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1. Informação geral
1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da abordagem.
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)Department of Resources and Environmental Science, Beijing Normal University (Department of Resources and Environmental Science, Beijing Normal University) - China
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)ISRIC-World Soil Information (ISRIC-World Soil Information) - Netherlands
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)GEF/OP12 Gansu Project (GEF/OP12 Gansu Project) - China
1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:
1.4 Referência ao(s) questionário(s) sobre tecnologias da gestão sustentável da terra
2. Descrição da abordagem de gestão sustentável da terra
2.1 Descrição curta da abordagem
Highly organised campaign to assist land users in creating terraces: support and planning from national down to local level.
2.2 Descrição detalhada da abordagem
Descrição detalhada da abordagem:
Before 1964, the slopes on China's Loess Plateau were cultivated up and down by machinery. Consequently soil and water were lost at high rates, and fertility and yields declined. Accessibility to cultivated land became more and more difficult due to dissection by gullies. The first terraces were established by self-mobilisation of the local land users. However there was no standard design. Furthermore, as the individual plots were very small and scattered all over the village land, terracing needed better coordination. Between 1964 and 1978, the local government at the county level took the initiative of organising farmers and planning terrace implementation according to specific technical design on a larger scale. At that time the land was still communally managed by production brigades. Through mass mobilisation campaigns people from several villages were organised to collectively terrace the land - village by village - covering around 2,000 hectares each year. Labour was unpaid.The Yellow River Conservancy Commission (YRCC) came into being in 1948 - and the Upper and Middle Yellow River Bureau in 1977. This gave greater impetus to the implementation of SWC in the Loess Plateau. After 1978, land use rights were allocated to individuals (though official ownership was still vested in the state). SWC specialists and county level SWC bureaus started to work with groups of farmers who had land use rights within a given area. Survey and design were carried out. The farmers organised themselves, consolidated the parcels of land, and then after the conservation work was done they redistributed the terraced fields.
In the 1980s the government started to financially support land users involved in SWC projects. Subsidies ranged from (approx.) US$* 20/ha in projects at county level, to US$* 55/ha for national projects (eg through the Yellow River Commission), and up to US$* 935/ha when World Bank projects were involved - as in the recent past. Implements were provided by the farmers themselves. Then, in 1988 a nationwide project in SWC - which originally was proposed at county level - was approved by the national government. Furthermore, in 1991 a national law on SWC came into force. Protection of the Yellow River and associated dams became a priority at regional and national levels. In total, within Zhuanglang County, 60 SWC specialists/extensionists cover an area of 1,550 km2, and most of the terraces were built with low levels of subsidies. Annual plans about implementation of new SWC measures were made during summer. Small areas were planned at village or township level, whereas bigger areas (> 7 hectares) were designed at county level. Implementation then took place during winter. Terracing was implemented first where access was easiest and closest to settlements, and only later, further away. * exchange rate: 1 US$ = 8 Chinese Yuan (May 2006).
2.3 Fotos da abordagem
2.5 País/região/locais onde a abordagem foi aplicada
2.6 Datas de início e término da abordagem
Indique o ano de início:
2.7 Tipo de abordagem
- Baseado em projeto/programa
2.8 Principais metas/objetivos da abordagem
Aims of the approach are: - water conservation (this is a semi-arid area), - soil conservation: reduce soil loss on the sloping and erosion-prone land of loess plateau, - enhancing soil fertility, and consequently production, - improve people's living conditions, These primary objectives were to be achieved by building level bench terraces on a large scale through a structured and organised campaign. Finally at the national level, a fourth aim was added: the protection of the Yellow river (avoiding floods and reducing the sediment load)
The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: - lack of organisation, capital and technical knowledge in farmer communities to counter the underlying problems of water loss, soil loss, fertility decline and downstream effects on the Yellow River (floods and sediment) at catchment level, - absence or poor maintenance of erosion control measures
2.9 Condição que propiciam ou inibem a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias aplicada(s) segundo a abordagem
Disponibilidade/acesso a recursos e serviços financeiros
Initially farmers were not paid and as they had no immediate benefit from, or security over, the use of the land. The investment in construction was a heavy burden on poor farmers.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: After 1988, labour inputs by farmers started to be partly covered by subsidies provided by local and national government
Quadro jurídico (posse de terra, direitos de uso da terra e da água)
Land users leased the land from the state and land users??? rights were insecure in the long term. Investments in SWC were not encouraged.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: National government persuaded land users to implement terraces by 'selling' the benefits (increased yield and easier workability of the land). After 1978, individual user rights motivated farmers to invest in SWC.
The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights hindered a little the approach implementation Ownership of land and its resources belongs to state and communities: land users only lease the land for a period of time. Due to uncertainty over future user rights and possible reallocation in response to changes in population and household needs, additional investments into measures may be hindered. 1978 a first major change took place by allocating some individual land use rights.
Conhecimento sobre gestão sustentável da terra, acesso a suporte técnico
Poor knowledge of how to reduce water loss, soil loss and fertility loss. Technical solutions were needed at the catchment level, involving the whole population.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: Enhanced guidance by SWC specialists.
3. Participação e papel das partes interessadas envolvidas
3.1 Partes interessadas envolvidas na abordagem e seus papéis
- Usuários de terra/comunidades locais
- Governo nacional (planejadores, responsáveis pelas decisões)
3.2 Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais nas diferentes fases da abordagem
|Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais||Especifique quem estava envolvido e descreva as atividades|
|Iniciação/motivação||Participativo||Land users started implementing terraces but SWC specialists at the country level assisted in designing standards for terrace construction and township governments and production brigades organised whole villages and watersheds|
|Planejamento||Passivo||Being consulted in the planning phase. Experienced peasants may be involved in introducing the local situation.|
|Implementação||Participativo||Major organisation done through the SWC bureau specialists with the village organisation including land users. Land users were actively involved in implementation.|
|Monitoramento/avaliação||Nenhum||reporting; No participation of land users|
|Research||Nenhum||on-station; No participation of land users|
3.3 Fluxograma (se disponível)
Terrace construction supported by projects from MWR, YRCC and international organisations (left) and terrace construction supported by provincial funds (right).
3.4 Decisão sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias
Especifique quem decidiu sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias a serem implementadas:
- Principalmente usuários da terra, após consulta com usuários da terra
Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by by politicians / leaders. Decisions are made by politicians/SWC specialists; land users are consulted in the planning phase (experienced farmers may be involved initially).
4. Suporte técnico, reforço das capacidades e gestão do conhecimento
4.1 Reforço das capacidades/formação
Foi oferecida formação aos usuários da terra/outras partes interessadas?
Especifique quem foi capacitado:
- Usuários de terra
Tipo de formação:
- Em exercício
- Agricultor para agricultor
- Áreas de demonstração
Until 1978 the 'pyramid system' was used: the county level trained the township level, which trained the village level, which in turn trained the production brigades/farmers, who then trained other production brigades and farmers.
4.2 Serviço de consultoria
Os usuários de terra têm acesso a um serviço de consultoria?
Especifique se foi oferecido serviço de consultoria:
- nas áreas dos usuários da terra
Key elements: Pyramid system is also used for extension. At each government level (county, district and provincial levels) there is a SWC division in charge of SWC activities includ. extension (farm visits)
4.3 Fortalecimento da instituição (desenvolvimento organizacional)
As instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas através da abordagem?
- Sim, moderadamente
Especifique a que nível (níveis) as instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas:
Especifique o tipo de apoio:
4.4 Monitoramento e avaliação
Monitoramento e avaliação são partes da abordagem?
bio-physical aspects were regular monitored through measurements; indicators: runoff loss, sediment load, soil moisture
technical aspects were regular monitored through measurements; indicators: structure of terraced areas, slope of risers, levelness of terrace surface
socio-cultural aspects were ad hoc monitored through observations; indicators: land users' perceptions of terraces
economic / production aspects were regular monitored through measurements; indicators: yield, income of land users
area treated aspects were regular monitored through measurements; indicators: terraced area
land users involved aspects were ad hoc monitored through measurements; indicators: number of farmers directly involved in terracing and farmers benefited directly
management of Approach aspects were ad hoc monitored through observations; indicators: number of small watersheds terraced
There were changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: The approach changed fundamentally from self-mobilisation to organised mass movements guided by the government.
A pesquisa foi parte da abordagem?
Especifique os tópicos:
Dê mais detalhes e indique quem realizou a pesquisa:
carried out at the provincial and national levels, mostly by technical staff. Land users have not been involved. Terrace building is based on scientific design, according to local conditions.
Research was carried out on station
5. Financiamento e apoio material externo
5.1 Orçamento anual para o componente de gestão sustentável da terra da abordagem
Comentários (p. ex. principais fontes de recursos/principais doadores):
Approach costs were met by the following donors: government (national): 10.0%; local community / land user(s) (-): 90.0%
5.3 Subsídios para entradas específicas (incluindo mão-de-obra)
Se a mão-de-obra pelos usuários da terra foi uma entrada substancial, isso foi:
- Pago em dinheiro
Beteween the 1960s-1970s farmers were not paid for their labour inputs. From the 1980s onwards the government rewarded the community for establishment of terraces with cash, projects paid on the basis of area treated, and at different rates.
Foi concedido crédito segundo a abordagem para atividades de gestão sustentável da terra?
Especifique as condições (taxa de juros, reembolso, etc):
Interest rate charged: 0.5%; repayment conditions: Credit was available at interest rates (0.5-1% per year) lower than the market rates.
6. Análise de impactos e declarações finais
6.1 Impactos da abordagem
A abordagem auxiliou os usuários da terra a implementar e manter as tecnologias de gestão sustentável da terra?
- Sim, pouco
- Sim, moderadamente
- Sim, significativamente
Soil and water management have improved a lot: easier workability, intensified land use, in-situ water retention, top soil and fertilizer/manure are not washed away, etc.
Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
- Sim, pouco
- Sim, moderadamente
- Sim, significativamente
As the Zhuanglang area was one of the pioneering areas for the Loess Plateau other regions were able to profit from the approach. But likewise, experiences gained in other counties helped improve the approach, and a basically similar approach has been applied over the whole Loess Plateau - though the level of subsidies for construction is much higher under World Bank projects.
6.3 Atividades de sustentabilidade de abordagem
Os usuários da terra podem manter o que foi implementado através da abordagem (sem apoio externo)?
Caso negativo ou incerto, especifique e comente:
Given the recent escalation in payments made to land users for implementation under certain projects it seems that the costs will be too high to sustain. Currently the Ministry of Finance is demanding that in-depth cost-benefit analyses are carried out involving environmental, social as well as economic assessments.
6.4 Pontos fortes/vantagens da abordagem
|Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view|
|Farmers are getting direct benefits: marked increase in productivity, improved workability of the land, etc.|
|The collective activities/organisation strengthens the community and enhances social stability and coherence within villages; collective activities are expanded to other sectors, such as road construction, supply of agrochemical inputs, etc.|
|Heavy investment made by the land users and local as well as national government to reduce land degradation.|
|Many people involved and trained at different levels (pyramid system; see training/extension); commitment by all stakeholders.|
|Efficient organisation, planning to cover a large area, which is very susceptible to land degradation.|
6.5 Pontos fracos, desvantagens da tecnologia e formas de superá-los
|Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view||How can they be overcome?|
|High costs: farmers depend on external support from the government, they are not willing to invest their labour without payments (as it used to be in communist times)||New approach: give farmers loans for construction as now they use machines to do the work. In addition, search for cheaper SWC technologies and for improving the benefits.|
|The steeper slopes which are also further away from the village, are now often not cultivated and maintained as they are too far and marginal in production||Solutions need to be found for these areas, eg afforestation.|
7. Referências e links
7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação
- field visits, field surveys
- interviews with land users
7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis
Title, author, year, ISBN:
Jiangdingsheng, ACTA CONSERVATIONIS SOLI ET AQUAE SINICA, 1987. Discussion on section design of the terrace on the Loess Plateau; Vol. 1, No. 2,
Title, author, year, ISBN:
Corpus of economic benefits of water and soil measures, p77-102, 510-514
Available from where? Costs?
Water and Soil Conservation Department of Yellow River Water Resources Committee of Ministry of Wate
Title, author, year, ISBN:
Corpus of Test Research of Water and Soil Conservation, p130-185 (the second volume)
Available from where? Costs?
Suide Water and Soil Conservation examination station