Sustainable Land-use Planning at Village Level for Management of Natural Resources and Livelihoods enhancement [India]

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Reporting Entity: India

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights: No

Completeness: 91%

General Information

General Information

Title of best practice:

Sustainable Land-use Planning at Village Level for Management of Natural Resources and Livelihoods enhancement



Reporting Entity:


Property Rights

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights:



Prevailing land use in the specified location

  • Cropland
  • Grazing land
  • Woodland
  • Uproductive land

Contribution to Desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD) measures

  • Prevention
  • Mitigation
  • Adaptation

Contribution to the strategic objectives

  • To improve the living conditions of affected populations
  • To improve the conditions of affected ecosystems

Linkages with the other best practice themes

  • Capacity-building and awareness-raising
  • DLDD and SLM monitoring and assessment/research
  • Funding and resource mobilization


Section 1. Context of the best practice: frame conditions (natural and human environment)

Short description of the best practice

SPWD has done a broad ecological characterization of the Jaisamand catchment area and identified the major ecological issues associated with each major livelihood system in the area. This along with the use of the Participatory resource mapping tool, formed the basis of optimisation of resources. |


Jaisamand Catchment Area in Udaipur District of Rajasthan

If the location has well defined boundaries, specify its extension in hectares:


Estimated population living in the location:


Brief description of the natural environment within the specified location.

The typical soil in this area is chemically matured but texturally immature. The soil type varies from red loamy to sandy, gravelly to medium black soils. The soil moisture control section remains dry in some or all parts for 90 or more cumulative days per year. |
The climate is generally dry except in the south-west monsoon season. The cold season is from December to February, followed by the hot season from March to the middle of June. The south-west monsoon season starts from June end and continues up to middle of September. |
The steeply dipping phyllites and their quartzite bands stand out as structural hills and residual hills. Low relief surrounded by gently sloping erosional bed rock phyllites mainly with vener of detritus also occur as pedimentinselberg complex in between the hilly terrain.

Prevailing socio-economic conditions of those living in the location and/or nearby

According to Livelihood pattern the community in the area can be classified as farmers, agriculture labour. Animal husbandry is a secondary occupation for most of the people in the area. This reveals the significance of animal husbandry in the livelihood. |
Most of the families in the block have small land holdings that too are sloping land facing problem of severe erosion and low moisture retention. The Wastelands Characterization study by SPWD reveals that around 50 % of the private lands are in the category of pastures.
About Fifty percent of households in the area are classified as living below poverty line, including two-thirds of Tribal households. Land ownership is inadequate in size and not viable for production. Only 20% of land is cultivated and equal amount of land constitute private pastures. |

On the basis of which criteria and/or indicator(s) (not related to The Strategy) the proposed practice and corresponding technology has been considered as 'best'?

Consensus evolved during the National Consultation process.

Section 2. Problems addressed (direct and indirect causes) and objectives of the best practice

Main problems addressed by the best practice

Depletion of Land Resources and Increase In Wastelands |Decline in forested areas and vegetative cover|Higher incidence of drought |Decline in Water-table

Outline specific land degradation problems addressed by the best practice

The 'forest based life-support system' dominates the life style in the hill areas, degradation of these resources adversely affect livelihoods of local communities. With the increase in biotic interference and alarming deforestation, the area under wastelands has increased significantly in the hills|

Specify the objectives of the best practice

To map the current status of land, water and forest resources |To assess degradation status of resources|To identify opportunities for sustainable livelihoods  |To prepare a plan for sustainable management of local resources

Section 3. Activities

Brief description of main activities, by objective

Mapping of land resources (common and private lands) |Mapping of water resources (surface and ground water) |Mapping of biotic resources (flora and fauna)
Estimating caring capacities of village resources|Characterizing potentials of local resources|Scoping exercises for optimal uses of resources
Spatial analysis of resource status|Temporal analysis of resource status |Analysis of ownership of resources|Analysis of uses/access patterns for resources
Identification of appropriate interventions for restoration and development of village resources |Prioritizing identified actions for development of resources |Compilation of plan and bringing synergy in various programmes

Section 4. Institutions/actors involved (collaboration, participation, role of stakeholders)

Name and address of the institution developing the technology

Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development (SPWD)|26 -27, Mahavir Colony,
Bedla Road, Badgaon
Udaipur - 301 011, Rajasthan, INDIA

Was the technology developed in partnership?


List the partners:

Prayatna Samiti, Bambora (Udaipur)|Hanuman Van Vikas Samiti, Sakroda (Udaipur)|Jagran Jan Vikas Samiti, Vali (Udaipur)

Specify the framework within which the technology was promoted

  • National initiative – non-government-led

Was the participation of local stakeholders, including CSOs, fostered in the development of the technology?


List local stakeholders involved:

Community Members|Panchayati Raj Functionaries|Government Departments|Scientific Institutions

For the stakeholders listed above, specify their role in the design, introduction, use and maintenance of the technology, if any.

The local community members have crucial role in the initiative. They will lead all efforts at local level. Community members also have role in planning, implementation and management of the plans evolved. The local panchayat being implementing agency of various developmental programme will execute the plans prepared and also govern the whole initiative. Various government department will pool in their expertise and resources for the initiative. Inputs from technical institutions are utilized for the initiative. Establishment of resource centre is important to perform functions of design and delivery of the  services directly or through facilitation linkages with existing government programmes in general and NREGP in particular. Primary objective is to enable community members and PRI functionaries for aggregation of support inputs and their delivery for sustainable livelihood promotion. It will include background information on NREGP, Stakeholder mapping for NREGP, at village, GP & Block level, status of NREGP implementation in the panchayats and block.|

Was the population living in the location and/or nearby involved in the development of the technology?


By means of what?
  • Participatory approaches

The local community members are integral part of the initiative, they were involved at all levels i.e. mapping, scoping, analysis, interpretation, planning and presentations.


Section 5. Contribution to impact

Describe on-site impacts (the major two impacts by category)

Sustainable use and management of local resources ensured with community participation
The degraded areas reclaimed under developmental programmes  
Restoration of the ecologically fragile areas under developmental schemes
The marginal groups got opportunities to improve their livelihoods by creation of durable assets
Production from common and private lands improved due to eco restoration measures
Participation of marginal groups ensured at all levels

Describe the major two off-site (i.e. not occurring in the location but in the surrounding areas) impacts

Promoted use of technologies and modern knowledge among local communities and brought synergy in modern sciences and indigenous knowledge through technical backstopping at grass root level
Bridged the gap between local communities and government functionaries by articulating the common aims and objectives of both the stakeholders

Impact on biodiversity and climate change

Explain the reasons:

The perspective plans and annual plans prepared at village level for development of village resources have important component of enhancing vegetative cover and bio mass in the village to sustain livelihoods of communities and eco-restoration. The increased vegetative cover will contribute in carbon sequestration and will also reduce the emissions. Hence the initiative will positively contribute to climate change mitigation measures.
The resource assessment exercises conducted with local communities has helped them in understanding the current conditions of the local resources and they become aware about potentials of village resources and their developmental needs. Based on these assessments and planning exercises communities are able to prepare appropriate adaptation plan for extreme conditions.

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?



The river basin level assessments cost around Rs. 6/- per hectare, which is nominal in terms of investment done under several developmental schemes. The village level assessment, perspective building and planning exercises cost around Rs. 35/- per hectare. This amount in reasonable as the developmental investment on 1 hactare of land in watershed framework cost between Rs. 10,000/- to 20,000/-. |

Section 6. Adoption and replicability

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?




Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?

Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?


Specify which type of incentives:
  • Financial incentives (for example, preferential rates, State aid, subsidies, cash grants, loan guarantees, etc)

Can you identify the three main conditions that led to the success of the presented best practice/technology?

Organisation of local communities and their participation in assessment, visioning, planning, implementation and management of interventions is crucial. |
The opportunities available under National Rural Employment Guarantee Act proved very important to implement the plan
2. Role of local governance institutions (PRIs) is very important to realize the plans and implement properly.
Role of local governance institutions (PRIs) is very important to realize the plans and implement properly.


In your opinion, the best practice/technology you have proposed can be replicated, although with some level of adaptation, elsewhere?


At which level?
  • Local
  • Sub-national

Section 7. Lessons learned

Related to human resources

Communities may organise for common concerns if they realize significance / relevance of the same. |Community members can use the modern technologies (GIS & Remote Sensing) available once they get exposure and acquainted|The local communities require facilitation for understanding current situations, opportunities and plan accordingly

Related to financial aspects

Use of modern sciences can reduce planning cost significantly
|A separate provision should be made for planning under any developmental programme|Planning with technical backstopping can help in prioritizing interventions based of social, financial and ecological considerations

Related to technical aspects

Use of GIS & Remote Sensing can help us in understanding spatial and temporal patterns of degradation / restoration of resources|Impact assessment of developmental interventions can be done more accurately with the help of GIS & RS and computer technologies

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