Technologies

Minimization of herbicide application in conservation agriculture [Switzerland]

Herbizideinsatz-Minimierung bei Feldern unter Direktsaat

technologies_1259 - Switzerland

Completeness: 73%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care (EU-RECARE )
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Through experience with herbicide application the land user learned that there are possibilities to minimize the amount of herbicide application to fields.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

The land user interviewed has an experience of nearly 30 years with the application of herbicide to his fields. Through this time he learned that there are ways to reduce the amount of herbicide and thereby conserve soil and nature against this aggressive pesticide. There are different factors to consider to reduce the herbicide application such as time of the day to bring out herbicides or time of the year. For example there is less herbicide needed the earlier in the morning it is applied to the field.

Purpose of the Technology: There are two main purposes of the technology. The fist is to protect crops and to not damage them with great amounts of herbicides. Thereby, also environment as a whole and especially waters are protected because there is always a part of herbicides washed out of soils and into waters. The second aim is more economically. As the effectiveness of the application of herbicides is worse in spring than in autumn, it should be prohibited by law to use herbicides in spring. On the other hand, land users should be allowed to use herbicides for a longer time in autumn because crops tend towards dormancy. Thereby, not only the amount of herbicides applied to a field can be reduced but the land user is also saving money.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The establishment and maintenance of the technology requires first of all a great deal of knowledge. To receive the desired target situation there are many points to be discussed of the current situation with herbicide application. One point is the free pass which enables land users with a basic education to practice pest management even if they do not know what a pest management gun is and how it is used. A solution to this problem of lack of knowledge is seen by the land user through the structural change in agriculture. Companies providing spraying services are more efficient and tidy than the land user can be.

Natural / human environment: The technology helps protecting the environment and waters from pollution through washed out herbicides. This must always be kept in mind when discussing about the amount of herbicides. Some land users do not trust a smaller amount of herbicides to be as effective as the standardized one. But this overthinking must now be made because it is until today not sure what side effects herbicides have to the human and natural environment.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Switzerland

Region/ State/ Province:

Bern

Further specification of location:

Oberbottigen

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0,1-1 km2

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • atráves de inovação dos usuários da terra
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

Society required an overthinking of traditional pest management techniques over the last years. The land user started individually with his tests. But also in politics there were some attempts to reduce herbicides in agriculture. Third, the farmer's association works together with the local government of Bern on solutions for reducing herbicides which could be applied nationwide.

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 2
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 120Longest growing period from month to month: May to AugustSecond longest growing period in days: 60Second longest growing period from month to month: August to October

Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The major land use problems are erosion by water through heavy rainfall events and therefore loss of soil. Regarding the technology there is also the problem of the extensive use of herbicides and its inappropriate application. This can lead to damages to the following crop, chemical resistance and pollution of waters.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): The area is likely to be affected by erosion as the main problem. Therefore, cultivation must be adapted to prevent soil erosion by water. The land user is also convinced of a pollution of waters through different human-induced reasons such as the inappropriate and ineffective use of herbicides.

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Misto de precipitação natural-irrigado

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Perturbação mínima ao solo
  • Gestão integrada de pragas e doenças (inclusive agricultura orgânica)

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A3: Tratamento da superfície do solo
  • A4: Tratamento do subsolo
Comentários:

Main measures: agronomic measures

Type of agronomic measures: retaining more vegetation cover, mulching, mineral (inorganic) fertilizers, zero tillage / no-till, minimum tillage

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cp: poluição do solo
Degradação da água

Degradação da água

  • Hp: declínio da qualidade de água de superfície
Comentários:

Main type of degradation addressed: Cp: soil pollution, Hp: decline of surface water quality

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Main causes of degradation: soil management (Use of herbicides in the past that are forbidden today have polluted soil and the environment substantially.), discharges (point contamination of water) (discharges of herbicides from agricultural fields into water bodies)

Secondary causes of degradation: Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (not a main cause because the busy season of pesticides is in spring and heavy rainfalls mainly occur in autumn)

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Previnir degradação do solo
Comentários:

Main goals: prevention of land degradation

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high (Vital role of agricultural advisor, who must be neutral and not a salesman.)

Technical knowledge required for land users: high (The land user always needs to have the best knowledge which must also be up to date. Therefore, he depends on a competent agricultural advisor. The knowledge he gained is transferred to his employees.)

Main technical functions: improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), improvement of subsoil structure (hardpan), increase of groundcover

Retaining more vegetation cover
Material/ species: mulch of previous crop remains

Mulching
Material/ species: previous crop remains

Mineral (inorganic) fertilizers
Material/ species: different types of herbicide

Zero tillage / no-till
Material/ species: machine with pesticide machine
Remarks: technological requirements such as individual nozzle switching, inside cleaning and wash

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):

Swiss Franc

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

1,0

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Establishment of a washing area
2. Buying a special nozzle machine

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 15,0 15,0 100,0
Equipamento Tools ha 1,0 3500,0 3500,0 100,0
Equipamento Infrastructure: Washing area ha 1,0 1000,0 1000,0 100,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 4515,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 4515,0
Comentários:

Life span of product (washing area): Lifetime

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. begin of herbicide application (not including market gardening) start of vegetation period/ March - end of May
2. after first harvest stubble treatment with total herbicide August/September
3. after second harvest again application of herbicides until 10th of October (end of herbicide application) September/October

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Labour ha 1,0 90,0 90,0 100,0
Equipamento Machine use ha 1,0 90,0 90,0 100,0
Equipamento Tools ha 1,0 60,0 60,0 100,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas Biocides ha 1,0 540,0 540,0 100,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 780,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 780,0
Comentários:

Machinery/ tools: tractor and special nozzle machine

Costs are calculated for a land user applying herbicides on his fields of a size of total 5-15 ha. Maintenance costs are calculated for one year, establishment costs for the implementation of the technology.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

The area size of the agricultural fields is the most determinate factor affecting the costs. The smaller the application area of herbicides is the higher the costs get. To cut costs a land user needs to have a bigger area to apply herbicides on.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Zona agroclimática
  • Subúmido

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Indique se a tecnologia é aplicada especificamente em:
  • Não relevante
Comentários e outras especificações sobre a topografia:

Altitudinal zone: 501-1000 m a.s.l. ( 550-650 m a.s.l. )

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
  • Fino/pesado (argila)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

Soil texture is medium (sandy loam, good for conservational agriculture and the application of herbicides) to fine (loamy clay poses problems for no-till farming)
Soil fertility is ver high-high
Soil drainage/infiltration is good (frost and floods as only problems for infiltration in this area but not frequently)
Soil water storage capacity is high

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

5-50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Bom

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável boa

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • high

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Comercial/mercado
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Rico
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
Nível de mecanização:
  • Mecanizado/motorizado
Gênero:
  • Homens
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: 100-200 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 1% - 2%

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Média escala
Comentários:

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: 5-15 ha, 15-50 ha, 50-100 ha

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Indivíduo, intitulado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Indivíduo
  • local government
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Comunitário (organizado)
  • local government

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Because of elimination of undesired crops. However risk that herbicide affects crop production itself

Risco de falha de produção

Elevado
Diminuído
Renda e custos

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Because of increased crop yield

Impactos socioculturais

Atenuação de conflitos

Agravado
Melhorado

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
Comentários/especificar:

The fact that the consequences of herbicides e.g. glyphosate for human health are not yet known disturbs the public. Also land users do not agree on the benefit or damage to natural environment because of herbicides. Therefore, minimizing the amount of herbicides applied as much as possible is an important step. An overthinking of the current situation but also much more knowledge and research on this topic must be provided in order to improve livelihoods and human well-being even more.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Qualidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Because of water pollution of washed out herbicides

Evaporação

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Especially if no-tillage is practiced

Solo

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Especially if no-tillage is practised

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído

Ressecamento/selagem do solo

Elevado
Reduzido

Compactação do solo

Elevado
Reduzido

Matéria orgânica do solo/carbono abaixo do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Espécies exóticas invasoras

Elevado
Reduzido
Comentários/especificar:

Because of the herbicide

Outros impactos ecológicos

Biodiversity / crop diversity

reduced
improved

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Comentários:

The technology to minimize the amount of herbicides applied to agricultural fields must be understood as a sort of overthinking effect which does not consist of precautionary methods. Therefore this question can not be answered.

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

neutro/balanceado

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Comentários:

If agriculture wants to do fully without application of herbicides, changes in the payment and costs of labour must be lowered significantly. As labour is more and more replaced by machines, human labour is still too high when it comes to the costs.

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

Comentários:

75% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: 75% of land user families in the region of Bern applied the SLM Technology because they saw the positive economical effect that minimization of herbicides gave them.

There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: There is also a trend against the adoption of the technology: current young land users need a too low profile of qualification for economical subsidies. This can lead to "bad land users" in the future. The profile of qualification should be lifted up for getting subsidies and thereby the appropriate use of subsidies would be learned.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
The application of herbicide ensures the crop production against alien crops. Therefore, to ensure this production the right application of herbicide is needed. Minimal amounts can lead to exact the same output of production.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? To ensure the crop production or even increase it through elimination of alien crops the right application of herbicide is needed.
Once the land user has the knowledge he needs to minimize the amount of herbicide it is simple to apply the technology on agricultural fields. Using this knowledge not only safes time for the land user but also money. There can be saved up to 50.-$/ha for herbicide.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? The spreading of knowledge on amounts of herbicide and the right application is highly important for the success of the technology. This must be guaranteed by government, local institutions or agricultural advisors and research.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The minimization of herbicides is important because it provides a solution to the last main problem in conservation agriculture, especially no-tillage. If there is no or less skepticism against the application of glyphosate or other herbicides the implementation of no-tillage in agriculture could be enhanced even more.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? It is important to minimize amounts of herbicides even further and to look for probable alternatives to these pesticides. This would lead to a far more sustainable land management in Swiss agriculture and to more land users adopting no-tillage.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The acceptance of the system of herbicides is one great problem of the technology. Even after reducing the amounts of herbicides, there will be critical voices on the application of herbicides. Acceptance in public should be received for this technology. However, the technology itself provides no solution to this problem.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The aim of reducing the application of herbicides is formulated quickly. However, the transfer of knowledge needed and its application into the daily program of a land user is very difficult. Furthermore, the knowledge provided by agricultural schools is not yet up to date. The knowledge provided for land users, agricultural advisors and even students and teachers must be up to date in order to provide the latest results from research and to help implementing the technology of reducing herbicides even further among swiss land users.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

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