Tecnologías

Rehabilitation of degraded pastures with alfalfa [Afganistán]

Ehyoye charogoh bo posheedani tukhmi reshqa

technologies_672 - Afganistán

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación de la Tecnología

Persona(s) de referencia clave

Especialista MST:
Especialista MST:
Researcher:
Nombre del proyecto que financió la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar, Afghanistan (LIPT)
Nombre del proyecto que financió la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Potential and limitations for improved natural resource management (NRM) in mountain communities in the Rustaq district, Afghanistan (Rustaq NRM Study)
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Terre des Hommes (Terre des Hommes) - Suiza
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (DEZA / COSUDE / DDC / SDC) - Suiza
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Bern University of Applied Sciences, School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (HAFL) - Suiza
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Suiza

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT:

1.4 Declaración de la sostenibilidad de la Tecnología descrita

¿La Tecnología aquí descrita resulta problemática en relación a la degradación de la tierra, de tal forma que no puede considerársela una tecnología sostenible para el manejo de la tierra?

No

Comentarios:

SLM practices documented in the frame of the Rustaq NRM study were established only recently (1-3 years ago). It is too early for a final judgment on the sustainability of these technologies within the human and natural environment of Chokar watershed.

1.5 Referencia al (los) Cuestionario(s) de Enfoques MST (documentados usando WOCAT)

Pasture and Livestock Management Plan
approaches

Pasture and Livestock Management Plan [Tayikistán]

"Pasture and Livestock Management Plan" is a participatory approach which is guiding pasture users, members of Pasture User Unions and Pasture User Groups to develop their action plan on pasture and livestock management. The approach brings together stakeholders, who are involved at any stage in pasture management or can contribute ...

  • Compilador: Askarsho Zevarshoev

2. Descripción de la Tecnología MST

2.1 Breve descripción de la Tecnología

Definición de la Tecnología:

Degraded pastures are restored with alfalfa through broad seeding method. The area is put under quarantine for three years to allow for the pasture to restore sufficiently.

2.2 Descripción detallada de la Tecnología

Descripción:

Project supported pasture rehabilitation has taken place in the villages Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai, located in Chokar watershed of Rustaq District in Northern Afghanistan. The Chokar watershed is a mountainous area situated between 600 - 2,500 m above sea level. The climate is semi-arid with harsh and cold weather in winter and hot and dry summers. The annual precipitation in average years is 580mm. Land degradation affects all forms of land use and includes low vegetation cover, heavy top soil erosion from water, and poor soil fertility. Unsustainable agricultural practices, over-exploitation and high pressure on the natural resources are adversely impacting on the socio-economic well-being of local communities as well as contributing to the risk for being adversely affected by drought as well as landslides and flash foods triggered by heavy rainfall. The data used for the documentation of the technology is based on field research conducted in Chokar watershed, namely in the villages: Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai. These villages represent the upper, the middle and the lower zone of Chokar watershed, respectively. They differ considerably in access to services and infrastructure, but in general are poorly served. The communities depend on land resources for sustaining their livelihoods. In a good year with high yields, wheat-self-sufficiency lasts about 5 months. The three villages are home to ethnic Qarluq communities. Since 2012 the Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des hommes (Tdh) Switzerland has initiated a range of NRM interventions.

Livestock keeping is one of the key livelihood strategies in rural Rustaq in addition to cultivation of cereals. Families rely on their livestock not only for consumption of meat from cows, goat and sheep, dairy products such as milk and sour milk, but also as means of transportation (donkeys), labour force in agriculture (oxen, donkey) and source of cash income. Every family strives to increase their household’s livestock as much as they can, which increases the pressure on the local pastures leading to extensive overgrazing. The pastures in Jawaz Khana, Dashti Mirzai and Sari Joy are characterized by poor vegetation cover, low carrying capacity and sever erosion with deep rills clearly visible on the surface. These severely degraded pastures continue to be used uncontrollably without any management schemes or regulations in place. Cropland not suitable for cultivation has been converted to pastures. The quantity and quality of livestock fodder is insufficient for all the livestock affecting poor animal health.

The village communities have recognized the poor condition of their pastures and the need to take measures to revert the situation. Pasture rehabilitation measures were introduced, which aim to restore heavily degraded pasture land with alfalfa. Initially the land user and the community agrees to leave the sown pasture under quarantine for three years. The restoration measures include: leveling the soil with a rack to soften the soil and prepare the seedbed. 3,5 kg of alfalfa is seeded on 1 jerib or 0.2 ha of pasture land using the broadcast seeding method. Fertilizer application (DAP and/or animal manure) is followed by the seeding. The area is protected from grazing during three years. During this quarantine period the alfalfa has to grow in sufficient size in order to be harvested for livestock fodder.

It has been observed that after two years in some part it is already possible to harvest the alfalfa. Improvements of the pasture are visible given the fast growth rate of the alfalfa crop. The plant grows well without irrigation, which is favorable given the shortage of irrigation water in the villages. The rehabilitated pastures will slow down the run-off, improve water infiltration and protect the pasture from erosion during heavy rain fall. The land users recognize the pasture improvements and relatively increased fodder availability. Alfalfa reseeding is done in 5-10 years and appeals to the needs of the land users, which cannot afford annual reseeding. One of the constraint remains is the quarantine period of 1-3 years, which deprives the livestock from fodder and the farmers have to find options for covering the loss.

Women are generally aware about the use of alfalfa for the production of better fodder for their livestock. Women do take part in haymaking, collecting the hay and bringing it to their homes or to the community fodder bank. Often they are helped by their children to do the work.

2.3 Fotografías de la Tecnología

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde la Tecnología fue aplicada y que se hallan comprendidos por esta evaluación

País:

Afganistán

Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

Takhar Province, Rustaq District

Especifique más el lugar :

Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana, Dashti Mirzai villages

Especifique la difusión de la Tecnología:
  • distribuida parejamente sobre un área
Si se desconoce el área precisa, indique el área aproximada cubierta:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)
Comentarios:

This documentation is based on the experiences of SLM implementers from Sari Joy (7 treated plots), Jawaz Khana, (5 treated plots), and Dashti Mirzai (3 treated plots). Additionally insights were gained through interviews with both SLM implementers and observers from all three villages.

2.6 Fecha de la implementación

Si no se conoce el año preciso, indique la fecha aproximada:
  • hace menos de 10 años (recientemente)

2.7 Introducción de la Tecnología

Especifique cómo se introdujo la Tecnología:
  • mediante proyectos/ intervenciones externas
Comentarios (tipo de proyecto, etc.):

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) supported by Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) from 2012-17

3. Clasificación de la Tecnología MST

3.1 Propósito(s) principal(es) de la Tecnología MST

  • mejorar la producción
  • reducir, prevenir, restaurar la degradación del suelo

3.2 Tipo(s) actuales de uso de la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología

Tierra de pastoreo

Tierra de pastoreo

Pastoreo extenso:
  • Pastoralismo semi-nómada
Pastoreo intensivo/ producción de forraje:
  • Cortar y llevar/ cero pastoreo
Tipo de animal:
  • cabras
  • ovejas
  • cows
Comentarios:

Number of growing seasons per year: 1

3.3 ¿Cambió el uso de tierras debido a la implementación de la Tecnología?

¿Cambió el uso de tierras debido a la implementación de la Tecnología?
  • Sí (Por favor responda las preguntas de abajo referidas al uso de la tierra antes de implementar la Tecnología)
Tierras cultivadas

Tierras cultivadas

Comentarios:

Some plots of the pastures are previous croplands, which have been strongly degraded and no longer used for crop cultivation.

3.4 Provisión de agua

Provisión de agua para la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología:
  • mixta de secano – irrigada

3.5 Grupo MST al que pertenece la Tecnología

  • veda de zona (detener uso, apoyar la restauración)
  • cobertura de suelo/ vegetal mejorada

3.6 Medidas MST que componen la Tecnología

medidas vegetativas

medidas vegetativas

  • V2: Pastos y plantas herbáceas perennes
medidas de manejo

medidas de manejo

  • M1: Cambio de tipo de uso de la tierra
  • M2: Cambio de gestión/ nivel de intensidad

3.7 Principales tipos de degradación del suelo encarados con la Tecnología

erosión de suelos por agua

erosión de suelos por agua

  • Wt: pérdida de capa arable/ erosión de la superficie
erosión de suelos por viento

erosión de suelos por viento

  • Et: pérdida de capa arable
deterioro físico del suelo

deterioro físico del suelo

  • Pc: compactación
degradación biológica

degradación biológica

  • Bc: reducción de la cobertura vegetal del suelo
  • Bq: reducción de la cantidad/ biomasa
degradación del agua

degradación del agua

  • Ha: aridificación

3.8 Prevención, reducción o restauración de la degradación del suelo

Especifique la meta de la Tecnología con relación a la degradación de la tierra:
  • reducir la degradación del suelo
  • restaurar/ rehabilitar tierra severamente degradada

4. Especificaciones técnicas, actividades de implementación, insumos y costos

4.1 Dibujo técnico de la Tecnología

Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

The degraded land is selected for rehabilitation. The preparation of seedbed consists of leveling the soil with a rack to make it even and soften the topsoil. Alfalfa seed is sown through broadcast seeding method. The amount of seeds for 0.2 ha of land is 3.5 kg of alfalfa seeds. Fertilizer is applied during the seeding. The pastures are rainfed in general, but those area which have higher water availability, irrigate their plots during dry season. The seeded pasture is closed for quarantine for three years and the livestock is not allowed in the area. There is no fence around the pasture.

Autor:

Roziya Kirgizbekova

Fecha:

05/06/2017

4.2 Información general sobre el cálculo de insumos y costos

Especifique cómo se calcularon los costos e insumos:
  • por área de Tecnología
Indique tamaño y unidad de área:

1 ha

Especifique la moneda usada para calcular costos:
  • USD
Si fuera relevante, indique la tasa de cambio de dólares americanos a la moneda local (ej. 1 U$ = 79.9 Reales Brasileros): 1 U$ =:

67,0

Indique el costo promedio del salario de trabajo contratado por día:

5.2-5.3 USD

4.3 Actividades de establecimiento

Actividad Momento (estación)
1. Selection of the land for rehabilitation Fall
2. Leveling the land with a rake Fall
3. Sowing alfalfa (broadcast seeding) Spring
4. Site under quarantine Three years
5. Site protection Three years

4.4 Costos e insumos necesarios para el establecimiento

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra Leveling the land person-day 100,0 5,3 530,0 100,0
Mano de obra Sowing alfalfa person-day 5,0 5,3 26,5 100,0
Mano de obra Site protection year 1,0 447,0 447,0 100,0
Equipo Shovel piece 1,0 3,8 3,8 100,0
Equipo Rope meter 50,0 0,07 3,5 100,0
Equipo Rake piece 1,0 3,0 3,0
Material para plantas Alfalfa seed 17,5 0,42 7,35
Fertilizantes y biocidas DAP kg 125,0 0,9 112,5
Fertilizantes y biocidas Urea Kg 125,0 0,45 56,25 100,0
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología 1189,9
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología en USD 17,76
Si el usuario de la tierra no cubrió el 100% de los costos, indique quién financió el resto del costo:

Livelihood Improvement Project Takhar (LIPT) implemented by Terre des hommes (Tdh) Switzerland

Comentarios:

Costs calculated for a Technology area of 1ha was only done for the purpose of the WOCAT documentation. In reality SLM plots are on average 0.2-0.4 ha or 1-2 jeribs. Costs were simply multiplied by 5. The actual costs for a 1ha plot might be slightly different.

4.5 Actividades de establecimiento/ recurrentes

Actividad Momento/ frequencia
1. Hay making Summer
2. Delivery of hay to the fodder bank Fall
3. Protection of the pasture during quarantine Three years

4.6 Costos e insumos necesarios para actividades de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (por año)

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra Hay making person day 35,0 5,3 185,5 100,0
Mano de obra Delivery of the hay to the fodder bank person day 35,0 5,3 185,5 100,0
Mano de obra Protection during quarantine year 2,0 447,0 894,0 100,0
Equipo Sickle piece 1,0 2,25 2,25 100,0
Equipo Pitchfork piece 1,0 5,3 5,3 100,0
Indique los costos totales para mantenecer la Tecnología 1272,55
Costos totales para mantener la Tecnología en USD 18,99
Comentarios:

Costs calculated for a Technology area of 1ha was only done for the purpose of the WOCAT documentation. In reality SLM plots are on average 0.2-0.4 ha or 1-2 jeribs. Costs were simply multiplied by 5. The actual costs for a 1ha plot might be slightly different.

4.7 Factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

Describa los factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

Due to the remoteness of the villages where the technology has been implemented, all the inputs for establishment, such as agricultural equipment, plant material, fertilizers, etc., are purchased in Rustaq town. The expenses for traveling and delivering the inputs affect the establishment costs.

5. Entorno natural y humano

5.1 Clima

Lluvia anual
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Especifique el promedio anual de lluvia (si lo conoce), en mm:

580,00

Especificaciones/ comentarios sobre la cantidad de lluvia:

Average annual percipitation for the area was calculated with 580 mm, with minimums in dry years (2000 and 2001) of 270 mm and maximums in wet years (2009/2010) of 830 mm. The absolut maximum rainfall was calculated for 1986 with 1024 mm. The data series covers the time from 1979 to 2014.

Indique el nombre de la estación metereológica de referencia considerada:

Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), http://rda.ucar.edu/pub/cfsr.html

Zona agroclimática
  • semi-árida

Derived from the publicly available dataset on length of growing period (LGP) (Fischer 2009 / IIASA-FAO). Internet link: http://tiles.arcgis.com/tiles/P8Cok4qAP1sTVE59/arcgis/rest/services/Length_of_growing_period/MapServer

5.2 Topografía

Pendientes en promedio:
  • plana (0-2 %)
  • ligera (3-5%)
  • moderada (6-10%)
  • ondulada (11-15%)
  • accidentada (16-30%)
  • empinada (31-60%)
  • muy empinada (>60%)
Formaciones telúricas:
  • meseta/ planicies
  • cordilleras
  • laderas montañosas
  • laderas de cerro
  • pies de monte
  • fondo del valle
Zona altitudinal:
  • 0-100 m s.n.m.
  • 101-500 m s.n.m.
  • 501-1,000 m s.n.m
  • 1,001-1,500 m s.n.m
  • 1,501-2,000 m s.n.m
  • 2,001-2,500 m s.n.m
  • 2,501-3,000 m s.n.m
  • 3,001-4,000 m s.n.m
  • > 4,000 m s.n.m

5.3 Suelos

Profundidad promedio del suelo:
  • muy superficial (0-20 cm)
  • superficial (21-50 cm)
  • moderadamente profunda (51-80 cm)
  • profunda (81-120 cm)
  • muy profunda (>120 cm)
Textura del suelo (capa arable):
  • mediana (limosa)
Textura del suelo (> 20 cm debajo de la superficie):
  • mediana (limosa)
Materia orgánica de capa arable:
  • media (1-3%)
  • baja (<1%)
Si se halla disponible, adjunte una descripción completa de los suelos o especifique la información disponible, por ej., tipo de suelo, pH/ acidez de suelo, capacidad de intercambio catiónico, nitrógeno, salinidad, etc. :

Local land users differentiate between the following soil types where the technology is implemented:
- Light soils: moderately deep; texture of topsoil medium (loamy, silty); low topsoil organic matter
- Dark soils: moderately deep; texture of topsoil medium (loamy, silty); medium topsoil organic matter

5.4 Disponibilidad y calidad de agua

Agua subterránea:

5-50 m

Disponibilidad de aguas superficiales:

mediana

Calidad de agua (sin tratar):

agua potable de buena calidad

¿La salinidad del agua es un problema?

No

¿Se está llevando a cabo la inundación del área? :

Frecuencia:

frecuentemente

Comentarios y especificaciones adicionales sobre calidad y cantidad de agua:

Floods occur mainly during the rainy seasons in spring and autumn. Availability of surface water differs for the three study villages Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana, and Dashti Mirzai. Sari Joy has sources and good surface water availability. Jawaz Khana has poor water availability as water has to be fetched from a lower laying stream. Dashti Mirzai has good water availability also from an irrigation channel.

5.5 Biodiversidad

Diversidad de especies:
  • baja
Diversidad de hábitats:
  • baja

5.6 Las características de los usuarios de la tierra que aplican la Tecnología

Sedentario o nómada:
  • Sedentario
Orientación del mercado del sistema de producción:
  • subsistencia (autoprovisionamiento)
Ingresos no agrarios:
  • 10-50% de todo el ingreso
  • > 50% de todo el ingreso
Nivel relativo de riqueza:
  • pobre
Individuos o grupos:
  • individual/ doméstico
Nivel de mecanización:
  • trabajo manual
Género:
  • mujeres
  • hombres
Edad de los usuarios de la tierra:
  • personas de mediana edad
  • ancianos
Indique otras características relevantes de los usuarios de las tierras:

The land users in the area where the Technology is applied belong to the Uzbek ethnic minority group Qarluq.
Although the men are generally the main land users, however, women and children also take active part in the related work. The functions of men and women are clearly distinguished within the Afghan society. At the same time within the family this division of work and functions also results in men and women working hand-in-hand. An improvement of the family’s livelihood situation is expected to positively affect all family members. While, it is recognized that the involvement of women is key in order to secure basic human rights for everyone, to achieve good governance, sustainable development, and to efficiently contribute to poverty reduction (SDC 2004), it is also clear that a context sensitive approach is of high importance.
Women in rural Afghanistan are involved in many production and income generating activities that contribute to the overall household income, however, very few women own resources such as land and livestock, and their income generating options are fewer in comparison to that of men.

5.7 Área promedio de la tierra usada por usuarios de tierra que aplican la Tecnología

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
¿Esto se considera de pequeña, mediana o gran escala (refiriéndose al contexto local)?
  • escala mediana

5.8 Tenencia de tierra, uso de tierra y derechos de uso de agua

Tenencia de tierra:
  • individual, sin título
Derechos de uso de tierra:
  • individual
Derechos de uso de agua:
  • comunitarios (organizado)
Comentarios:

Those who own land and use water for irrigation are obliged to pay for the water. The payment is made both in kind and in cash to the Mirob - the person in charge of distributing water in the community. The amount of the payment varies from village to village.

6. Impactos y comentarios para concluir

6.1 Impactos in situ demostrados por la Tecnología

Impactos socioeconómicos

Producción

producción de forraje

disminuyó
incrementó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Alfalfa is a fast growing forage crop with high yields. Cultivation of alfalfa and in some areas alfalfa and sainfoin has the advantage of providing quality fodder in sufficient amounts.

producción animal

disminuyó
incrementó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Sufficient amount of quality fodder and its availability in longer periods, particularly during winter and spring has a positive impact on animal health and productivity.

diversidad de producto

disminuyó
incrementó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Negligible impact on diversity of fodder products. Main crops are alfalfa and sainfoin.

Impactos socioculturales

seguridad alimentaria/ autosuficiencia

disminuyó
mejoró
Comentarios/ especifique:

The sum of improved access and availability of fodder and better animal health, is expected to have positive impact on household's food security and self-sufficiency.

MST/ conocimiento de la degradación del suelo

disminuyó
mejoró
Comentarios/ especifique:

Land users learned how to apply SLM measures to restore heavily degraded land and grow better fodder for livestock.

situación de grupos en desventaja social y económica

empeoró
mejoró
Comentarios/ especifique:

Female headed households are not included. Technology is mostly implemented on private land. People without land are using common pastures. They have the opportunity to earn income as a hired worker for the SLM implementers.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo de agua/ escurrimiento de sedimento

escurrimiento superficial

incrementó
disminuyó
Suelo

pérdida de suelo

incrementó
disminuyó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Alfalfa develops a strong root system, which stabilizes the soil and prevents soil loss.

Biodiversidad: vegetación, animales

Cubierta vegetal

disminuyó
incrementó
Comentarios/ especifique:

Alfalfa is a perennial crop, which grows up to 5 years without reseeding and thereby helps to increase the vegetation cover over longer periods.

6.2 Impactos fuera del sitio demostrados por la Tecnología

inundaciones río abajo

incrementó
disminuyó

colmatación río abajo

incrementó
disminuyó

capacidad de amortiguación/ filtrado

disminuyó
mejoró
Especifique la evaluación de los impactos fuera del emplazamiento (medidas):

These comments apply to 6.1 and 6.2:
- Socio-economic impacts: Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the benefits from the technology. They were asked to indicate production increase of crops; fodder; animals; wood; non-wood forest products; increase in product diversity; or production area. The most important increase they rated with 3, the second most with 2, others with 1 point. Averages of the points given by all SLM implementers are reflected here.
- Similarly for the "ecological impacts" and on "off-site impacts": Individual SLM implementers were asked to rate the on-site and off-site impacts of the technology on water; soil; and vegetation. They were asked to indicate the strength of impacts with three, two or one points. Averages of the points given by all SLM implementers are reflected here.
- Socio-cultural impacts: This section is answered by the scientists, based on information collected during focus group discussions, and interviews conducted with persons from the 3 villages where the LIPT project implemented the technology.

6.3 Exposición y sensibilidad de la Tecnología al cambio climático gradual y a extremos relacionados al clima/ desastres (desde la percepción de los usuarios de tierras)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados al clima

Desastres climatológicos:
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
tormenta de lluvia local muy bien
Desastres climatológicos
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
sequía bien
Comentarios:

SLM implementers from three villages were asked to jointly discuss and rate how much the SLM technology reduced the lands vulnerability to drought and local rainstorms. Only vulnerability to the most prevalent climate extremes (drought and local rainstorms) was discussed. SLM technologies were rated as reducing vulnerability poorly , well, or very well. The average points reflected here are from multi-criteria matrixes compiled in three villages where the SLM technology had been implemented.

6.4 Análisis costo-beneficio

¿Cómo se comparan los beneficios con los costos de establecimiento (desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de tierra)?
Ingresos a corto plazo:

muy positivo

Ingresos a largo plazo:

muy positivo

Comentarios:

SLM implementers from three villages were asked to jointly discuss and rate the SLM technologies short term (1-3 years) and long-term (10 years) return. As most of the technologies have only been implemented 1-2 years ago, it is too early to compare benefits to maintenance costs. Farmers have little experience so far on the actual benefits of the SLM technologies. The ratings are mostly based on expected benefits and not on actual benefits. During the ranking the land users also did not account for the project support they received for the establishment of the technology.

6.5 Adopción de la Tecnología

  • 1-10%
Si tiene la información disponible, cuantifique (número de hogares y/o área cubierta):

6.1 ha

De todos quienes adoptaron la Tecnología, ¿cuántos lo hicieron espontáneamente, por ej. sin recibir nada de incentivos/ materiales:
  • 11-50%
Comentarios:

Individual SLM implementers were asked whether they received support for implementing the Technology. Each indicated the type of support he received from the proposed options: "Full Support 100%, Some Support, No Support 0%". 20% implemented the Technology without receiving support.

6.6 Adaptación

¿La tecnología fue modificada recientemente para adaptarse a las condiciones cambiantes?

No

6.7 Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades de la Tecnología

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
The technology does not require too much labor and material inputs for establishment work.
Alfalfa grows well and it can be harvested several years in a row without reseeding. The land users expect to have sufficient supplies of fodder during winter, which is the most difficult season to prevent animal loss and shortage of fodder is one of the main reasons. Alfalfa is considered as a good fodder for the, which makes it strong.
Sowing alfalfa is a good method to make better use of bad lands or degraded cropland. Some land users plan to sow alfalfa on their lands, which are not fit for crop cultivation.
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
The decision to grow alfalfa on the degraded cropland and pasture land is an efficient and low-cost technology. It makes it possible to produce good fodder on the degraded land under low or no availability of irrigation water. At the same time the plant has a good feature in terms of enhancing moisture retention and halting soil erosion.
Land users learn about sustainable land management practices adapted to their local conditions and needs. The land users can collect their own seeds to use for seeding in the future.
Female members of the family help to protect the plot.

6.8 Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos de la Tecnología y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Land users expressed concerns that in 5 years they have to reseed again the alfalfa and they don't have seeds for it.
Some land users' expectations were not met as they planned to sow alfalfa on bigger land, but in reality could only sow on 1-2 jeribs (0.2-0.4 ha).
Female family members take part in haymaking and delivery of the hay to their homes or to the fodder storage. This increases their daily workload.
Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
There is no fence to protect the pasture from grazing during the quarantine period. Grazing on the pasture during quarantine may affect the quality of the pasture. The land user has to hire a guard to protect the pasture or the family members have to protect the plot. Further awareness raising about the importance of the quarantine regime within the village community.
Affordable options for area closure, at least during quarantine.
The quarantine period of 1-3 years deprives the land user of its pasture and limits fodder production significantly. Although the land users did not specifically raise their concern about the quarantine, however it presents a major disadvantage in an area where there is already a shortage of grazing land and fodder. Such situation might cause conflict over the use of pasture land in the village.
Not all land users are aware of seed collection or practice seed collection, which could be very helpful to save costs for buying alfalfa seeds. They could also sell their surplus seeds.
The use of fertilizer is perceived by the land user as an important factor for growing quality fodder. Such perception might increase the reliance of land users on applying chemical fertilizers, rather than engaging in sustainable management of the plot.

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo

No field visits were held.

  • entrevistas con usuarios de tierras

Focus group discussions (FGD) were organized by CDE team to collect information from SLM implementers. Total of 15 land users who have rehabilitated their pastures with alfalfa participated in the FGDs held in the three villages of Sari Joy, Jawaz Khana and Dashti Mirzai.
Interviews were conducted by the HAFL team to collect information from persons representing all the three study villages.

  • entrevistas con especialistas/ expertos en MST

Close collaboration took place during the compilation of this material with the technical staff of the LIPT project in Rustaq.

  • compilación de informes y otra documentación existente

Information provided in the reports of the LIPT project in Rustaq served as an initial source of information during the preparatory phase and also solidifying the description of the technology and area of implementation. Other background papers on Afghanistan were referred to for general information on agriculture and natural resource management in Afghanistan.

¿Cuándo se compilaron los datos (en el campo)?

17/10/2016

7.2 Vínculos a las publicaciones disponibles

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Guidelines for Focus Groups Discussions

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Methods section of the Rustaq NRM study

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