这是该案例的一个过时的非现行版本。 转到当前版本
技术
闲置

Reduced pressure on forest resources by improved thermal insulation in private houses [塔吉克斯坦]

Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM/ИСЦАУЗР)

technologies_1459 - 塔吉克斯坦

完整性: 82%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:

Zevarshoev Rustam

935922699

Retail Cooperative "Zindagi"

塔吉克斯坦

有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM I)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
Pilot Program for Climate Resilience, Tajikistan (WB / PPCR)

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

(现场)数据是什么时候汇编的?:

24/01/2011

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.4 所述技术的可持续性声明

这里所描述的技术在土地退化方面是否存在问题,导致无法被认为是一种可持续的土地管理技术?:

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Thermal insulation of private houses with energy efficient products to reduce the fuel-wood demand and pressures on the natural environment.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

Well insulated doors and windows are installed together with thermal insulation of the ceilings and floors in houses in the remote villages of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region. Improved quality windows and doors, as well as improved thermal insulation of the houses contribute to retain the heat inside, which is one of the main problems in many of these traditionally built houses. The quality of the materials used to produce the products as well as the quality of the product itself and its installation process are ensured through using locally trained craftsmen. Local available organic materials such as sawdust, straw, water plants, leaves and others can be used as thermal insulation material for walls, floors and ceilings. The materials should be dry and free of insects. The local labour market plays a crucial role in the technical accurate performance of the thermal insulation measures. Therefore the local labour market has to be analysed and training needs for the craftsmen have to be defined, e.g. for producing double-glazed windows and improved doors, as well as insulating walls, ceilings or floors, and the installation of windows and doors in accordance to the defined and standardised thermal insulation measu

Thermal insulation contributes to the reduction of heat exchange between indoors and outdoors and therefore may have two main effects: Less fuel may be needed to heat the houses, or using the same quantities of fuel the temperature indoors can be significantly increased. A reduction in fuel consumption means a reduction either of financial expenses or of labour, so the saved money or time can be used for other purposes - ideally for making investments and creating additional income sources. Higher and more constant indoor temperatures can contribute to a reduction in health risks and to increased quality of life during the winter period. Going beyond the level of the individual household, a reduction in fuel consumption means less pressure on natural resources: The less firewood that is used for heating, the less trees will be cut down and the less the forests will degrade. Also the less manure that is burnt in the stoves means more of it can be used as fertilizer on the arable land. In this framework many of the economical, social and environmental problems could be mitigated if houses were properly insulated.

A technical assessment of the identified house for thermal insulation is carried out to investigate which materials are used for the construction of the house, and to identify measures and materials that could be used for thermal insulation purposes, in order to be able to offer the most technically appropriate solution, which is adapted to the local cultural and climatic conditions. The organic thermal insulation material should be prepared in advance to make sure it is dry and clean. The designated area whether it is the floor, ceiling or walls should be cleared of furniture and other things items. Electric wires should be safely removed, or covered adequately for safety reasons to prevent fire. In the case of the roof, the insulation material is laid out evenly on the surface to a thickness of 15-20 cm depending on the type of organic material which is used. The lime is then spread out over the organic insulation material. For 1 m2 about 1-1.5kg of lime is required. The material is thoroughly tamped down to reduce subsidence of the protective cover, which will be put over the insulation material. A mixture of clay, straw and water is prepared to form a substance with a solid consistency to prevent the surface from cracking when it dries. This clay and straw mixture is then spread evenly on the surface about 4-6 cm thick, ensuring that the whole insulation material is covered. The surface should dry in 24 hours after which some cracks might appear and if this happens then a liquid mixture of clay and sand is used to flatten the area left to dry again. The same process is applied to the floors, and the more complex roof thermal insulation materials where roof felt is used as a basis for the organic insulation material as it is moisture proof. The windows and doors as well as these insulated areas in the house should be properly maintained. It should be ensures that there are no leaks in the roof so that the ceiling insulation is kept dry.

Riparian forests in the Western parts of Gorno-Badakhshan and Teresken shrubs on the high plains in the Eastern parts are almost completely destroyed due to their excessive use as a fuel for heating and cooking, and their overuse as areas for pastures. Manure, as one important natural fertilizer for agriculture, is no longer available in large quantities and so the fertility of soil has decreased. In the Eastern Pamirs, although the area is scarcely populated, Teresken shrubs have been used excessively as a fuel and are no longer found within 70km around the only major settlement of Murgab, which has resulted in massive soil erosion and degradation of pastures in this area. The situation is worsened by the fact that the local, mostly traditionally built houses are poorly insulated, low quality doors and windows do not preserve the heat inside during severe cold temperatures. Constant heating is thus necessary meaning households burn large amount of natural fuel resources to keep their houses warm. The thermal insulation technology should contribute to ease the pressure on the natural resources in the GBAO area and allow natural regeneration of forests and Teresken shrubs.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

塔吉克斯坦

区域/州/省:

Tajikistan, Gorno Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO)

有关地点的进一步说明:

Roshtkala, Shugnan, Murgab and Ishkashim

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预
注释(项目类型等):

The technology was developed and introduced through GIZ project. Gradually Retail Cooperative "Zindagi", established by GIZ is taking the project over.

3. SLM技术的分类

3.1 该技术的主要目的

  • 创造有益的经济影响

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

森林/林地

森林/林地

(半天然)天然森林/林地:
  • 选伐
产品和服务:
  • 木材
  • 薪材
  • 水果和坚果
  • 放牧/啃牧
定居点、基础设施

定居点、基础设施

  • 能源:管道、电线
注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Due to a shortage of energy sources, wood, teresken and manure are extensively used for heating private houses; natural resources are therefore severely overused, which has resulted in degraded land, destroyed forests and lack of natural fertilizer for agriculture; poor thermal insulation of houses also leads to increased demand for fuel.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Unable to heat their houses properly during cold winters; shortage of fuel for cooking and heating; during cold winters, fire wood becomes so scarce that even fruit trees are cut down.

如果由于技术的实施而导致土地用途发生变化,则在技术实施前说明土地利的用途。:

Other: Settlements, infrastructure networks

3.3 有关土地利用的更多信息

每年的生长季节数:
  • 1
具体说明:

Longest growing period in days: 120, Longest growing period from month to month: May-July

3.4 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 节能技术

3.5 技术传播

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果该技术均匀地分布在一个区域上,请注明覆盖的大致区域。:
  • 100-1,000 平方千米
注释:

The technology was implemented in several regions of GBAO.

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

植物措施

植物措施

  • V5:其它
结构措施

结构措施

  • S11:其它
管理措施

管理措施

  • M2:改变管理/强度级别

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

土壤水蚀

土壤水蚀

  • Wt:表土流失/地表侵蚀
生物性退化

生物性退化

  • Bc:植被覆盖的减少
  • Bq:数量/生物量减少
  • Bs:质量和物种组成/多样性的下降
注释:

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (Exploiting forest resources for heating and cooking.), poverty / wealth (Most people can't afford to buy other fuel such as coal or gas.), Lack of finances
Secondary causes of degradation: change in temperature (Extremely cold winters force people to cut down excessive amounts of wood for fuel), change of seasonal rainfall (Less precipitation), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (Heavy periods of rainfall), population pressure (Population growth leads to increasing demand for wood for fuel.), Destroyed infrastructure

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 防止土地退化

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

作者:

Tajikistan

4.2 技术规范/技术图纸说明

This diagram with photos shows the different thermal insulation measures.
Location: Ishkashim. Ishkashim, GBAO, Tajikisatan
Date: 26-02-2011

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high (Increased technical knowledge)
Technical knowledge required for craftsmen: high (Increased skills in producing well insulated doors and windows.)
Technical knowledge required for construction workers: high (Advanced skills in installation of thermal insulation products.)
Main technical functions: increase of biomass (quantity), Reduced heat loss from houses, Reduced fuel consumption
Secondary technical functions: improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)
Change of land use practices / intensity level

4.3 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

其它/国家货币(具体说明):

somoni

注明美元与当地货币的汇率(如相关):1美元=:

4.6

4.4 技术建立活动

活动 措施类型 时间
1. Installation of window 1.40x1.30 管理 Any time
2. Installation of door 2.00x0.90 管理
3. Thermal insulation 管理

4.5 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 labour ha 1.0 17.0 17.0 100.0
施工材料 door ha 1.0 133.0 133.0 100.0
施工材料 window ha 1.0 126.0 126.0 100.0
施工材料 Isolation material ha 1.0 126.0 126.0 100.0
技术建立所需总成本 402.0

4.7 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

注释:

The labour costs are indicated for installation of one window/door. With regards to the thermal insulation the labour costs are higher, so they are calculated per square metre of the area where thermal insulation will be applied.

4.8 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

The costs for the installation of windows and doors depends on their size and also whether additional work has to be done to fit the door or window hatch to the required size. With regards to the thermal insulation the costs are estimated based of the size of the area in square metres, whether it is the floor, ceiling or wall.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

In Murghab District annual rainfall is below 200mm. Around Khorog annual rainfall is 480mm.

农业气候带
  • 干旱

Thermal climate class: temperate, boreal

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 粗粒/轻(砂质)
表土有机质:
  • 中(1-3%)
  • 低(<1%)

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

5-50米

地表水的可用性:

水质(未处理):

良好饮用水

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

生产系统的市场定位:
  • 生计(自给)
非农收入:
  • > 收入的50%
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 个人/家庭
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly Leaders / privileged
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3% (If creditworthy, they can participate through micro-loans schemes.).
Off-farm income specification: The majority of households rely heavily on remittances from Russia.

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者拥有或租用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 小规模的

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
土地使用权:
  • 租赁

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

饲料生产

降低
增加

饲料质量

降低
增加

畜牧生产

降低
增加
收入和成本

农业收入

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Save money from buying fuel and electricity

收入来源的多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Income of craftsmen increased.

工作量

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

Less time needed for fire wood collection

社会文化影响

健康状况

恶化
改良
注释/具体说明:

Warmer houses reduce health risks.

SLM/土地退化知识

减少
改良
注释/具体说明:

Improved knowledge on energy efficiency and insulation measures.

冲突缓解

恶化
改良

社会经济弱势群体的情况

恶化
改良
注释/具体说明:

Opportunity to improve living conditions and save money.

contribution to human well-being

decreased
increased
注释/具体说明:

In general, people save money on energy sources and spend less time collecting wood and animal dung from the field. Houses are warmer, which can be beneficial for the family's health.

生态影响

水循环/径流

地表径流

增加
降低

蒸发

增加
降低
土壤

土壤水分

降低
增加

土壤覆盖层

减少
改良
生物多样性:植被、动物

生物量/地上C

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Up to 45% less wood used for fuel.

植物多样性

降低
增加

栖息地多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

In Murghab District teresken used as fire wood is the main fodder for wild animals (e.g. deer, gazelles)

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

旱季稳定可靠的水流

减少
增加
注释/具体说明:

Protection of riparian forests.

下游洪水

增加
减少
注释/具体说明:

Protection of riparian forests.

缓冲/过滤能力

减少
改良

风力搬运沉积物

增加
减少

对邻近农田的破坏

增加
减少

对公共/私人基础设施的破坏

增加
减少

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

渐变气候

渐变气候
季节 气候变化/极端天气的类型 该技术是如何应对的?
年温度 增加

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地暴雨
局地风暴 未知
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱
水文灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
比较和缓的(河道)洪水 未知

其他气候相关的后果

其他气候相关的后果
该技术是如何应对的?
缩短生长期
Extreme cold temperatures

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

稍微积极

长期回报:

积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

非常积极

长期回报:

非常积极

6.5 技术采用

注释:

168 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
The households take a micro loan with an affordable low interest rate to install thermal insulation products. The micro loan is not provided in the form of cash, but in kind, i.e. the products and installation.

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: When one household installs quality windows or doors or has its house insulated, the effects are visible not only to that given household but also to neighbours and other visitors. As a result the number of people interested in installing such technology to their homes is increasing.

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

土地使用者眼中的长处/优势/机会
Costs of firewood reduced
Warm and comfortable houses
Reduced workload
编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
If implemented on a larger scale can prevent overuse of natural resources for fuel.
Incentives in form of micro loans to make the technology more accessible to local people.
Reduced workload and costs spent on buying fuel.
Imported timber used to produce doors and windows.
More fertilizer available.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Lack of skilled craftsmen Improved professional craftsmen education through training courses.
Lack of modern equipment to produce wooden products Financial support to supply the local craftsmen with modern equipment to further improve the quality of the products and increase the rate the production process.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

  • 实地考察、实地调查
  • 与土地使用者的访谈

模块