有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care (EU-RECARE )
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - 瑞士
A field at risk for erosion by water is divided so that a grass strip prevents soil loss and further damage to the field and the streets during a heavy rainfall.
The technology applied is an individual idea of a land user whose one field provides many problems whenever there is a heavy rainfall event. Because of the slope and the cultivation it is mostly at risk during summer when there are tempests. To minimize the risk of soil and crop loss the land user decided to leave a part of the filed unemployed and planted a seam of grass and flowers to stabilize the soil. Whenever there is a rainfall event, the grass strip stops the flow of water and eroded top-soil and speed is reduced. Consequently, erosion is highly minimized and the damage to the field, crops and the street underneath stays small.
Purpose of the Technology: The aim of the technology is to prevent erosion and soil loss, especially from heavy rainfall events during summer. Crop loss is also a consequence, so the land user loses not only top-soil and organic material but also crops and in the end money. The reduction of this high risk is the reason for the implementation of a grass strip on this problematic field.
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: In the beginning seeds and a seeding machine were required. There is a specially designed mixture for field seams in Switzerland which the land user has to apply. After the first growing period the land user has to cut the grass with a special mowing machine. During the next two years the grass has to be cut every month. This is called the cleanup-cut. After the first two years the grass only needs to be cut twice a year. The grass must be led away.
Natural / human environment: The most important conditions for this technology are a moderate slope on a field which is endangered by erosion through rainfall. The technology can stop and slow down the flow of water over the field to a neighbor field or onto the street and therefore minimize the risk and costs of soil loss and its consequences.
Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.0022 km2.
The total SLM Technology area is 22 are
The seam was first seeded in spring 2014 by the land user. He had no help with the development and was the first of his family to change something on the endangered field after a heavy rainfall which took away his top-soil and accumulated on the street underneath the field.
- Main crops (cash and food crops): Other crops: Arable farming and vegetable gardening
Longest growing period in days: 200Longest growing period from month to month: April to September or October
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Run-off during rainfall causes often much soil erosion because of the many slopes in this area. As a consequence of erosion there is soil loss and within this also loss of fertility of the soil.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): The intensification of agricultural fields is the main problem for the land user. Through a intensely use of the soils the risk for erosion increases. However, one must always also do as much as possible for protecting endangered fields of part of it. This is the solution.
Water supply: rainfed, mixed rainfed - irrigated, full irrigation
Main measures: vegetative measures
Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -linear
Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Wo: offsite degradation effects
Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wm: mass movements / landslides
Main causes of degradation: soil management (machines and moment of tillage are highly important regarding compaction of soil), crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (Crop rotation must be adapted to the situation and problems, sometimes also short to the weather), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (Heavy rainfalls were the trigger for the first soil loss and erosion)
Secondary causes of degradation: other human induced causes (specify) (Heavy machines lead to compaction of soils), change in temperature (It was observed that there are longer hot weather conditions), change of seasonal rainfall (It was observed that there are longer wet weather conditions), governance / institutional (Politics and agrarian policy lead to an intensification of land use)
Main goals: prevention of land degradation
Secondary goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (They need to know when to cut the grass and how low the grass needs to be cut. There is a certain size the grass needs to have during the first 2 years.)
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (He needs to know everything about the implementation from how to seed and cut the grass until how often the grass needs to be cut. This knowledge has to be given to his field staff.)
Technical knowledge required for apprentice: moderate (The land user needs to show his apprentice how everything works: the machines, the seeding, the cutting and the transporting of the cut grass.)
Main technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard
Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope length, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration
Aligned: -graded strips
Vegetative material: C : perennial crops
Vegetative material: G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 44 kg
Grass species: Mixture "seam on agricultural crop land" with grass and different flower species, seeded
|1.||Seeding mixture conventionally with seeding machine||May|
|2.||First cutting after 2 months because grass grows faster than flowers which need light||July/August|
|3.||Cutting once a month for growing of flowers||during growing period|
|1.||Cutting half of grass in August||August after first 2 years of establishment|
|2.||Cutting other half of grass in September||September|
|3.||Sell the cut grass as fodder or hay to another land user|
The costs were calculated for the field of 0.22 ha where the land user has now a grass strip in order to prevent run-off and erosion.
The most determinate factor affecting the costs are the labour and the seeds at the beginning. After the implementation of the seam on this agricultural field the costs are remarkably smaller. Furthermore, the land user gets a small amount of subsidies after the implementation of a seam on agricultural fields. But this amount is not that high that it would be profitable to change from rotation farming to agricultural seams.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
1035-1150 mm, winter rains
Thermal climate class: temperate
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Slopes on average: The average slope in the area treated is moderate (6-10%) however the problematic field is situated in a rolling slope (8-16%) there run-off can gain more and more speed during a heavy rainfall event.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil texture is medium (loamy/silty) (Soil texture in this area is mostly sandy loam)
Soil fertility is high
Soil drainage/infiltration is medium
Soil water storage capacity is medium
Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: In swiss agriculture land users are mainly men. Women or their wives play also an important role especially in case of decision-making, investment and family.
Population density: 100-200 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 1% - 2%
Level of mechanization is mechanised and manual labour (weeding in biological agriculture must be made manual)
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
More production on the area that remains cultivated.
Improved livelihoods and human well-being
Hazard towards adverse events
1 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: The agrarian policy of Switzerland with its subsidies for different conservation technologies is beneficial for the adoption of this technology.
With the technology the land user reduces the flow of water and soil during a heavy rainfall event. Therefore, he keeps fertile soil and top-soil, reduces siltation and costs for cleaning the contaminated street underneath the field.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? The grass strip must be maintained.
The land user is pleased to get subsidies for his grass strip to compensate for the loss of production area. However, he also likes the fact that he is doing something against erosion of soil and the application of this technology changed his view towards conservation agriculture. He even thinks about some more technologies to try on his fields.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Subsidies must be provided to balance the loss of production area which results from the application of this technology.
The technology helps reducing the speed of run-off during a heavy rainfall. It is visible that with this technology run-off and damages like erosion, soil loss and contamination of roads and neighbor fields are reduced or prevented.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? The grass strip needs maintenance every year several times which requires labour and money. This must be secured in order to protect the technology and its benefits for the conservation of soil.
The technology shows how important individual solutions to land use problems are and that there is no limit in how such a technology must look like. The success of the technology proofs that innovative ideas of land users to prevent erosion and soil loss must be pursued and encouraged by politics and agricultural institutions.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Politics, agricultural institutions and even the general public must be sensitized to conservation technologies like this. There must be understood that intensification of agricultural production can lead to degradation rather than more production. Not every field is suitable for crop rotation.
With implementing the technology the land user not only protects his field and the street underneath from erosion and damage but also gets subsidies for enhancing local flower production on his field.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Subsidies for conservation technologies and their outputs must be guaranteed in order to promote the adoption of such a technology. Otherwise the technology is good for sustainable land management but not economically profitable.
|The major weakness of the technology is the loss of crop rotation area which could be used agronomically. This is associated with a financial deficit in the income.||Subsidies help to compensate for the financial deficit. However, this is not a sustainable solution to the problem. The land user must not only see the financial deficit but also the immense advantage the grass strip provides because it saves him costs of cleaning the street, crop loss and soil loss during a heavy rainfall event.|