Horsetail Beefwood (Casuarina) Windbreak along Seaside [China]

Seaside Shelter Belt of Horsetail Beefwood' test

technologies_960 - China

Completeness: 57%

1. معلومات عامة

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Planting Horsetail Beefwood as a shelter belt along seaside to prevent serious wind and water erosion/destroy of the cropland.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Horsetail Beefwood windbreak along seaside is applied to prevent serious wind and water erosion/destroy of the cropland. It is planted as a shelter belt in the cropland. Horsetail Beefwood is a perennial tree growing in sub-tropic and tropic climate. Its timber can be used in industry and fuel timber. It is easy to maintain.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Ningde Prefecture

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):


If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1-10 km2

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 2 km2.

It is a vegetative measure applied in the cropland along seaside and has marked effect on prevent wind erosion and destroy in the cropland.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Tai Wan

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Land use mixed within the same land unit:


Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agroforestry

الأراضي الزراعية

الأراضي الزراعية

  • Annual cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • fibre crops - cotton
  • rice
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1

Longest growing period in days: 365Longest growing period from month to month: Jan - Dec

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Products and services:
  • Timber
  • Fruits and nuts
  • Other forest products
  • Nature conservation/ protection
Mines, extractive industries

Mines, extractive industries


causing damage of vegetation


Grazingland comments: Household grazing tends to standardize and stall feeding.

Problems / comments regarding forest use: The forest cover percent increase little, strenghtening the tree planting.

Forest products and services: timber, fruits and nuts, other forest products / uses (honey, medical, etc.), nature conservation / protection

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Rice, cotton

Type of grazing system comments: Household grazing tends to standardize and stall feeding.

Constraints of recreation

Constraints of Urban: Urban construction does not coordinate with environmental protection

Constraints of Industrial/mining: causing damage of vegetation

Constraints of Wilderness

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • windbreak/ shelterbelt

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)

Main type of degradation addressed: Et: loss of topsoil

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify, lack of knowledge

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: Wind-break

Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, increase of surface roughness, increase / maintain water stored in soil

Material/ species: Casuarina braches
Quantity/ density: 80%

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Trees/ shrubs species: Cash & lots of shrubs

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 1.00%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is (see figure below): 0.00%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 0.00%

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • USD
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Planting trees(strip) Spring

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment


Duration of establishment phase: 36 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. minimun tillage spring,summer / twice a year
2. Planting SWC forest Spring /once a year
3. Supplementing trees Spring /once a year

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Landforms plateau/plains: plain of seaside

Slopes on average flat: 1.0 - 1.5%

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility: low

Soil drainage / infiltration: good

Soil water storage capacity: low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
  • rich
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 200-500 persons/km2

Annual population growth: < 0.5%

2% of the land users are very rich and own 10% of the land.
10% of the land users are rich and own 8% of the land.
85% of the land users are average wealthy and own 80% of the land.
3% of the land users are poor and own 2% of the land.

Off-farm income specification: The land users who adopt the SWC can get much more subsidies from government or projects and less loss caused by damage of the sea wind or typhoon than those who take no SWC technology.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
  • group

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

Quantity before SLM:


Quantity after SLM:



soil loss

Quantity before SLM:


Quantity after SLM:


6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

slightly positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

neutral/ balanced

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

175 (around 50 percent of the area

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%

80% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

90 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: survey results

85% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

85 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: survey results

There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Low input but marked output.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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