Technologies

Vallerani System [Burkina Faso]

technologies_1528 - Burkina Faso

Completeness: 90%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
land user:

Long Allain

Reach Afrique, NGO

Burkina Faso

SLM specialist:

Lindo Grandi

Deserto Verde Burkinabé, NGO

Switzerland

land user:

Boureima Amadou

Reach Afrique

Burkina Faso

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: Water Harvesting – Guidelines to Good Practice (Water Harvesting)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Reach Africa (Reach Africa)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Reach Italia (Reach Italia) - Italy

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

A special tractor-pulled plow that constructs micro-catchments. It combines the traditional techniques of rainwater harvesting with mechanization for large scale land rehabilitation.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

The Technology mechanizes the traditional technique of zai and semi circular bunds for water harvesting using a modified plow named Delfino3s pulled by a 180hp tractor. A normal plow on flat land excavates a symmetrical, continuous furrow, and earth piles up equally on both sides of the furrow. The Delfino3s plow has a single reversible plowshare that creates an angled furrow and piles up the excavated soil in half moon shaped ridges only on the downhill side. The plowing must be done along the contour to collect and slows down runoff water as it flows downhill. The plow’s blade moves in and out of the soil creating micro basins about 5 meters long, 50 cm deep, 50 cm wide and spaced 2-3 m. The ripper placed before the plow cracks up the soil to a depth of 70 cm facilitating the infiltration of water into the soil profile and the growth of deep roots. After plowing, the local population sows seeds of plants of indigenous species. They are sown along the ridges of the basins and in the furrow of the ripper. While for most species seeds are collected by the local population, for species rarely present in the region, seeds are purchased from tree nurseries. Sowing the manure of goat containing seeds has also been very successful with about 95% of all micro basin having at least one tree growing. The intervention on a big scale, the effects of water infiltration in depth, erosion reduction and vegetation growth, boost a long lasting rehabilitation process. Each day the Delfino plow can plow up to 20 ha, digging 6.000-7.000 micro basins. The speed, the capability to plow hard, abbandoned land, the effectiveness of the Delfino3s plow are its major advantages for the ecosystem rehabilitation process but require a big commitment. To make the best out of it, a great motivation and organizational work is necessary to: find great availability of land; train accuratelly the technicians; have well-rooted Subjects in the region. The technological aspect is just part of the recovery process, an important work with the Communities is required upstream and downstream. Communities are involved in the management process – in identifying the areas to be restored, clarifying the land uses of the affected areas, planning and implementing e.g. gathering and keeping seeds of local ecotypes, sowing, in the management of plantations and in the monitoring and evaluation of the results. Rules for SLM are adopted and respected by all. The Technology is applied in a degraded agro-sylvo-pastoral area of the Sahel Region, in the north east of Burkina Faso with 200-500 mm of annual rainfall. The soil is sandy-loam, strongly degraded with surface crust. The population is mainly composed of semi-nomadic herders. At the beginning of the project, the NGO Reach Italia was promoting schooling; they soon realized that during the dry season most kids left school and that to avoid it they should face food security and pasture improvement. So they started applying the Vallerani System and developped the participatory approach. The vegetation growth reduces the need for fodder search and long-range transhumance which also allows children to go to school regularly.The ecosystem rehabilitation effect of the technology help the communities to become more concious and resilient to the effects of climate change and prepared to cope with the socio-economic-environmental changes they are faced with.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.4 Vídeos da tecnologia

Comments, short description:

A short video that introduces the Vallerani System.The video has been shot in the project area.

Data:

14/05/2014

Location:

Oudalan, Burkina Faso

Name of videographer:

Jonathan van Laamsverde

Comments, short description:

ICARDA Vallerani –Technology transfer from Morocco to Jordan.
The presentation of the ICARDA Minared project applying the Vallerani System for rangeland rehabilitation in the Jordan Badia.

Data:

16/06/2016

Location:

Badia, Jordan

Comments, short description:

REACH – DESERTO VERDE BURKINABe' Vallerani - Recupero Terre in Burkina Faso Sicurezza Alimentare.
Reach Italia and Deserto Verde Burkinabé present the project of soil rehabilitation and food security in Burkina Faso. Italian text.

Data:

01/09/2009

Location:

Oudalan, Burkina Faso

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Burkina Faso

Region/ State/ Province:

Sahel Region

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):

25,6

If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 10-100 km2
Comentários:

Since the project is going on since 2002, it is possible to see implemented sites in different stadium of rehabilitation. The plowing lines are clearly visible.
Total area covered by the SLM Technology in the Region is about 25.600 hectares up to 2017.

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • durante experiências/pesquisa
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

The Technology was introduced in the Region in an agro-sylvo-pastoral pilot project to fight against desertification by FAO in 1996-97.

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Reduz, previne, recupera a degradação do solo
  • Preservar/melhorar a biodiversidade
  • Reduzir riscos de desastre
  • Adaptar a mudanças climáticas/extremos e seus impactos
  • Atenuar a mudanças climáticas e seus impactos
  • Criar impacto econômico benéfico
  • Cria impacto social benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Silvipecuária

Pastagem

Pastagem

Extensive grazing:
  • Semi-nomadic pastoralism
Pastagem intensiva/produção de forragem:
  • Pastos melhorados
Animal type:
  • cattle - non-dairy beef
  • goats
Floresta/bosques

Floresta/bosques

  • Plantação de árvores, reflorestamento
Type of tree:
  • Acacia albida
  • Acacia senegal
  • Acacia seyal
  • Acacia tortilis
  • Balanites aegyptiaca
  • Ziziphus mauritiana
Terra improdutiva

Terra improdutiva

Especifique:

Hard abbandoned land

Observações:

Especially at the beginning of the project, some communities agreed to try the system on their most unproductive land. After seeing the results, they started to request the intervention on less degraded soil and on fields that are closer to their villages.

Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Land degradation-desertification with reduction of vegetation cover in terms of plant density and species diversity is the main problem: disappearance of grasses and trees, reduction of the size of the plants that are resistant and of the biological activity of the soil. Runoff, water and wind erosion increase. Drought and irregular precipitation have heavy consequences on soil fertility, availability of water for humans and livestock, and recharging groundwater.

Number of growing seasons per year: 1

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Agrofloresta
  • Gestão de pastoralismo e pastagem
  • Colheita de água

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A1: cobertura vegetal/do solo
  • A3: Tratamento da superfície do solo
  • A4: Tratamento do subsolo
Medidas vegetativas

Medidas vegetativas

  • V1: cobertura de árvores/arbustos
  • V2: gramíneas e plantas herbáceas perenes
Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S2: Barragens, bancos
  • S4: Valas de nível, fossos
Medidas de gestão

Medidas de gestão

  • M1: Mudança no tipo de uso da terra
  • M2: Mudança de gestão/nível de intensidade
  • M3: Disposição de acordo com o ambiente natural e humano

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
  • Wg: Erosão por ravinas/ravinamento
  • Wo: efeitos de degradação externa
Erosão do solo pelo vento

Erosão do solo pelo vento

  • Et: Perda do solo superficial
  • Eo: efeitos de degradação externa
Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
Deteriorização física do solo

Deteriorização física do solo

  • Pc: Compactação
  • Pk: quebra e ressecamento
  • Pu: perda da função bioprodutiva devido a outras atividades
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bc: redução da cobertura vegetal
  • Bh: perda dos habitats
  • Bq: quantidade/ declínio da biomassa
  • Bs: Qualidade e composição de espécies/declínio de diversidade
  • Bl: perda da vida do solo
Degradação da água

Degradação da água

  • Ha: aridificação
  • Hg: mudança no lençol freático/aquífero
Comentários:

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use , such as wood cut for cooking, to feed livestock or as building material, overgrazing, low contribution of animal dejections that are used as cooking fuel, change of seasonal rainfall, droughts. Secondary causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), low environmental awareness and support services such as forestal or veterinary assistance.

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo
  • Recuperar/reabilitar solo severamente degradado

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Drawing 1) A. The land chosen together with the local population is plowed with the special Delfino3s plow. The spacing between the plowed lines depend on: slope, soil and rain characteristics, purpose of the project. In average the inter-line is 4-6m wide. B. Local people sow seeds (collected from local trees or bought if species are rare) or goat dung containing seeds (collected in the night enclosures after feeding the goats shaking trees with ripe seeds). C. The micro basins collect the rain that falls into the crescents and up to 90% of the runoff water. The water easily penetrates into the soil profile, remains available to plant roots without risk of evaporation and eventually infiltrates to the groundwater.

Autor:

Patrizia Kolb

Data:

10/10/2013

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Drawing 2) All plowing measures are adjustable. Total length of work: 4/8 m. Tractor required: 180hp. Working speed: 4/7 Km/h which correspond to 1,5/2.5ha per hour. Weight of the plough: 1800 Kg.

Autor:

Sabina Vallerani

Data:

04/04/2017

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Drawing 3) To optimize run off harvesting and reduce water erosion, the ploughing must always be done along the contour. The bare soil between the tilled lines works as catchment area for the collection of runoff. To facilitate the execution of the plowing along the contour, nowadays there are new technologies such as laser guidance systems or GPS assistence.

Autor:

Sabina Vallerani

Data:

25/04/2018

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique como custos e entradas foram calculados:
  • por área de tecnologia
Indique o tamanho e a unidade de área:

100 hectares

Especifique a moeda utilizada para os cálculos de custo:
  • USD
Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

2.5

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Project planning, consulting and training Before starting
2. Plowing with the Delfino plow Dry season
3. Seed harvesting and storage When seeds are ripe
4. Missing seeds purchase in local markets or nurseries When seeds are ripe
5. Direct sowing Dry season

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

The NGO REACH AFRICA which implements the project is also supported by REACH ITALIA which mainly works for foundraising. They have many different founders. After the first years, thanks to the collaboration and founding by the Swiss Association Deserto Verde Burkinabé and the good results achieved, founders are more likelly to be found. The main are: different NGO's, some Italian Municipalities, a Swiss school, the Gouvernement of Burkina Faso, FAO, international cooperation agencies of Luxembourg and Belgium, a mining company and others.

Comentários:

The actual (2018) total cost of each implemented hectare is $ 170. This cost can be considerably reduced by around 22% in the case of an optimal use of the Technical Mechanization Unit, ie 800-1000 hours of work per year. This means that an operator who works with the plow Delfino has a gross investment cost which can vary according to its technical and organizational experience and by the amount of the plowed surface each year.

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Pasture management to avoid overgrazing After the rain and in the dry season
2. Vegetation growth management During the first 3-5 years
3. Woodcut management After 4-7 years
4. Equipment maintenance (plow, tactor) Daily, weekly, seasonal

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Se o usuário da terra arca com menos que 100% dos custos, indique quem cobre os custos remanescentes:

The NGO REACH AFRICA which implements the project is also supported by REACH ITALIA which mainly works for foundraising. They have many different founders. After the first years, thanks to the collaboration and founding by the Swiss Association Deserto Verde Burkinabé and the good results achieved, founders are more likelly to be found. The main are: different NGO's, some Italian Municipalities, a Swiss school, the Gouvernement of Burkina Faso, FAO, international cooperation agencies of Luxembourg and Belgium, a mining company and others.

Comentários:

Maintenance costs of plow and tractor greatly depend from the attention and technical skills of tractor drivers and mechanics and from the diligence and frequency of the maintenance activities of the implements. No other maintenance costs are forseen for the Technology.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

Upfront costs for the aquisition of the required implements are around 40,000 EUR for the plow and 75,000 EUR for the tractor. Depending on the maintenance activities, the spares and fuel costs can be reduced. Fuel, oil and spares also greatly depend from the characteristics of the soil and the purpose of the project.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

Dry season from oktober to may, rainy season from june to september. There's a great climate variability with unexpeced dry periods or areas in the rainy season. In the last years climate change effects are experienced in the region with raise in temperature, droughts and rain variability increase. Some Community claim that since the rehabilitation of big degraded areas it rains more regularly and abbundant.

Indique o nome da estação meteorológica de referência considerada:

Dori, Burkina Faso

Zona agroclimática
  • Semiárido
  • Árido

Thermal climate class: subtropics. Average temperature 30°C

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Indique se a tecnologia é aplicada especificamente em:
  • Não relevante

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Textura do solo (>20 cm abaixo da superfície):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
  • Médio (limoso, siltoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Baixo (<1%)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

> 50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Médio

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável precária (tratamento necessário)

A salinidade da água é um problema?

Não

Ocorre inundação da área?

Não

Comentários e outras especificações sobre a qualidade e a quantidade da água:

Generally the watertable is lowering. Surface water is collected in boulies (ponds) for livestock and household activities. Its quality deteriorates during the dry season and its quantity decreases fast.

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • low
Diversidade de habitat:
  • low
Comentários e outras especificações sobre biodiversidade:

Up to 30-50 years ago biodiversity was rich and soil coverage higher.

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Sedentário ou nômade:
  • Seminômade
Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • Menos de 10% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Muito pobre
  • Pobre
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Grupos/comunidade
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Idade dos usuários da terra:
  • Jovens
  • meia-idade
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

During the dry season men often migrate(d) to the nearby mines or cities for off-site income. After the implementation of the Technology the need for seasonal migration reduced. Difference in gender involvement: the project involves reforestation and pasture improvement for the grazing of livestock which is a men dominated activity. Since 2010 women have sown and protected from grazing some special plants for medical and domestic use and as raw material for handcrafts. Population density: 10-50 persons/km2. Annual population growth: 3% - 4%. Off-farm income specification: The only activity people of the region are engaged in is goat and cattle breading. Crop production is practiced only for subsistence use.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala
  • Grande escala
Comentários:

The Technology is applied on land that remains in use to the local population (it's mainly land owned by the State, the Region or the Municipality and given in use to the local Communities). the amenaged sites vary from 40 ha to 150ha in each Village. Up to december 2017 a total of more than 25.600ha have been amenaged.

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Estado
  • Comunitário/rural
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Comunitário (organizado)
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Comunitário (organizado)

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

2-4 times

Comentários/especificar:

Crop production and biomass augmented 2-4 times compared with traditional cultural techniques.

Produção de forragens

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

90kg/MS/ha

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

1250kg/MS/ha

Comentários/especificar:

Grass fodder production increased by a factor of 5–30 compared with unmanaged land. The production of herbaceous biomass varied from 420 kg to 2.090 kg (dry matter) per ha; thus, on average, 1.250 kg of herbaceous biomass (dry matter) per ha developed on sites where the Vallerani system was deployed, compared with an average of 90 kg (dry matter) per ha in control plots. Vegetation is mainly distributed inside and around the micro basins.

Qualidade da forragem

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

12 floral species

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

44 floral species

Comentários/especificar:

The application of the Technology boosts a regenaration process increasing year by year. Compared to the surrounding control rangelands, fodder quality and biodiversity increased with a high proportion of grassland species of good forage value, such as Panicum laetum and Schonefeldia gracilis, and the return of legume species such as Alysicarpus ovalifolius and Zornia glochidiata also testify the improvement of the quality of the reconstituted pastures.

Produção animal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The increase of fodder quantity and quality represents a surplus of 22–106 grazing days per tropical cattle unit per hectare. This extra fodder supply reduces the need to make long-range transhumance or cut shrubs to meet livestock needs for fodder, even in years where pasture is low. Livestock is fed with more and better quality fodder so its productivity and market price increase.

Produção de madeira

Diminuído
Elevado

Qualidade da floresta/do bosque

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

20 trees/ha of 6 species

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

700 trees/ha of 14 species

Comentários/especificar:

Significant improvement in forest cover (700 live trees and shrubbs per ha, on average) and biodiversity: trees are capable of spontaneous growth even with open access to grazing and in years of high water stress.

Produção florestal não madeireira

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Berries, gum arabica, resins, fruits.

Risco de falha de produção

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

The increased fodder quantity, quality and biodiversity, the deep root system of the sown plants, increase resilience of the ecosystem and reduce the risk of production failure. The increased biodiversity, soil moisture and fertility increase the resilience of plants to attacks by pests, deseases and drought. Even in the case of severe drought, there are some plants that can be used as "emergency food" by humans and animals.

Diversidade de produtos

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The implementation of the Technology gives the opportunity to diversify the production. Next to animal breeding, agriculture has intensified and in some villages the production of handicrafts, food processing, hunting and tourism activities are developping. Berries, gum arabica, resins, fruits enrich the family diet or can be sold at markets. Wild animals, insects, reptiles and birds have returned after decades and greatelly increased.

Área de produção

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

25.600ha

Comentários/especificar:

By the end of 2017 about 25.600 hectares of severelly degraded, abbandoned land has been rehabilitated.

Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Disponibilidade de água potável

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Local people attest that the rehabilitation of large areas of bare soil augmented the local rain amount and the water level in the wells.

Disponibilidade de água para criação de animais

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The rain collected in the micro basins is available for livestock during the rainy season. The augmented rainfall also increases water availability in boulies (ponds).

Demanda por água para irrigação

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

No water is needed for the Technology except for rain.

Renda e custos

Despesas com insumos agrícolas

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

The implementation cost of the technology is not entirelly sustainable by Communities. donors and founders sustain the project. Large-scale application reduces the cost per hectare and increases the impact of actions in reversing the degradation–desertification trend. The cost of each plowed hectare.

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Fodder increase in quality and quantity, improve animal health and productivity as well as their market price.

Diversidade de fontes de rendimento

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The Technology increases income for herders and their families also thanks to diversification. More land is also used for agriculture. Selling or transformation of other products such as berries, fruits, gums, resins; hunting; new job opportunities in disadvantaged areas such as tractor drivers, social promoters, seed collectors...The community raises awareness and a potential for small business activities occurs, mainly among women.

Disparidades econômicas

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Disadvantaged groups such as women start new economic activities such as mat production and sale at markets, medical plants and food production. They diversify their income and improve their status in the community.

Carga de trabalho

Elevado
Diminuído
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

5 micro basins/day

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

6.000 micro basins/day

Comentários/especificar:

Each man can dig 5 micro basins per day doing a heavy work. The plow can dig 6.000-7.000 micro basins per day. As most rangelands, the area of the project has a low human density (29 inhabitants/km2) so people are responsible for seed collection and storage, sowing, the livestock management during the first growing phase, monitoring activities, a.s.o.

Outros impactos socioeconômicos

Migration

Reduced
Increased
Comentários/especificar:

Increased and improved fodder availability reduces the need for long-range tranhumance and seasonal or definitive migration to areas with more work opportunities (e.g. mines), cities or other countries.

Impactos socioculturais

Segurança alimentar/auto-suficiência

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Food security improves with increased and diversified productivity and income. The increased fodder and crop quantity, quality and biodiversity, the deep root system and soil fertility, increase the resilience of the whole ecosystem. Even in the case of severe drought, there are some plants that can be used as "emergency food" by humans and animals.

Estado de saúde

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Improved health especially due to better nutrition also for disadvantaged groups such as children and old people: bigger amounts, diversification, milk, vegetables. The reduction of dust storms also improves the health situation.

Direitos do uso da terra/à água

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Awareness rising and discussion of the theme are essential. Due to the great productivity of former degraded and often abandoned land, land use rules and water rights are clearly discussed and defined at the beginning of the project. Rules for SLM are adopted and respected by all; for example, it is forbidden to install camps in or near restored areas, to cut trees, and to mow for commercial purposes.

Oportunidades de lazer

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Shadow, green areas near the villages increase recreational opportunities.

Instituições comunitárias

Enfraquecido
Fortalecido
Comentários/especificar:

It is essential to involve and give responsibility to local people in every step of the process. Comities and groups such as the women or seniors groups gain relevance and become essential for the sustainability of the project.

Instituições nacionais

Enfraquecido
Fortalecido
Comentários/especificar:

Collaborations with national institutions such as forestry direction, ministery of environnement and agricolture, research institutes, etc

Conhecimento de gestão sustentável da terra/degradação da terra

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

All communities are involved in the management process – identifying the areas and the use of the sites to be restored, planning, and implementing (e.g. gathering and keeping seeds of local ecotypes, manure and sowing). Local villages are involved in the care and defence of new plantations and in the monitoring and evaluation of the results of vegetation growth. Ultimatelly they become responsable for the sustainable management of the whole area.

Atenuação de conflitos

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

If land use and water rights are clearly defined, the increased availability of fodder reduces conflicts with neighbours and farmers.

Situação de grupos social e economicamente desfavorecidos

Agravado
Melhorado

Community well being

worsened
improved
Comentários/especificar:

People have more confidence in the future, dignity and hope. The Community cohesion and identity is strenghtened and the community becomes more resilient to conflicts and disasters.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo hídrico/escoamento

Quantidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

360.000l/ha

Comentários/especificar:

With each rain, each micro basin can collect up to 1.200l of water. Each hectare collects an average of 360.000 liter of rain, runoff included. Collected in the micro basin, the water has enough time to infiltrate in the soil profile and eventually in the water table. Local people assert that after the implementation of the Technology, the water level in the wells has raised.

Colheita/recolhimento de água

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

The Technology allows to harvest 100% of the rain falling in the micro basin and on the ripped furrow as well as up to 90% of the rain falling between the tilled lines. The bare soil between the tilled lines is essential as catchment area, to recieve rainfall and process runoff downstream. The micro basins collect up to 95% of rainfall.

Escoamento superficial

Elevado
Diminuído
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

5-15%

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

90%

Comentários/especificar:

Plowing is done along the contour. This is essential to collect the runoff that flows between the tilled lines (catchment area). The distance between the lines can be between 4m and 12m depending from: slope, rain characteristics (quantity, intensity), soil type, surface roughness (runoff coheficient), the purpose of the project (type of plants desired). The technology allows to collect up to 90% of the runoff.

Lençol freático/aquífero

Baixado
Recarga
Comentários/especificar:

Local people assert that after the implementation of the technology, the water level in the wells has raised.

Evaporação

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

The rain collected in the micro basins infiltrates in the soil profile being accessible for seeds and roots without evaporating. After the first rains, the micro basins are quickly covered with high grasses that contribute to reduce evaporation.

Solo

Umidade do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Improved soil hydrodynamic properties: the relative size of capillaries by different soil levels increased and the soil water-retaining capability improved.

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Reduced soil loss through runoff reduction and wind erosion.

Compactação do solo

Elevado
Reduzido
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

423

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

70

Comentários/especificar:

At different depth soil compactness reduces from 6 (0 to 20cm) to 1.3 times (40 to 60cm)

Ciclo e recarga de nutrientes

Diminuído
Elevado

Matéria orgânica do solo/carbono abaixo do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Cobertura vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Vegetation cover increase 5 to 30 times. Vegetation grows mainly inside and around the micro basins.

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

70 to 110kg/MS/ha

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

420 to 2090 kg/MS/ha

Comentários/especificar:

The biomass production increases 5 to 30 times compared to the nearby unplowed soil. On implemented sites, biomass varies from 420 to 2090 kg / DM / ha, on average between 1000 and 1200 kg / ha against 70 to 110kg / DM / ha on control plots.

Diversidade vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

14 herbaceous, 6 woody species/ha

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

44 herbaceous, 14 woody species/ha

Comentários/especificar:

Floral diversity increases from 14 to 44 species. With a high proportion of graminaceous species of good forage value and the return of more leguminous species. Concerning the diversity of woody plants the results show an average per hectare of 14 species on implemented sites and an average of 6 species on control plots.

Diversidade animal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

A great increase of animal biodiversity: insects, birds, reptiles and mammals (such as squirrel, jackals, gazelle...) are observed in the implemented sites.

Controle de praga/doença

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The increased vegetal and animal biodiversity, deep root system, soil fertility and water availability, increase the health and resilience capacity of the whole ecosystem.

Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Impactos da inundação

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Through water harvesting the rain is retained in the precipitation area and flood risk decreases. If flood occurs in the plowed area before the vegetation is well established, the micro basins can be washed out.

Impactos da seca

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Increased biodiversity, vegetation cover and soil fertility, deep root system and water storage in the soil profile, increase the resilience to drought of the whole ecosystem. During the project, in years of extreme drought, plants have reduced their growth but most of them survived, were used to feed animals and started growing again in the following rainy season.

Emissão de carbono e gases de efeito estufa

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Minimal production of carbon dioxide compared with the potential gain.

Risco de incêndio

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

The implementing area remains open to lifestock (regulated pasture) to reduce the high production of grass that could favor the spread of a fire, herders also monitor the territory. There is a high level of community involvement and a growing ecological awareness.

Velocidade do vento

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

The great number of growing trees reduce the wind speed.

Microclima

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Local people attest that the Technology locally increased the amount of rain and reduced dust storms in number and intensity.

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Disponibilidade de água

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Local people tell that the rehabilitation of large areas of bare soil augmented the local rain amount and the water level in the wells.

Sedimentos transportados pelo vento

Elevado
Reduzido
Comentários/especificar:

Wind intensity and dust storms reduction thanks to soil coverage and wind brake effect by trees and shrubs.

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Mudança climática gradual

Mudança climática gradual
Estação do ano increase or decrease Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temperatura anual increase muito bem
Temperatura sazonal estação seca increase muito bem
Precipitação pluviométrica anual decrease bem
Precipitação pluviométrica sazonal estação úmida/das chuvas decrease bem

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local moderadamente
Tempestade de areia/tempestade de poeira muito bem
Tempestade de vento local muito bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação súbita não bem
Desastres biológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Infestação de insetos/vermes bem

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Comentários:

The system includes the use of a heavy duty tractor and a special plow whose costs are high though difficult to sustain by the local population. Most financial costs are covered by founders and donors, the land user's partecipate to the project with their work so even if the benefits in the short term are fewer than in the mid and long-term, for them it is still very positive.

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • 11-50%
Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

330 villages and around 33.000 beneficiaries

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 51-90%
Comentários:

Except for plowing, the other activities part of the Technology are practicable by the population under an initial guidance of a promoter with specific training. These are done without any material incentives/payments. The technology is well known in the Region and there is an active participation of the local people and a strong demand for new interventions.

6.6 Adaptação

A tecnologia foi recentemente modificada para adaptar-se as condições variáveis?

Sim

Outros (especificar):

technical

Especifique a adaptação da tecnologia (desenho, material/espécie, etc):

The design of the plow has been adapted to increase the performance of the implement and reduce the running costs of plowing. The reversibility of the plowshare reduces the need for empty rides. The different parts of the plow are adjustable to adapt it to the needs of the project and the soil characteristics.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Higly degraded, abandoned land becomes fertile and rentable again. Fodder increases in quantity and improves in quality and lasts all year round. Food security also in drought years. Herds are healthier and more productive. Fodder and water availability for animals is closer to the villages. Some plants can be sown for different uses: crops, medicine or for the production of mats or other handcrafts products that can be sold.
Better life conditions, more income opportunities and diversification. Food is diversified and more nutritious. Less hunger and deseases.
Greater community cohesion and less migration, better environnemental conciousness and commitment, education and security. People gain back dignity, confidence in the future and hope.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The Technology allows the rehabilitation of rangeland and highly degraded areas in a fast and natural way on a large scale. This can boost a longlasting effect and the shift of the whole ecosystem. The Technology confers drought resilience and reduces the effects of climate change. It allows the sequestration of CO2 and can contribute to achieve the Land Degradation Neutrality Goals.
The partecipatory approach is essential for the sustainability of the project. The local Communities improve their life quality, awareness, cohesion and resilience. The need for migration is reduced and people has the chance to stay in their Lands.
The sown tree and shrub species are mainly indigenous and locally adapted species. Each specie can follow it's own growing laws and adaptation strategies. Through the tillage process the technology offers the highest degree of efficiency in the first years from processing. Its effects last for a long time so it does not need to be repeated on the same site.
The VS does not use any water (except rain) in countries where water is rare and precious.
The use of a mechanized implement allows to rehabilitate very hard, degraded and abbandoned land on large areas with reduced population. As the Delfino3s can plow strongly degraded land, the local people often ask to work their worse land which they would never be able to use.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Land that was unproductive and nobody claimed becomes productive: it can lead to misunderstandigs and conflicts. Land use and production exploitation rules must be cleared and accepted by all Subjects at the beginning of the project.
Good pasture attracts animals and herders from the nearby Region (also from far away and abroad). Rules must be clear.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
The investmentand running costs for the machinery are high and cannot be covered by single land users or small Communities. The projects must be financed by donors or founders. The Community can partecipate to some extent to cover the running costs.
The speed and effectiveness of the Delfino3s plow are its major advantages in the ecosystem rehabilitation process but can also be its major limitation. To make the best out of it, it is necessary to have a great availability of land (1.000-1.800ha) every year. A big organizational capacity is needed. The spreading "like wildfire" that has characterized the case study was possible by the presence on the territory of an NGO already active and rooted in the territory for many years and by perseverance, respect and competence of all involved subjects.
Since great extentions will be processed, a big organisation is needed for all connected activities (awareness raising, seed collection and stockage, training, logistics, etc), Must be well organized and should operate already before starting with plowing.
The professional level of the tractor drivers and the mechanics as well as the lack of a well-organized mechanical workshop and spares stock can lead to long interruptions of the work and high extra costs. Professional technical trainings and monitoring are very important. The organization of a well managed mechanical workshop and spares stock are essential. This can also be a great development opportunity for the Region.
The increased amount of fodder can induce the shepherds to increase the number of animals. An important work with the Communities is essential to achieve shared and sustainable management goals.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys

4

  • interviews with land users

30

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

8

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

5

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

2012/2018

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Un "delfino" rinverdisce i deserti, Venanzio Vallerani, ISBN 978-88-95858-05-0

Available from where? Costs?

info@vallerani.com

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Récupération des sols fortement dégradés à des fins sylvo-pastorales, CILSS 2009

URL:

http://www.vallerani.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Rapport-Reach-Cills-2009.pdf

Title/ description:

GIZ, Good practices in soil and water conservation, pag. 22 seg.

URL:

https://www.giz.de/fachexpertise/downloads/giz2012-en-soil-water-conservation.pdf

Title/ description:

Using Mechanized Water Harvesting System (The Vallerani System ) for Rehabilitation of Degraded ASALs in Kenya

URL:

http://www.vallerani.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Meshack-Muga-Paper-25-Final.pdf

Title/ description:

Report for the Sino-Italian cooperation project, SFA, China

URL:

http://www.vallerani.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Report_in_English-10.pdf

Title/ description:

Global guidelines for the restoration of degraded forests and landscapes in drylands FAO, pag. 104 seg.

URL:

http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5036e.pdf

Title/ description:

Improved rainwater harvesting for fodder shrub production and livestock grazing: the Vallerani micro-catchment system in the Badia of Jordan

URL:

http://www.fao.org/family-farming/detail/en/c/1040697/

Title/ description:

Conedera, M., N. Bomio-Pacciorini, et al. 2010. Reconstitution des écosystèmes dégradés sahéliens. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 304(2). Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 304(2). Bois et Forêts des Tropiques

URL:

http://www.vallerani.com/images/Reconstitution.pdf

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