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1. معلومات عامة
1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:
2. Description of the SLM Technology
2.1 Short description of the Technology
Definition of the Technology:
Agronomic/structural measure using straw of maize and/or sorghum.
2.2 Detailed description of the Technology
Trashlines are constructed seasonaly by the family members using maize and/or sorghum straws. It has multi purposes like water harvesting, soil trapping, soil fertility improvement, etc. It is common in gentle to steep slopes in semi-arid areas.
2.3 Photos of the Technology
2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment
Region/ State/ Province:
Specify the spread of the Technology:
- evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
- 1,000-10,000 km2
Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 2000 km2.
2.6 Date of implementation
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
- more than 50 years ago (traditional)
2.7 Introduction of the Technology
Specify how the Technology was introduced:
- as part of a traditional system (> 50 years)
Comments (type of project, etc.):
According the farmers it is an indigenous technology past from generation to generation (ancestors).
3. Classification of the SLM Technology
3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology
- reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied
- Annual cropping
- Perennial (non-woody) cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
- cereals - maize
- cereals - sorghum
Number of growing seasons per year:
Longest growing period in days: 90 Longest growing period from month to month: Jul - Sep
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Rainfall shortage. Farm land shortage.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Rainfall shortage. Crop/livestock diseases. Farm land shortage.
3.4 Water supply
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs
- cross-slope measure
3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology
- A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
Main measures: agronomic measures
3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology
soil erosion by water
- Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
chemical soil deterioration
- Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
- Ha: aridification
Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Ha: aridification
4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs
4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low
Technical knowledge required for land users: low
Main technical functions: increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply
Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, improvement of soil structure
Construction material (other): Maize and/or sorghum straws
For water harvesting: the ratio between the area where the harvested water is applied and the total area from which water is collected is: 1:3
Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.
4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs
other/ national currency (specify):
If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:
4.3 Establishment activities
|1.||1. Harvesting grain/cop||dry season|
|2.||2. Browsing leaves by livestock||dry season|
|3.||4. Layout of straw||dry season|
|4.||3. Cutting straw||dry season|
4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities
|1.||Harvesting grain/cop||dry season / annual|
|2.||Browsing leaves by livestock||dry season / annual|
|3.||Cutting straw||dry season / annual|
|4.||Layout of straw||dry season / annual|
|5.||Realignement of straw after storms||dry season/as needed|
4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)
On gentle slope, spacing of 4 m between lines, average wealth of farmer.
4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:
Competition with fodder and fuel wood.
5. Natural and human environment
- < 250 mm
- 251-500 mm
- 501-750 mm
- 751-1,000 mm
- 1,001-1,500 mm
- 1,501-2,000 mm
- 2,001-3,000 mm
- 3,001-4,000 mm
- > 4,000 mm
Slopes on average:
- flat (0-2%)
- gentle (3-5%)
- moderate (6-10%)
- rolling (11-15%)
- hilly (16-30%)
- steep (31-60%)
- very steep (>60%)
- mountain slopes
- hill slopes
- valley floors
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Soil depth on average:
- very shallow (0-20 cm)
- shallow (21-50 cm)
- moderately deep (51-80 cm)
- deep (81-120 cm)
- very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
- medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
- medium (1-3%)
- low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.
Soil fertility is medium
Soil drainage/infiltration is good
Soil water storage capacity is high-medium
5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology
- less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
Level of mechanization:
- manual work
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:
Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
10% of the land users are rich and own 20% of the land (have additional sources of fodder / fuel wood).
30% of the land users are average wealthy and own 40% of the land.
60% of the land users are poor and own 40% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: Crafts, daily labourer
Level of mechanization is manual work (Hoe, sometimes oxen)
5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights
Land use rights:
6. Impacts and concluding statements
6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown
Water cycle/ runoff
Quantity before SLM:
Quantity after SLM:
Quantity before SLM:
Quantity after SLM:
6.4 Cost-benefit analysis
How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
6.5 Adoption of the Technology
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
25000 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates
There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: Confined in the area due to other cultures (oxen plough) outside the area.
7. References and links
7.1 Methods/ sources of information
7.2 References to available publications
Title, author, year, ISBN:
Inventory of indigenous SWC measures on selected sites in the Ethiopian Highlands. SCRP Research Report 34. 1997.
Available from where? Costs?