有助于对方法进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI) (Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI)) - Bangladesh
有助于对方法进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Society for Environment and Human Development (SEHD) (Society for Environment and Human Development (SEHD)) - Bangladesh
Tradtional appraoch to jhuming involving tribal institutions and traditonal knowledge based technologies.
Aims / objectives: The main purpose of the approach is to facilitate the tribal population with no cultivable landownership to seek their subsistence by adopting tradtional jhum practice by involving the entire family members. The specific objectives is to ensure site allocation within the communites for jhum and to ensure that the age old knowledge about shifting cultivation is passed on to the next generations.
Methods: The method to achieving this is that the tribals have a very strong local institution comprising of King, Dewan, Head man, and Karbari, priests and the villagers. In case of knowledge transfer, head of a family ensures that he/she passes on the technology information to his/her followers.
Stages of implementation: At evry stage of the implementation of jhum, the landusers are supported by the local institutions and their tradtional custams, attitudes and beliefs.
Role of stakeholders: The tribal institution takes care of the problems encourtered by the landusers during selection of jhum sites and overall activities of jhum.
The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Slashing, burning, weeding)
The main purpose of the approach is to facilitate the tribal population with no cultivable landownership to seek their subsistence by adopting tradtional jhum practice by involving the entire family members. The specific objectives is to ensure site allocation within the communites for jhum and to ensure that the age old knowledge about shifting cultivation is passed on to the next generations. The method to achieving this is that the tribals have a very strong local institution comprising of King, Dewan, Head man, and Karbari, priests and the villagers. In case of knowledge transfer, head of a family ensures that he/she passes on the technology information to his/her followers. At evry stage of the implementation of jhum, the landusers are supported by the local institutions and their tradtional custams, attitudes and beliefs. The tribal institution takes care of the problems encourtered by the landusers during selection of jhum sites and overall activities of jhum.
The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: That the poor triabal communities with no landownership can make a livelihood by jhum practice without any inter/intra commmunity conflicts. It also ensures that outside interference which might threaten the jhumias livelihood is minimised.
Lack of ownership, scarcity of judicially cultivated plain land, During site selection.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: Ensure land ownership,Priests advice, local instituion involevment in every steps of Jhuming
Taking more area for jhum and increase inputs, no credit for Jhum.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: They opt for less area and traditional way of cultivation.
Lack employment opportunities
Treatment through the SLM Approach: Involvement and support from state institutions.
The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights greatly helped the approach implementation: If land tenureship was legalised the tribals may have opted for settled agriculture.
No development focus
Treatment through the SLM Approach: Credit facilities may be provided, state ensured landownership.
Scarcity of HYV seeds, fetilizer and pesticide.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: Ensure availability of all farm inputs.
Specific ethnic groups: Chakma Tribes in the CHT.
The practice as such involves the poor land users. Working land users were mainly men
|计划||互动||public meetings; Plan within the triabls the distribution of land for jhum.|
|实施||自我动员||responsibility for major steps; By individual households.|
|监测/评估||互动||measurements/observations; By the landusers.|
Individual household based decision
Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by by land users* alone (self-initiative / bottom-up). In close consultation with the local jhum based institution.
The family head gives training their off spring.
Name of method used for advisory service: Jhumia to jhumia hands on extension method.; Key elements: Interaction between two generations., Interactions between jhumia based local institutions., On the job training.; 1) Advisory service was carried out through: landusers 2) Advisory service was carried out through: landusers; e 3) Target groups for extension: land users.
bio-physical aspects were ad hoc monitored through observations
socio-cultural aspects were regular monitored through observations
Approach costs were met by the following donors: local community / land user(s) (Meetings): 100.0%
Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
Other tribal communities of CHT (about 12 in number) have a similar approach to jhum.
|Food security and poverty aleviation. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: They would rather prefer settled agriculture.)|
|Multiple crop production round the year.|
|Less costly and less laborious.|
|Availability of fuel and timber.|
|Inspite of land ownership conflicts, local institutions function efficiently to maintain harmony in the community. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: The strenght of local institutions need to be optimally used by the projects and programs to develop and test better and sustainable production systems from a SWC perspective in CHT.)|
|Easy to adopt and less costly to implement.|
|Marginal lands can be used.|
|Self employment for the entire family.|
|Ensures food security and poverty elevation.|
|Multi-crop based production system for the whole year.|
|Availability of fuel and timber.|
|Traditional knowledge based practice.|
|Soil degradation and low productivity.||Financial support and land rights ensured.|
|The appraoch promotes soil and land degradation, deforestation and loss of flora and fauna.||The landusers should be encoraged to take up settled agriculture ensuring their land rights and logistic supports from liquidity and technical amd material support.|
Sustainability Appraisal of Shifting Cultivation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. By Ole K. Borggaard, Abdul Gafur and Leif Petersen.
Ambio Vol. 32 No. 2, 118-123, March 2003.
Runoff and losses of soil and nutrients from small watersheds under shifting cultivation (Jhum) in the CHT of Bangladesh. Abdul Gafur et al. 2003
Journal of Hydrology, Volume 274, Issues 1-4, 1 April 2003, Pages 30-46
Changes in Soil Nutrient Content under Shifting Cultivation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Abdul Gafur, et al. 2000.
Danish Journal of Geography 100: 37-46