Community-Based Watershed Management [阿富汗]

Mudiriat Aabreza Tawasut Mardum (Dari)

approaches_2612 - 阿富汗

完整性: 86%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与方法评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式



Montzieux Mathilde



Hazem Zainullah



Alemi Saadat



Ershad Mustafa



Ahmadi Reza


HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件




1.4 SLM技术问卷的参考

Stone wall

Stone wall [阿富汗]

Contour stone walls constructed on moderate to steep slopes to retain water and sediments and trap snow.

  • 编制者: Aqila Haidery
Contour Trench Bund

Contour Trench Bund [阿富汗]

Contour trench bund applied on contour lines of moderate slope to trap run-off to improve infiltration and reduce flash floods.

  • 编制者: Aqila Haidery

2. SLM方法的描述

2.1 该方法的简要说明

Sustainable implementation of watershed management through appropriate SLM technologies, formation of organizational structures and capacity building of stakeholders

2.2 该方法的详细说明


The overall objective of the community-based watershed management project implemented at Sar-e-Ahangaran was to reduce water induced disaster risks and improve people’s livelihoods. The project was implemented by Catholic Relief Services (CRS) with people’s support and funding assistance from USAID.

About 67 hectares of degraded land has been rehabilitated since 2009 through various soil and water conservation measures like stone walls, contour trenches and plantation of fodder species such as alfalfa. The local communities are also protecting the treated areas from grazing and shrub cutting.

With facilitation from CRS, a 15-member watershed management committee was appointed by the participating families. This was important for organizing watershed related works and for the sustainability of project interventions. Some rules for managing the selected watershed were also formulated in a participatory way. For instance, if anyone is found grazing animals at the site, he has to give one sheep to the watershed committee as a fine.
CRS has provided training and technical support to the watershed committee members and workers for project implementation and monitoring. The daily workers were selected from the local communities by the watershed committee and paid in cash as per national norms for their labor. CRS also organized awareness raising workshops regarding environmental conservation and water-shed management and the entire community including teachers and students participated in these village events.

As a result of Sar-e-Ahangaran watershed management project, the people have a more positive attitude towards natural resource management. The formation and capacity building of the watershed management committee is a step towards ensuring long-term sustainability of the project outputs and community owner-ship. The watershed committee is not yet registered with the government but for future sustainability, this will be an important activity. The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is in the process of formulating a comprehensive community-based natural resource management strategy. Once in place, the Sar-e-Ahangaran community can take advantage of that strategy if the watershed committee is formally registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (Bamyan).

The Community-Based Watershed Management approach is documented by Sustainable Land Management Project /HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation which is funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation with close support and cooperation of the Catholic Relief Service (CRS).

2.3 该方法的照片

2.5 采用该方法的国家/地区/地点






Sar-e-Ahangaran, Bamyan center

2.6 该方法的开始和终止日期



2.7 方法的类型

  • 基于项目/方案

2.8 该方法的主要目的/目标

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Disaster Risk Reduction, Rural Livelihoods Improvement)

The overall objective of the project was to reduce watershed induced disaster risks and improve rural livelihoods through SLM technologies and community based sustainable approaches

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Lack of people’s knowledge regarding sustainable management of natural resources and disaster risk reduction, lack of knowledge, technical and organisational capacities on sustainable land management technologies for degraded lands

2.9 推动或妨碍实施本办法所适用的技术的条件

  • 阻碍

People did not have a good idea about how to conserve the environment and at the same time reduce disaster risks and improve their livelihoods

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Training and education via sharing knowledge with watershed committees in Waras forming maintenance committees who should look after restrictions about grazing. Practical demonstration of potential SLM technologies

  • 阻碍

People do not have financial capacities

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Project had a Cash for Work but learning approach

  • 阻碍

As the land is formally owned by the government, people did not invest much in sustainable practices. During project initiation, people were also sceptical and rejected the project idea as they thought that by digging trenches, the project was trying to search for gold

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Through several discussions and clarifications and by assurances from the government, people were convinced that the project had no hidden motives and gradually their trust in CRS increased

  • 阻碍

Lack of knowledge about SLM measures

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Training and technical support from CRS

3. 相关利益相关者的参与和角色

3.1 该方法涉及的利益相关者及其职责

  • 当地土地使用者/当地社区
  • 社区组织
3.2 当地土地使用者/当地社区参与该方法的不同阶段
当地土地使用者/当地社区的参与 指定参与人员并描述活动
启动/动机 互动 CRS discussed land use problems and formulated the project. Project site was selected by the participating families and respective CDCs
计划 互动 CDC and watershed members were involved in the planning but not the whole community
实施 外部支持 Implementation was by the local communities with cash for work approach
监测/评估 自我动员 Voluntary monitoring group to look after the environment. Also joint monitoring by project stakeholders
Research 被动

3.3 流程图(如可用)


The organizational Chart of Sar-e_Ahangaran Watershed Management Committee


Catholic Relief Service (CRS)

3.4 有关SLM技术选择的决策

  • 主要是SLM专家,咨询土地使用者之后

The area was selected by the community

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by SLM specialists with consultation of land users. However, workers were selected by the watershed committee members in consultation with their community development councils (CDCs).

4. 技术支持、能力建设和知识管理

4.1 能力建设/培训


  • 土地使用者
  • Project field officers, Land users, CDC and Watershed Management Committee members, teacher and students, both women and men
  • 在职
  • 农民对农民
  • organizing courses

contour trench and stone wall technologies, tree planting, importance of pasture management and watershed management

4.2 咨询服务



CRS provided continuous advice; Key elements: increase awareness by forming a watershed committee, technical support of the committee

Advisory service is inadequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; The government or other advisory service is still inadequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities. The government authorities visited the project only once, at the end of the project. They did not provide much support; however, as the land belongs formally to the state, they did not have any objections for applying watershed management measures.

4.3 机构强化(组织发展)

  • 是,适度
  • 本地

CDCs and watershed management committees. Schools teachers and students also received training

4.4 监测和评估



bio-physical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Water quality and quantitative measurements

technical aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff, land users, other through observations; indicators: ad hoc field visits and monitoring of structural quality

socio-cultural aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Hosuehold survey

economic / production aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Household survey

area treated aspects were ad hoc monitored by project staff through observations; indicators: Other areas where technology has been applied

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored by land users through measurements; indicators: Selecting the beneficiaries

management of Approach aspects were None monitored by land users through observations; indicators: Monitoring the community which looks after the pasture management

There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: especially with regard to organisational structure for monitoring works

4.5 研究


  • Farm research

Topics included technology functions, vegetation status before and after project, monitoring of spring (located below) water quality and quantity.

5. 融资和外部物质支持

5.1 该方法中SLM组成部分的年度预算

  • 10,000-100,000

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international non-government: 99.0%; local community / land user(s): 1.0%

5.2 为土地使用者提供财政/物质支援


5.4 信用


5.5 其它激励或手段


6. 影响分析和结论性陈述

6.1 方法的影响

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

Land cover by vegetation improved significantly. Flash floods and snow avalanche problems were reduced, and the community members were more aware about the technologies and approaches for sustainable land management.

  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

People got cash for work and some of the families could pay back their loans through this income.

The land belongs to the state and the water use right is as well open access and and organized manner. In this particular land land use problem or water use problems have not been seen.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

There were constraints from the people in the beginning. Now a similar approach with some modifications is being implemented in other watersheds as well as a result of this project.

Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

They got more money via the cash for work; however, there is no impact for the livestock because the pasture area is big enough.

Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
  • 是,很少
  • 是,中等
  • 是,支持力度很大

due to cash for work approach and increased production of wheat, potato and other agricultural products as a result of reduced flood risks

6.2 土地使用者实施SLM的主要动机

  • 增加利润(能力),提高成本效益比
  • 规章制度(罚款)/执行
  • to get employed through cash for work
  • reduce flood risks
  • Understand the importance of watershed
  • Understand the importance of NRM
  • Ownership of the project activities

6.3 方法活动的可持续性

  • 不确定

but CRS continues to build capacities of watershed committees and support plantation of fodder species so that people get direct benefits and the project is sustained.

6.4 该方法的长处/优点

Less damage to some agricultural land located below the watershed sites due to flash floods
Prevention of snow slide
Increased water in the spring
Plant coverage of the area increased
Prevention from soil erosion

6.5 该方法的弱点/缺点以及克服它们的方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Watershed management committee is not registered CRS should facilitate registration of the committee with the Department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock in Bamyan
People are not taking care of the plantations People must understand the importance of plantations. The project should figure out the reasons why people are not interested in plantation activities and adjust approaches accordingly

7. 参考和链接

7.1 方法/信息来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查
  • 与土地使用者的访谈