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Technologies
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Shelterbelts with Russian Silverberry for the protection of irrigated fields [Tajikistan]

Tajikistan - Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM/ИСЦАУЗР)

technologies_1458 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 82%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Ibragimov Firuz

National Capacity Building Coordinator, Energy and Environment Programme, UNDP Tajikistan

Tajikistan

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management (CACILM I)
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Pilot Program for Climate Resilience, Tajikistan (WB / PPCR)

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Ja

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

Geen

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Shelterbelts are used to protect irrigated land from deposition of sand and to reduce wind speed

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

This technology consists of shelterbelts made of Russian Silverberry (Elaeagnus angustifolia) to protect irrigated wheat and rice fields from strong winds.

In the Shaartuz area wind erosion poses huge problems to crop cultivation as topsoil is being removed and deposited as sediments on neighbouring fields. Dusty storms not only damage the crops but they also cause damage to the main surface, the fertile layer of soil. Sand also damages the irrigation canals, roads, gardens and streets in urban areas which forces people to leave such areas. Good yields cannot be achieved if fields are not properly protected.
A solution to this problem is the planting of shelterbelts around fields to slow wind speed and to prevent erosion of the arable soil layer. During Soviet times shelterbelts were planted on collective farms by the state forestry committee under contracts. After the collapse of the USSR and before the formation of Dehkan farms land users were not interested in investing in shelterbelts due to unprotected land use rights and unclear legal procedures. One farmer however tested the planting of a shelterbelt in 1992 when his son came back from his studies at the Agricultural University where he had learnt about the technology. They planted the first shelterbelt using a mixture of different tree species to protect newly irrigated fields. Due to financial constraints they could not invest in any other shelterbelts but in 2010 UNDP provided them with financial support to buy seedlings to increase the shelterbelt area. For this new shelterbelt the native Russian Silverberry (Elaeagnus angustifolia) was considered the most appropriate species as soils were highly saline and only this species proved tolerant.

Trees were planted in three rows, along field boundaries and also along irrigation channels. Within rows trees were spaced at a 1m interval with a 6 m distance between rows. The plantations were established through “haschar” (voluntary neighbourhood help) with 30 people planting about 10,000 trees within one month. During the first three years after planting the saplings need regular irrigation and sanitary cleaning to help establish themselves. After 6-7 years the trees start drawing a lot of water from the soil which prevents the irrigated soils from damage through water logging. Russian silverberry can grow up to 12 m in 10-12 years.

Benefits of these shelterbelts are increased crop yields (wheat and rice) due to the protection from strong winds and decreased evapotranspiration. Thanks to the species association with nitrogen fixing root bacteria soil fertility is improved. The trees further produce edible fruits and provide valuable firewood that is consumed by the households. Russian Silverberry is resistant to pests and diseases and drought-tolerant once established; however, it requires a lot of water during the first few years. One constraint to the establishment of the shelterbelt is local people who often cut down branches for firewood. The farmer therefore has to guard his field whenever possible with the help of his family and staff he has employed to work on his field. Implementation of forestry initiatives began in 2009 and a total of 11 ha land was covered between 2009-2010. 11 farmers were involved in the project and establishment of the shelterbelts was initiated stage by stage during these two years. The project initiatives have also continued into 2011 as well. As other farmers do observe and understand the importance of shelterbelts, there has been a trend towards adoption of the technology by other farmers.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Khatlon

Further specification of location:

Shaartuz

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)
Comments:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.09 km2.
The technology has been applied by 11 different farmers on 9 ha of land

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • during experiments/ research
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The land users son learnt about the technology while he studied at the agricultural university and the first shelterbelt was implemented through the land users own initiative

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • conserve ecosystem

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - wheat (spring)
  • cereals - rice (upland)
Perennial (non-woody) cropping - Specify crops:
  • berries
  • Silverberry (Elaeagnus angustifolia)
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Dusty storms not only damage the crops but they also cause damage to the main surface, the fertile layer of soil. Sand also damages the irrigation canals, roads, gardens, streets in urban areas which can force people to leave such areas.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Wind erosion leading to deflation of sandy soils, low soil fertility, reduction of vegetation cover, and increasing impacts of climate change.

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Unproductive land

Unproductive land

Specify:

wastelands, deserts, glaciers, swamps, recreation areas, etc

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • full irrigation

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • windbreak/ shelterbelt

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
Comments:

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -against wind

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
  • Ed: deflation and deposition
  • Eo: offsite degradation effects
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bh: loss of habitats
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification
Comments:

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use, wind storms / dust storms, inputs and infrastructure: (roads, markets, distribution of water points, other, …) (breakdown of soviet irrigation systems and therefore abandonment of land)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Shelterbelts consist of three rows of trees (Russian Silverberry). The rows are spaced 6 meters apart from each other and the interval between trees within the rows is 1-2 m.
Location: Shaartuz. Khatlon
Date: 27.05.2011

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low
Technical knowledge required for land users: low
Main technical functions: stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), reduction in wind speed
Secondary technical functions: increase of biomass (quantity)

Aligned: -against wind
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 1500
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 6
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 1-2
Trees/ shrubs species: Elaeagnus angustifolius (planted)

Author:

Julie Zaehringer, Baumackerstr. 51, 8050 Zuerich

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Somoni

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

4.5

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

5.50

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Planting of grafting material or tree seedlings December

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour labour ha 1.0 720.0 720.0 100.0
Plant material seedlings ha 1.0 1350.0 1350.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 2070.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 460.0
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 12 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Irrigation of seedlings regularly during first three years
2. Sanitary cleaning of trees

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour labour ha 1.0 85.0 85.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 85.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 18.89

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour was provided for free through the so-called "haschar" or neighborhood help.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • arid

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:

poor/ none

Water quality (untreated):

poor drinking water (treatment required)

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • mechanized/ motorized
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Annual population growth: 1% - 2%

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

fodder production

decreased
increased

risk of production failure

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

contribution to human well-being

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

through increased crop yield

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

evaporation

increased
decreased
Soil

soil loss

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

reduced deflation

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

habitat diversity

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

shelterbelts can provide habitat to birds, insects etc.

Climate and disaster risk reduction

wind velocity

increased
decreased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

wind transported sediments

increased
reduced

damage on neighbours' fields

increased
reduced
Comments/ specify:

from prevention of deposition

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm well
local windstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not known

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period not known

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

neutral/ balanced

Long-term returns:

positive

Comments:

the trees take time to establish during which the benefits are not yet tangible

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
Comments:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
11 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
It is impossible to get good yield in these areas which are prone to strong winds without shelterbelts. Farmers do realise and understand the importance of shelterbelts and there is a trend towards growing spontaneous adoption of the technology.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Reduced deflation and deposition of sand on fields and therefore improved crop growth
Increased crop yield as before the establishment of shelterbelts no crops could grow on this land
Reduced wind speed
Russian Silverberry produces edible fruits rich in vitamins
Increased production area
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Russian silverberry is a native tree species with high drought-tolerance and the ability to grow on nutrient-poor soils thanks to its root association with nitrogen fixing bacteria
Once established the shelterbelts do not need a lot of maintenance
Rehabilitation of unproductive, denuded land into productive cropland

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The shelterbelts have to be protected from being damaged by local people who want to cut them for firewood Awareness raising; increase of firewood supply through tree planting

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users
When were the data compiled (in the field)?

14/04/2011

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