Technologies

Use of Organic Fertilizers for Organic Crop Pproduction on Infertile Soil [Thailand]

technologies_4176 - Thailand

Completeness: 96%

1. معلومات عامة

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

Namsai Yuthasong

SLM specialist:

Suthakum Ratana

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Kaoya Putchanee

Thailand

national consultant:

Arunin Somsri

Land Development Department

Thailand

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Decision Support for Mainstreaming and Scaling out Sustainable Land Management (GEF-FAO / DS-SLM)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Land Development Department LDD (Land Development Department LDD) - Thailand

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

نعم

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

لا

Comments:

This is the main technology supporting organic farming which is the process accepted by the whole world because it concerns the food stability and security.

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

The organic farming was initiated by a group of Yasothon farmers since 1989 to produce organic rice and vegetables. The organic fertilizers used are the compost made from farm products and animal dungs, bio-fermented liquid from kitchen wastes and crotalaria as green manure.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

Organic farming has become a national agenda with cross collaboration among government organizations concerned, local community administration, private sectors and farmers. This technology has scaled up to 253 farmers on 6,000 rai (6.25 rai = 1 ha) at Ban Sokkompoon, Naso Sub-district, Kutchum District, Yasothon Province. The information has been received from Mr. Man Samsee, chief of the community and a farmer himself. The organic fertilizers used in the farmers’ fields are the compost from farm products and animal dungs, bio-fermented liquid from kitchen wastes, fermented liquid from neem (Azadirachta indica) for pest control, and green manure from Crotalaria juncia. The crops grown have been rice and vegetables, medicinal herbs and sesame, which are certified as organic products; they command higher prices (more than 20%). Compost is the main organic fertilizer compared to others.
The objectives of organic farming are to produce organic crops, improve soil fertility, reduce wastes for friendly environment, get higher income and enhance good health for both producers and consumers. The procedure of making compost: The materials used for making compost are 1,000 kg of burnt rice husk, 3,000 kg of cattle manure/poultry manure, 3,000 kg of farm residues, 1,000 kg of coarse bran, 500 kg of fine bran, 1,000 kg of rice husk and 500 liters of organic-fermented liquid, all being thoroughly mixed by using a tractor. The allocation of compost: an amount of 300 kg of compost (20 bags) is given to each member to ferment at the farm by turning the bags occasionally before applying to a 3-rai land. There are several government organizations and private sectors that support this community of farmers, and a learning center was thus established. Up to now, the Land Development Department has been providing the knowledge of making compost and bio-fertilizer liquid; It also has been distributing green mature seeds and activators of bacteria and fungi. The Department of Agricultural Extension provided funding to establish the learning and training center and to produce materials used for training together with private sectors under CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility). The Cooperative Promotion Department supported by keeping household accounts. The local community administration set up several market places and promoted the products to be purchased by hospitals and restaurants. The organic crop products have been certified by OACT (Organic Agriculture Certification of Thailand) and IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements). The Department of Groundwater provided groundwater by drilling holes at 30-40 m deep. The Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency provided solar cells as the source of energy. The noticeable benefit of organic farming is that farmers have better health, the soil has become more fertile and the expenditure decreased. The farmers have been satisfied of their own lifestyle and did not migrate to the city. They have been committed to developing their land by using organic fertilizers continuously. The average income has increased from 7,500 THB/rai to 12,000 THB/rai. The main problem has been the transportation of the organic fertilizers which are bulky, but it can be overcome by producing them on site where needed.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

General remarks regarding photos:

Farmers are carrying compost bags allocated to them for their own use.

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Date:

28/11/2018

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

بلد:

Thailand

Region/ State/ Province:

Yasothon

Further specification of location:

Ban Naso, Naso Sub-district, Kutchum District, Yasothon Province, Thailand

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):

960,0

If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 100-1,000 km2
Is/are the technology site(s) located in a permanently protected area?

لا

Comments:

This area is rather flat, approx. 0-2% slope and thus no soil erosion. The fertility of the soil is low.

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:

1989

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
  • The land user got knowledge from training abroad.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

لا


Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - rice (wetland)
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Khao Dok Mali 105 rice variety (Jasmine Rice)

Is intercropping practiced?

لا

Is crop rotation practiced?

لا

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • No (Continue with question 3.4)
Land use mixed within the same land unit:

لا

Cropland

Cropland

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed
Comments:

The rainfall in this area was 1,562 mm/yr in 30-year period (1981-2010).

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • integrated crop-livestock management
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover
  • integrated soil fertility management

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
Comments:

The land degradation has been caused by man, e.g. deforestation, the overuse of agricultural chemical substances.

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation
Comments:

The organic fertilizer/ compost could improve soil structure, reduce bulk density, increase soil aeration, easy to plough, decrease the hard pan and spread out the plant roots. Consequently, plant roots could absorb more nutrients.

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

The method of making compost of Naso Rice Farmer Group can be described as follows: 1) the ingredients are 1,000 kg of chicken manure, 1,000 kg of cattle manure, 1,000 kg of poultry manure, 1,000 kg of top soil, 500 liter of bio-fermented liquid and 1,000 kg of filter cake; 2) mix all of these ingredients and pack in the bags; 3) distribute these bags to the members for making compost at their home; and 4) when the compost decomposes completely, it can be applied in paddy fields at the rate of 1,280 kg/rai (8,000 kg/ha).

Author:

Miss Kanokwan Hansookjaichareon

Date:

09/10/2018

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

1 rai

If using a local area unit, indicate conversion factor to one hectare (e.g. 1 ha = 2.47 acres): 1 ha =:

1 ha = 6.25 rai

other/ national currency (specify):

THB

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

32,0

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

300 THB

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Gathering the materials December-April
2. Making compost December-April
3. Applying to paddy field May-June
Comments:

The kinds of materials may differ according to the amount of residues at that time.

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour for making compost Man-day 8,0 300,0 2400,0
Equipment Tractor hour 2,5 1250,0 3125,0
Equipment Transportation cost hour 1,5 350,0 525,0
Plant material Animal manures, burned rice husk, bran kg 10000,0 0,655 6550,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 12600,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 393,75
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

Naso Rice Farmer Group

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Turn the compost bags during fermentation process. Every week until 75 days

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Turn the compost bags during fermentation process Day 1,0 300,0 300,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 300,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 9,38
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

Land Development Department

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Most of the costs depend on raw material price and wages cost (both labour and equipment)

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:

1600,00

Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

There are 3 seasons in Yasothon, i.e. hot, rainy, and cool seasons. The average relative humidity is 71.1%. Maximum temperature is 42 degree celsius, minimum temperature is 11 degree celsius.

Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered:

Meteorological Department

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

good

Water quality (untreated):

for agricultural use only (irrigation)

Water quality refers to:

surface water

Is water salinity a problem?

لا

Is flooding of the area occurring?

لا

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Habitat diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • rich
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • mechanized/ motorized
Gender:
  • men
Age of land users:
  • elderly

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale
Comments:

The holding areas of the land users in the Northeast of Thailand are about 3.2-4.8 ha per household.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)
Water use rights:
  • individual
Are land use rights based on a traditional legal system?

نعم

Comments:

The land owners have full right in their land, so they are able to manage and develop their land.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased

crop quality

decreased
increased

forest/ woodland quality

decreased
increased

land management

hindered
simplified
Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased

farm income

decreased
increased

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

health situation

worsened
improved

land use/ water rights

worsened
improved

cultural opportunities

reduced
improved

recreational opportunities

reduced
improved

community institutions

weakened
strengthened

national institutions

weakened
strengthened

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

worsened
improved

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quality

decreased
increased

surface runoff

increased
decreased

excess water drainage

reduced
improved

groundwater table/ aquifer

lowered
recharge

evaporation

increased
decreased
Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased

soil cover

reduced
improved

soil accumulation

decreased
increased

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced

soil compaction

increased
reduced

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased

salinity

increased
decreased

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased

acidity

increased
reduced
Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover

decreased
increased

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased

invasive alien species

increased
reduced

animal diversity

decreased
increased

beneficial species

decreased
increased

habitat diversity

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season

reduced
increased

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

groundwater/ river pollution

increased
reduced

buffering/ filtering capacity

reduced
improved

impact of greenhouse gases

increased
reduced

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase moderately
seasonal temperature summer increase moderately
seasonal temperature wet/ rainy season increase moderately
annual rainfall increase moderately

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm moderately
local thunderstorm moderately
local hailstorm moderately
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought moderately
Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
epidemic diseases moderately
insect/ worm infestation moderately

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
extended growing period moderately
reduced growing period moderately
Comments:

The changes of environment have rather low effects to organic fertilizer production technology.

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

positive

Comments:

There are no maintenance expenses on this technology because it is consumable.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • single cases/ experimental
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 51-90%

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?

نعم

other (specify):

changing upon materials in the local area

Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.):

The materials for making compost might be changed; for example, filter cake might be changed to water hyacinth or other aqua weeds.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
The organic fertilizers are suitable for soil improvement, thus increasing soil fertility.
The use of organic fertilizers can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers.
It is a wise alternative to use agricultural residues to obtain more benefits.
Develop bargaining power to sell the products.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The farmers have high leadership and high self-reliance.
The farmers have multi-knowledge which can be adapted to the farm activities.
The organic fertilizer is the key factor for organic farming.
The organic fertilizer can promote the utilization of local residues sustainably.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The organic fertilizer transportation is a hard work. The organic fertilizer can be produced in paddy fields.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Some farmers do not have the confidence in using organic fertilizer. Responsible persons are urged to do more in the matter of technology transfer to effectively increase the understanding of farmers.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

16 land users, 1 local administrator, 1 miller, 1 farmer leader

  • interviews with land users

56 farmers

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

2 informants

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

10/10/2018

Comments:

Interviews started 10/10/2018 - 2/11/2018

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Organic fertilizer, production, using, and quality. Department of Agriculture. 2005. ISBN 974-436-479-3

Available from where? Costs?

http://aglib.doa.go.th/lib/images/Downloads/2549/EB00280.pdf

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Organic fertilizer, production, using, and quality. Department of Agriculture. 2005. ISBN 974-436-479-3

URL:

http://aglib.doa.go.th/lib/images/Downloads/2549/EB00280.pdf

7.4 General comments

where the land is greener : WOCAT

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