 U$ =:


Indique el costo promedio del salario de trabajo contratado por día:


4.3 Actividades de establecimiento

Actividad Momento (estación)
1. Buy a seperator

4.4 Costos e insumos necesarios para el establecimiento

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Equipo Seperator Machine 1,0 5320,0 5320,0
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología 5320,0
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología en USD 5659,57

Life span of the seperator: 6 years
Number of parties sharing: 44

4.5 Actividades de establecimiento/ recurrentes

Actividad Momento/ frequencia
1. Operating separator once per year
2. Applying both thick fraction manure and RDM manure once per year

4.6 Costos e insumos necesarios para actividades de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (por año)

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra Labour ha 1,0 127,68 127,68 100,0
Mano de obra Sampling manure ha 1,0 21,28 21,28 100,0
Equipo Machine use ha 1,0 308,56 308,56 100,0
Equipo rent of manure separator h 1,0 16,5 16,5 100,0
Equipo depreciation costs m3 1,0 0,65 0,65
Equipo maintenance machine 1,0 0,3 0,3
Equipo Electricity ha 1,0 3,72 3,72 100,0
Fertilizantes y biocidas Extra Potassium ha 1,0 10,64 10,64 100,0
Indique los costos totales para mantenecer la Tecnología 489,33
Costos totales para mantener la Tecnología en USD 520,56

Machinery/ tools: Separator, truck, loader, tractor

Cost of everything per hour was multiplied by totals and divided by hectares applied so costs per hectare are given. The establishment cost of the separator is the total unit. It was purchased by the farmer's foundation. It can not be given in a cost per hectare.

4.7 Factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

Describa los factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

Labour. Equipment.

5. Entorno natural y humano

5.1 Clima

Lluvia anual
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Especificaciones/ comentarios sobre la cantidad de lluvia:

182 days of precipitation annually

Zona agroclimática
  • Sub-húmeda

Thermal climate class: temperate. Mean monthly temperature varies between 2-17 °C ( LGP 240-269 days, mean monthly temperature varies between 2-17 °C)

5.2 Topografía

Pendientes en promedio:
  • plana (0-2 %)
  • ligera (3-5%)
  • moderada (6-10%)
  • ondulada (11-15%)
  • accidentada (16-30%)
  • empinada (31-60%)
  • muy empinada (>60%)
Formaciones telúricas:
  • meseta/ planicies
  • cordilleras
  • laderas montañosas
  • laderas de cerro
  • pies de monte
  • fondo del valle
Zona altitudinal:
  • 0-100 m s.n.m.
  • 101-500 m s.n.m.
  • 501-1,000 m s.n.m
  • 1,001-1,500 m s.n.m
  • 1,501-2,000 m s.n.m
  • 2,001-2,500 m s.n.m
  • 2,501-3,000 m s.n.m
  • 3,001-4,000 m s.n.m
  • > 4,000 m s.n.m
Comentarios y especificaciones adicionales sobre topografía :

Altitudinal zone: 0-100 m a.s.l. (up to 45 metres a.s.l.)
Slopes on average: Flat and gentle (only incidentally.)

5.3 Suelos

Profundidad promedio del suelo:
  • muy superficial (0-20 cm)
  • superficial (21-50 cm)
  • moderadamente profunda (51-80 cm)
  • profunda (81-120 cm)
  • muy profunda (>120 cm)
Textura del suelo (capa arable):
  • áspera/ ligera (arenosa)
  • mediana (limosa)
Materia orgánica de capa arable:
  • elevada (>3%)
  • media (1-3%)
Si se halla disponible, adjunte una descripción completa de los suelos o especifique la información disponible, por ej., tipo de suelo, pH/ acidez de suelo, capacidad de intercambio catiónico, nitrógeno, salinidad, etc. :

Soil depth on average: Deep (A and B horizons up till 40 cm in Gleyic Podzols and Umbric Gleysols (ca 75% of the area). Hardly any soil organic matter below 15 cm. Rooting depth is up to 80 cm.) and very deep (deep topsoils rich in organic matter in the Fimic Anthrosols (12% of the area).)
Soil texture is coarse/light (most soils have a sandy texture due to the substrate consisting of cover sands) and medium (Soils in former creek valleys contain loam (Umbric Gleysols))
Soil fertility is low (Most soils have a low fertility due to the sandy substrate (specifically the Gleyic Podzols, ca 40% of the area)) and very high (in Fimic Anthrosols originated due to application of farmyard manure since medieval times (12% of the area))
Topsoil organic matter is medium (the purpose of the technology is to increase soil organic matter at farm level)
Soil drainage/infiltration is good (deep groundwater table (H>40-80 cm; L>120 cm) in the sandy soils on thick substrate of cover sands (in 65% of the area)) and medium (shallow groundwater tables in the Umbric Gleysols (35% of the area).
Soil water storage capacity is medium (in the other soils, varying with the soil organic matter content) and very high (in the Fimic Anthrosols with high SOM in the topsoil.)

5.4 Disponibilidad y calidad de agua

Agua subterránea:

< 5 m

Disponibilidad de aguas superficiales:


Calidad de agua (sin tratar):

agua potable de mala calidad (requiere tratamiento)

Comentarios y especificaciones adicionales sobre calidad y cantidad de agua:

Ground water table: <5m (in all soil types the highest level of the groundwater table during the year is <140 cm below the soil surface. The lowest level can be lower than 120 cm)
Availability of surface water is medium (From small rivers (De Berkel) and creeks)
Water quality (untreated) is poor drinking water (levels of the pesticides Bentazon and MCPP in the groundwater have incidentally exceeded the norms for drinking water production between 1985 and 2009)

5.5 Biodiversidad

Diversidad de especies:
  • mediana
Comentarios y especificaciones adicionales sobre biodiversidad:

Soil biodiversity is high in the Fimic Anthrolsols.

5.6 Las características de los usuarios de la tierra que aplican la Tecnología

Orientación del mercado del sistema de producción:
  • mixta (subsistencia/ comercial)
  • comercial/ mercado
Ingresos no agrarios:
  • menos del 10% de todos los ingresos
Nivel relativo de riqueza:
  • promedio
Individuos o grupos:
  • individual/ doméstico
Nivel de mecanización:
  • mecanizado/motorizado
  • hombres
Indique otras características relevantes de los usuarios de las tierras:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: Most outdoor farm operations are completed by men. Women often have jobs outside the farm.
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: < 0.5%
100% of the land users are average wealthy and own 100% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: Some farmers are contractual workers. Wives of farmers often have a job, e.g. at the municipality or craft work. Farms do not provide B&B or educational services.
Market orientation of cropland production system is mixed ( Maize is completely used to feed cows (max 20% of the area is allowd under maize); other arable crops are sold to the market. Dairy production is commercial. )
Market orientation of grazing land production system is commercial/market (dairy farmers grow feed crops for their livestock)

5.7 Área promedio de la tierra usada por usuarios de tierra que aplican la Tecnología

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
¿Esto se considera de pequeña, mediana o gran escala (refiriéndose al contexto local)?
  • escala mediana

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: 5-15 ha, 15-50 ha, 50-100 ha
Cropland per household: 15-50 ha (6 land owners (situation in 2014)) and 50-100 ha (15 land owners, situation in 2014)
Grazing land per household: 5-15 ha (average grassland is 7.8 ha per household)

5.8 Tenencia de tierra, uso de tierra y derechos de uso de agua

Tenencia de tierra:
  • individual, con título
  • Other forms of exploitation
Derechos de uso de tierra:
  • arrendamiento
  • individual

Many fields have other forms of exploitation than individual ownership or lease.

5.9 Acceso a servicios e infraestructura

  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
asistencia técnica:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
empleo (ej. fuera de la granja):
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
caminos y transporte:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
agua potable y saneamiento:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
servicios financieros:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno

6. Impactos y comentarios para concluir

6.1 Impactos in situ demostrados por la Tecnología

Impactos socioeconómicos


producción de cultivo

Comentarios/ especifique:

expected, based on better targeted fertiliser application

Disponibilidad y calidad de agua

demanda de agua para irrigar

Comentarios/ especifique:

expected due to increase of SOM

Ingreso y costos

gastos en insumos agrícolas

Comentarios/ especifique:

On artificial fertiliser (30-80% reduction on N fertiliser) and substrate for cow stables. But since the thick fraction contains less N per kg of P2O5 than the original mix, farners applying the thick fraction (for maize as described in this QT) may need to apply more articial N-fertilizer

ingreso agrario

Comentarios/ especifique:

Decreased costs for manure export from the farm: A smaller part of the total manure mix needs to be exported (ca 35% less N-export than without manure separation; 10-30% less net energy use)

Otros impactos socioeconómicos

Ease of manure storage

Comentarios/ especifique:

Thick fraction is less voluminous and can be stacked

Manure processing

Comentarios/ especifique:

Thick fraction can be more easily stored and transported; thin fraction takes up less volume and does not need to be transported.

Energy use

Cantidad antes de MST:

4-7 GJ/ha

Cantidad luego de MST:

3-5 GJ/ha

Comentarios/ especifique:

Energy use for manure transport, processing, digestion and fertiliser use

Expenses on machinery

Comentarios/ especifique:

For farms with less than 1000-2000 tons of manure to be separated expenses on manure separation become larger than benefits. Such farms could better hire a mobile separator, as in the descirption of this SLM technology.

Impactos socioculturales

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

Comentarios/ especifique:

Dairy farmers have learned more about the importance of soil organic matter for their production systems, and about the consequences of soil and manure management on soil organic matter and other aspects of soil health. This learning was brought by the exchange of knowledge between farmers and experts, and between farmers themselves. Farmers also profited from services provided to them by the farmers' foundations: shared investments (e.g. in the manure separator) and support in the application for subsidies to finance the SLM measure.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo de agua/ escurrimiento de sedimento

calidad de agua

Comentarios/ especifique:

expected: reduction in leaching of nitrate and phosphorus due to better targeted manuring to plant needs


humedad del suelo

Comentarios/ especifique:

due to increased SOM

materia orgánica debajo del suelo C

Comentarios/ especifique:

due to improved manure composition for crop growth and build-up of SOM

Reducción de riesgos de desastres y riesgos climáticos

emisión de carbono y gases de invernadero

Comentarios/ especifique:

due to better targeted fertiliser use to needs of crops and reduced use of artificial fertiliser (30-80% less supply of N-fertiliser required)

Otros impactos ecológicos

Emission of NH3

Cantidad antes de MST:


Cantidad luego de MST:


Comentarios/ especifique:

NH3 loss in kg/ha, for dairy farms with 1.75 cows/ha, manure prod of 255 kg N/haand other assumptions; model estimate

P2O5 surplus

Cantidad antes de MST:


Cantidad luego de MST:


Comentarios/ especifique:

P2O5 surplus in kg/ha, same conditions

6.2 Impactos fuera del sitio demostrados por la Tecnología

contaminación de aguas subterráneas/ de ríos

Cantidad antes de MST:


Cantidad luego de MST:


Comentarios/ especifique:

Reduced leaching of nitrate from fields where manure is applied due to less surplus of N in thin fraction(NO3-N in groundwater in mg/lfor farm with 1.75 dairy cows/ha)

Energy use

Cantidad antes de MST:

4-7 GJ/ha

Cantidad luego de MST:

3-5 GJ/ha

Comentarios/ especifique:

Energy use for transport of manure from farms, processing, digestion, fertiliser use

6.3 Exposición y sensibilidad de la Tecnología al cambio climático gradual y a extremos relacionados al clima/ desastres (desde la percepción de los usuarios de tierras)

Cambio climático gradual

Cambio climático gradual
Estación Incremento o reducción ¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
temperatura anual incrementó bien

Extremos (desastres) relacionados al clima

Desastres climatológicos:
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
tormenta de lluvia local bien
tormenta de viento bien
Desastres climatológicos
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
sequía bien
Desastres hidrológicos
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
inundación general (río) bien

Otras consecuencias relacionadas al clima

Otras consecuencias relacionadas al clima
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
periodo reducido de crecimiento bien

The technology is almost independent on environmental change, since it depends on the availability of manure. It is strongly dependent on the farming system (supply of manure and possibility to apply the separated fractions on farm).

6.4 Análisis costo-beneficio


There is no evidence yet on economic and agronomic effects of using the manure separator in the area, so the land user's perspective cannot be given. Assessments of costs, effects and energy use based on modelling are available in the literature for dairy and arable farming in the NL in Schroder et al. (2009). These reveal that for farms with 1.75 to 2.18 dairy cows/ha and under conditions of manure production and application and manure regulations for this part of The Netherlands, the required export of N-manure could decrease by 35%, required N-fertiliser by 30-80%, and net energy use by 10-30%.

6.5 Adopción de la Tecnología

Si tiene la información disponible, cuantifique (número de hogares y/o área cubierta):



100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

2 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: The Foundation HOEDuurzaam purchased the manure separator. Farmers can use the machine for 15 euros/hour, and can apply for a subsidy from the Province when applying the technology. Two farmers were actively using the machine in 2014.

Comments on adoption trend: We do not have information on how many farmers were using the manure separator in 2015. This information will become available in 2016.

6.7 Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades de la Tecnología

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
increases soil organic matter

How can they be sustained / enhanced? continued application of the measure and subsidy for maintenance of the manure separator by the Foundation; support to farmers in calculating parameters for manure separation specific for their farm (type of manure, concentrations, fields to apply to, livestock intensity)
energy saving and reduced loss of N while maintaining equal levels of crop production
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
increases soil organic matter

How can they be sustained / enhanced? continued application of the measure and subsidy for maintenance of the manure separator by the Foundation; support to farmers in calculating parameters for manure separation specific for their farm (type of manure, concentrations, fields to apply to, livestock intensity)
increases available soil moisture
reduces leaching of nitrate to the groundwater
reduces energy use for manure handling and transport

6.8 Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos de la Tecnología y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
there is still little experience with manure separation and there are many uncertainties relating to separation efficiency and financial aspects

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

7.3 Vínculos a la información relevante disponible en línea

Título/ descripción:

Mestscheiding: relaties tussen techniek, kosten, milieu en landbouwkundige waarde - Jaap Schröder, Fridtjof de Buisonjé, Gerrit Kasper, Nico Verdoes & Koos Verloop, Plant and Animal Sciences Groups Wageningen UR, 2009.



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