Technologies

Trashlines [Ethiopia]

Mona (Konso), Setera (Amharic)

technologies_1387 - Ethiopia

Completeness: 59%

1. معلومات عامة

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

نعم

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Agronomic/structural measure using straw of maize and/or sorghum.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

Trashlines are constructed seasonaly by the family members using maize and/or sorghum straws. It has multi purposes like water harvesting, soil trapping, soil fertility improvement, etc. It is common in gentle to steep slopes in semi-arid areas.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

بلد:

Ethiopia

Region/ State/ Province:

Southern region

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1,000-10,000 km2
Comments:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 2000 km2.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • more than 50 years ago (traditional)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • as part of a traditional system (> 50 years)
Comments (type of project, etc.):

According the farmers it is an indigenous technology past from generation to generation (ancestors).

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - maize
  • cereals - sorghum
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 90 Longest growing period from month to month: Jul - Sep

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Rainfall shortage. Farm land shortage.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Rainfall shortage. Crop/livestock diseases. Farm land shortage.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • cross-slope measure

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
Comments:

Main measures: agronomic measures

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Ha: aridification

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, improvement of soil structure

Construction material (other): Maize and/or sorghum straws

For water harvesting: the ratio between the area where the harvested water is applied and the total area from which water is collected is: 1:3

Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Birr

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

7,0

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

1.00

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. 1. Harvesting grain/cop dry season
2. 2. Browsing leaves by livestock dry season
3. 4. Layout of straw dry season
4. 3. Cutting straw dry season

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Harvesting grain/cop dry season / annual
2. Browsing leaves by livestock dry season / annual
3. Cutting straw dry season / annual
4. Layout of straw dry season / annual
5. Realignement of straw after storms dry season/as needed

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Comments:

On gentle slope, spacing of 4 m between lines, average wealth of farmer.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Competition with fodder and fuel wood.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is medium
Soil drainage/infiltration is good
Soil water storage capacity is high-medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
  • rich
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
10% of the land users are rich and own 20% of the land (have additional sources of fodder / fuel wood).
30% of the land users are average wealthy and own 40% of the land.
60% of the land users are poor and own 40% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: Crafts, daily labourer
Level of mechanization is manual work (Hoe, sometimes oxen)

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

70

Quantity after SLM:

25

Soil

soil loss

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

100

Quantity after SLM:

10

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

very positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%
Comments:

25000 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates

There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Confined in the area due to other cultures (oxen plough) outside the area.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Inventory of indigenous SWC measures on selected sites in the Ethiopian Highlands. SCRP Research Report 34. 1997.

Available from where? Costs?

CDE

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