Technologies

Floating Garden [Bangladesh]

"Baira" or "Dhap", floating bed

technologies_620 - Bangladesh

Completeness: 92%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:

Hasan Md. Zahid

HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation

Bangladesh

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

Comentários:

Context specific environmentally friendly technology

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Floating Garden is a traditional technology, practiced in the southern parts of Bangladesh locally called “Baira” or “Dhap”. The technology allows producing crops, vegetables and seedlings in areas where farming land is scarce and where the land is flodded or water logged for more than six months in a year.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

Floating gardensa are a traditional practice in south central districts of Bangladesh since long time, and has been promoted by government extension agency and development organizations in different parts of the country with technical improvements. With this technology, crops (mainly vegetables) are cultivated on floating garden beds in areas where the land inundated for more than six months in a year.
Establishment:
The basic input and main raw material to prepare the floating garden bed are water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes). In some cases bamboo sticks are also used to make the floating beds more resistant. The floating gardens are of different size, with a standard size per bed during preparation of 1.5 - 1.8 meter wide, 10 -11 meter long and 1 - 1.3 meter above water level. However, considering local context- such as wave action, size of water body, presence of a wetland - the bed size may vary, also depending on whether compost is added on the top. The establishment of the floating gardens are very cheap in terms of raw material and require mainly human manual labour for its establishment, without material costs for maintenance.
The garden can be used for two purposes: for vegetable production and for vegetable seedling production.
In water logged areas (where water remains for the whole year) floating beds are mainly used for vegetable production. Almost any type of vegetables can be grown in the floating bed. Production of leafy vegetables proofed to be most profitable. In addition, all types of vegetable seedlings and rice seedlings can produced in floating garden based on demand. In other areas, which are only inundated temporarily, floating garden can be used for both vegetable and seedling production. In this second case seedlings can be transfered from the garden to the fields on the main land immediately after receding of the water. This practice can save 2 to 3 weeks time of vegetable or rice production in winter season. This is a crucial advantage considering the trend to shorter growing periods due to unpredictable early spring rains.
A key advantage of floating gardening is the fact that heavy rainfalls usually do not have any negative effect on culture of the floating gardens, which are a highly effective and beneficial risk reduction and climate change mitigation technology. Floating gardens can further contribute to food security and improved nutrition for poor households, and it is a source for additional income by making use of cheap and abundant local input resources. Different NGOs improved and promoted this technology in north-west and north-east parts of Bangladesh since 2000. Since 2011 also the public agricultural extension agencies promote this technology.
As an overall goal this technology aims at protecting people’s assets for agricultural production from damages due to seasonal floods and provide options for alternative income resources. The floating garden technology is designed as measure to protect effectively from yearly floods. It might not be robust enough for extreme events with heavy storms and waves. Smaller repairing can be done by the owners themselves. In case of major damages the beds can be replaced by new ones, since the investment costs are very low. In the shallow areas the floating beds may become ordinary garden beds or fields during dry season.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.4 Vídeos da tecnologia

Comments, short description:

This video was developed for the capitalization of practical experience and instructive training materials. The short movie describes step by step the establishment and the benefits of the floating gardens. In a short interview governmental and other local partners share their positive experience of the technology and describe how the technology is mainstreamed by Government agencies.
The video is available online with following link: https://youtu.be/AK_qTm2pUsw

Data:

29/02/2012

Location:

Sunamganj, Bangladesh

Name of videographer:

HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation

Comments, short description:

The video documentary was prepared to capitalise and diseminate the experience of the Floating Gardens as an innovative technology for vegetable cultivation in wetlands.

Data:

01/06/2012

Location:

Sunamganj, Bangladesh

Name of videographer:

HELVETAS Swiss Intercoopartion

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Bangladesh

Region/ State/ Province:

Sylhet division, Sunamganj district

Further specification of location:

Paschim Pagla, Patharia and Shimulbak unions under South Sunamganj sub-district, Charnarchar and Rajanagar unions under Derai sub-district

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Aplicado em pontos específicos/concentrado numa pequena área
Comentários:

More than 1000 floating beds have been prepared in 8 sub-districts of Sunamganj district in northeastern Bangladesh and documented accordingly. HELVETAS supported government agencies (District Administration and Department of Agricultural Extension-DAE) to document and promote the technology further.

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

The technology was first piloted through implementation of “Livelihoods, Empowerment and Agroforestry (LEAF)” project. Later on, the technology was expanded through implementation of “Agricultural Innovation for Eliminating Extreme Poverty” (AIEEP 2009-2012) and through Unnoti -Prosperity in Haor project (2013-2016).

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Reduzir riscos de desastre
  • Adaptar a mudanças climáticas/extremos e seus impactos
  • Criar impacto econômico benéfico
  • Cria impacto social benéfico
  • improve household food security / nutrition

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • vegetables - leafy vegetables (salads, cabbage, spinach, other)
  • seedlings
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 2
Especifique:

Winter and early Summer

Vias navegáveis, corpo d'água, zonas úmidas

Vias navegáveis, corpo d'água, zonas úmidas

  • Pântanos, zonas úmidas
Principais produtos/serviços:

Vegetable, Seedling and Fishes

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Comentários:

earlier these wetland areas were mainly fallow (not used for any productive purpose). During monsoon season, the waterbodies naturally count on fish reserves, which are captures by local farmers including landless poor. Water hyacinth of these wetlands were partially used as fodder, though most of it was decomposed naturally without use.

3.4 Water supply

Outros (p. ex. pós-inundação):
  • post-flooding
Comentários:

Floating gardens are prepared on the water body, hence can absorb sufficient water without additional irrigation.

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Solo/cobertura vegetal melhorada
  • Gestão/proteção de zonas úmidas
  • Hortas familiares

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A5: Gestão de sementes, variedades melhoradas
Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S11: Outros
Medidas de gestão

Medidas de gestão

  • M1: Mudança no tipo de uso da terra
Comentários:

floating beds, which are adapted to changing water levels (floods).
change of land/water management from pure wetlands to gardens.

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Degradação da água

Degradação da água

  • Hs: mudança na quantidade de água de superfície
Comentários:

More frequent and severe seasonal floodings

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo
  • Adaptar à degradação do solo
Comentários:

The technology is used to adapt to natural seasonal flooding, to prevent damages caused by floods by using wet lands for crop production.

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

• Dimensions: The floating beds are of different size. Standard size at the time of preparation 1.5 - 1.8 meter wide, 10-11 meter long and 1.0-1.3 meter height.
• Floating beds should not cover more than 30% area of the respective water body (wetland area) in order to keep enabling environment for other aquatic resources (e.g. fishes).
• Construction material used: The basic and main ingredient/material for the preparation of the floating garden are water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes). In some cases, bamboo sticks are also used to increase its resistance. If available, composts may be applied on the top of floating beds, though not compulsory.

Autor:

Shakila Chayan

Data:

12/10/2016

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Especifique como custos e entradas foram calculados:
  • por área de tecnologia
Indique o tamanho e a unidade de área:

1 decimal for 5 floating beds

If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha =:

1 hectare = 247 decimals

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):

BDT

Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

1 man-day cost BDT 300 (USD 3.85)

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Bed preparation (by hired labour) August-September
2. Seeding, care and maintenance, harvesting September-March
Comentários:

After full harvesting of vegetable in March, the bed (decomposed water hyacinth) can be used as organic compost for other crops in cultivable land.

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Hired labour cost for bed establishment persons day 10,0 300,0 3000,0
Mão-de-obra Bed management cost (seeing, care, harvest ect.) persons day 90,0 300,0 27000,0 100,0
Material vegetal Seeds per year kg 25,0 100,0 2500,0 100,0
Material de construção Bamboo bamboo quantity 2,0 100,0 200,0
Material de construção Rope and lubricants lumpsum 1,0 250,0 250,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 32950,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 32950,0

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Comentários:

No maintenance required

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Comentários:

No specific maintenance costs during the year/season required. Small repairments are part of the labour costs of agronomic mesures to be done in paralele with care work.

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

In case the inputs, mainly water hyacinths, are not available at the selected sites, this increases the material and/or labour costs for hyacinths to be transported from distant locations.
All indicated costs refer to yearly costs, since the beds ususally have to be restablished every year.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especifique a média pluviométrica anual em mm (se conhecida):

3365,00

Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

The driest month is December, with 6 mm of rain. The greatest amount of precipitation occurs in June, with an average of 712 mm.

Indique o nome da estação meteorológica de referência considerada:

Sunamganj, Bangladesh (data source: www.en.climate-data.org)

Zona agroclimática
  • úmido

The average annual temperature is 25.0 °C in Sunamganj.

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Indique se a tecnologia é aplicada especificamente em:
  • Posições côncavas

5.3 Solos

Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

Not applicable for this technology as floating bed prepare on surface of water body

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

Na superfície

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Excesso

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

apenas para uso agrícola (irrigação)

A salinidade da água é um problema?

Não

Ocorre inundação da área?

Sim

Regularidade:

Frequentemente

Comentários e outras especificações sobre a qualidade e a quantidade da água:

Each year seasonal monsoon flooding. However, early flash (pre monsoon flood) occur only every 3 years.

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • Médio
Diversidade de habitat:
  • Médio
Comentários e outras especificações sobre biodiversidade:

Water bodies are rich with diverse aquatic organisms

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Sedentário ou nômade:
  • Sedentário
Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • 10-50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Muito pobre
  • Pobre
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
  • Grupos/comunidade
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Idade dos usuários da terra:
  • Jovens
  • meia-idade

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
  • Indivíduo
Comentários:

The farmers establish floating gardens in public water body and in private water body (with verbal agreement of water body owners).

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

crop production during rainy season becomes possible

Área de produção

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

innundated fallow water bodies can be used for food production, which increases surface for production.

Renda e custos

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

People produce vegetable/seedlings and increase their cash income through selling of the production surplus in the market. It also provide food and additional nutrition support to the farm family. Consequently, poor farmer families increase their resilience to food insecurity and income fluctuation.

Diversidade de fontes de rendimento

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Additional income for floating gardeners, which is particularly valuable for poor i.e. landless people.

Disparidades econômicas

Elevado
Diminuído
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

0

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

1

Carga de trabalho

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

slight but no significant increase in workload for bed preparation, care and harvesting

Impactos socioculturais

Segurança alimentar/auto-suficiência

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Vegetable production for home consumption contribute to households food security, which is particularly critical during rainiy season.

Estado de saúde

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Improved nutrition through household consumption of own vegetable production.

Direitos do uso da terra/à água

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

People establish floating garden on public water bodies or individual water bodies, based on a (verbal) agreement and regulated by a free or rent.

Oportunidades culturais

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Increase aesthetic view of wetlands, water becomes valuable productive surface with plants and flowers.

Conhecimento de gestão sustentável da terra/degradação da terra

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Increased knowledge on disaster risk reduction technology, based on local resources and capacities adjusted to the situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups.

Situação de grupos social e economicamente desfavorecidos

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

Its an simple "self-help" technology, which proveds new income options particularly for most vulnerable. It can be replicated by disadvantaged groups them-selfs landless and increases cohesion among the poor and very poor community members.

Impactos ecológicos

Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Cobertura vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

floating gardens increase vegetation coverage on the water surface

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

the material of old floating gardens, usualy at the end of the rainy season, are used as compost/ fertiliser for crop land.

Diversidade animal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

With the floating gardens there are less water hyacinths spread over the surface, which increases sunlight and oxygen on the water. Hence, this contributes to good conditions for the growth of fish and other aquatic resources.

Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Impactos da inundação

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

Negative impacts due to floods, such as damages and limited production can be substantially reduced with this technology, which increases production and income during flooding period.

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Danos em áreas vizinhas

Elevado
Reduzido
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

0

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

1

Comentários/especificar:

reduce/protect wave action and decrease soil erosion of the adjacent/raised land.

damage by wave erosion

increased
reduced
Comentários/especificar:

The floating gardens reduce wave erosion on neighbours' fields, since the beds protect adjacent land and assets from soil erosion.

Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements):

No specific research have been made on off-site and environmental impact of the floating garden technology.

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) bem
Inundação súbita muito bem
Outros extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima
Outros (especificar) Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
increasingly unpredictable start and duration of monsoon/rainy season, floods moderadamente

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Período de crescimento alogado bem
Comentários:

with the effect of climate change monsoon have become more impredictable: starting sooner, ending later.
The techology allows to plant and grow seedlings already before the end of rainy season, and can therefor mantain or even extend the growing period.

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

ligeiramente positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

muito positivo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Comentários:

Considering only one season - particualrly for intensive raining seasons - the gardens have positive benefits.
Considering a longer time period with less intensive rainy seasons, the fact that the bed ususally have to be reestablished every year might require an important work from a land user's perspective (therefore rate with slightly less benefits)

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • 1-10%
Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

about 1000

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%

6.6 Adaptação

A tecnologia foi recentemente modificada para adaptar-se as condições variáveis?

Não

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
In the Haor area’ (local wetland ecosystem flooded during monsoon season) water hyacinths are naturally abundant. These are the basis and substrate for floating gardens. Hence, the technology makes use of local plants as resorces, as substrate of the floating garden. If required, floating bed can easily moved from one location to another. After preparation of the bed, no additional hard labour is required.
There is hardly pest infestation, therefore no use of pesticides is required.
After final harvest, the beds are used as organic compost for the fields. Further, the farmers either can sell or use the substrate of the garden as compost.
This simple technology and can easily be replicated.
During heavy rainfalls and storms, the crop are not damaged by floods since on a floating surface.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Through this technology, crops can be produced on the water surface. The usually abundant water hyacinth are used as a productive resource, which increases the surface for crop production.
In contexts, such as Bangladesh, where land resources are scarce this opens production options in public/abundant water bodies for landless farmers, who can earn money within a short period and with little investment.
The production for home consumption improves nutrition, contributes to food security and surplus is sold at the market, which contribute to the income of poor households.
The technology is useful for increasing production for home consumption and market.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
In some cases there are water leeches available in the water body. Therefore, people become afraid of preparing floating beds. People polish diesel/kerosene oil in their body before preparation of floating beds to protect them from attack of leeches.
In some cases, water hyacinths are not available locally, consequently farmers face difficulties to prepare floating beds in distant places.
Further challenges are the guarding/security of the gardens, the time consuming establishment of the beds.
Introduce and prepare floating gardens by supporting whole groups instead of individual famers.
Wave action and local streams may drift away the floating beds Use bamboo pole to fix floating beds and prevent that they are floating away.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Non-availability of adequate quantity of water hyacinth in same place every year. Prepare bed in the places where water hyacinth are available and then move the beds in to the desired locations.
Due to heavy wave action or heavy water flow, floating beds could be broken/destroyed. Prepare small size beds.
Lack of awareness and willingness of farmers to practice this technology. Organise meeting, training, demonstration, and learning visit.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys

10 times field visits and 28 informants.

  • interviews with land users

25

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

4

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

05/10/2016

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

A learning documentary on Floating Vegetable Garden, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, March-2012, ISBN: 978-984-33-5313-9

Available from where? Costs?

https://youtu.be/AK_qTm2pUsw

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Innovative Vegetable Cultivation, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, 2012

Available from where? Costs?

https://youtu.be/lhiraDjPymU

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Piloting Schemes Systematic Integration of DRR in LEAF - December 2010

Available from where? Costs?

https://assets.helvetas.org/downloads/drr_capex.pdf

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

A learning documentary on Floating Vegetable Garden, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, March-2012, ISBN: 978-984-33-5313-9

URL:

https://youtu.be/AK_qTm2pUsw

Title/ description:

Innovative Vegetable Cultivation, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation, 2012

URL:

https://youtu.be/lhiraDjPymU

Title/ description:

Islam and Atkins, 2007. Indigenous floating cultivation: a sustainable agricultural practice in the wetlands of Bangladesh. Development in Practice 17:130-136.

URL:

https://www.jstor.org/stable/25548185?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Title/ description:

Irfanullah et al., 2008. Introduction of floating gardening in the northeastern wetlands of Bangladesh for nutritional security and sustainable livelihood. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 23:89-96

URL:

http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/11064/1/IJTK%2010(1)%2031-38.pdf

Title/ description:

Irfanullah et al., 2011. Floating gardening in Bangladesh: a means to rebuild lives after devastating flood. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 10:31-38.

URL:

http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/11064/1/IJTK%2010(1)%2031-38.pdf

Title/ description:

Irfanullah, 2013. Floating Gardening: a local lad becoming a climate celebrity? Clean Slate 88:26-27.

URL:

http://floodresilience.net/solutions/item/floating-gardening-a-local-lad-becoming-a-climate-celebrity

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