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Title of best practice:
Reviving Indigenous Community Conserved Areas (ICCAs) and Customary Management of Natural Resources in Inverted Tulips Plain — Summering Grounds of Hamouleh Tribal Territory of the Bakhtiari Confederacy
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
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From long ago the customary territories of migratory tribes were between the most important ICCAs in Iran and migratory tribes over the years based on their indigenous knowledge and consistent social system and customary laws, have sustainably protected and utilized these territories and resources (plant and animal biodiversity, etc.).
In the past few decades, application the centralized and top-down planning methods, replacing the governments in management and control the natural resources has been caused collapsing and analyzing of the conventional management systems and threatening biodiversity in this territory and the livelihoods of its communities.
So re-acquiring and restoring ICCAs by migratory Bakhtiari nomads had been of the goals and initiatives of this community.
Section 1. Context of the best practice: frame conditions (natural and human environment)
Short description of the best practice
Crown Imperial (Fritillaria imperialis) are an indigenous flower that grow in a plain in the Central Zagross Mountains (Chelgerd, Kuhrang). The plain is in the summer quarters of the Hamuleh Tribe of the Bakhtiari Confederation (Haft Lang branch) which covers an area covered of about 2,000ha. The community includes 500 households and is an indigenous and ethnic community of nomadic pastoralists who speaks ‘Lori’ (Ilami ethnic group). This community have their customary territorial summer and winter quarters, migratory route and half-way rangelands. Some are settled permanently in the plain. The main type of ecosystem is rangeland and grassland with notable diversity of flora and fauna including medicinal plants such as celery shallot, garlic mushroom, wild pennyroyal, acanthus, rhubarb, marjoram, pennyroyal, mountain sesame. The land is at present under jurisdiction of the Forest Rangeland and Watershed Organization and conflicts over land tenure and natural resources usage exist especially in the face of increasing demand for tourism and pressure from the visitors which degrade the quality of the plain (especially the Crown Imperial tulips).
Thus, major threats to biodiversity and/ or to the ICCA governance system are factors such as uncontrolled tourism (under government and private sector control), overgrazing and hunting. The request of the Hamuleh tribe is to have control over the number of visitors and manage the plain to enhance their livelihood and to preserve their culture.
Brief description of the natural environment within the specified location.
soil in this area is shallow layers over bedrock, with a high proportion of unweathered fragments.The soil is slightly alkaline and contains 3 to 4 percent organic material. |
the project area is located in centeral part of Zagros mountain chain the Zagros exceed 3,000 meters above sea level,|
Climate is semi arid with cold winters and hot summers.The mean annual precipitation ranges between 250mm-400mm .Most of the precipitation occures during the winter and early spring.It is characterized by consecutive droughts and occurrence of critical climatic conditions
Prevailing socio-economic conditions of those living in the location and/or nearby
since 1960 and with the Nationalization of the Land and the quest for rapid modernization, the sense of ownership of local communities has been taken away from the people, local mechanisms for decision-making have been seriously undermined. External and internal pressures have forced tribal communities to settle, forest dwellers to get out of the forest, fishermen to give up on fishing.|
On the basis of which criteria and/or indicator(s) (not related to The Strategy) the proposed practice and corresponding technology has been considered as 'best'?
This initiative, with setting up small income generating projects (micro credit) for Bakhtiari women in different clans of the tribe to improve the tribe crafts in particular, the use of herbal dyes from the inside and outside of the region, planning the community management based ecotourism, and the projects of restoration, conservation and sustainable use of plant diversity (inverted tulips, shallots, celery, marjoram, etc.) in Farrokhvand tribe ICCA, which potentially would reach to an acceptable income and then will be issuing the increase of executive operation level.|
Section 2. Problems addressed (direct and indirect causes) and objectives of the best practice
Main problems addressed by the best practice
rapid and large-scale conversion of pasture to irrigated and/or industrial farm lands wherever possible;
sedentarisation attempts by the government (which have failed monumentally).
misguided national programmes in NRM
the implementation of different economic, industrial and urban projects: |
Outline specific land degradation problems addressed by the best practice
promote participation of indigenous community in the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources located in their territory
Specify the objectives of the best practice
Increase the sensitivity and sense of indigenous community belonging in the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources located in their territory (ICCA);|Enabling a number of representatives from various tribes’ clans, in preparing the participatory biodiversity registers within ICCAs, documentation of related indigenous knowledge of plant biodiversity in their territories;|• To attend the local, national and international meetings and gatherings by members regarding the conservation of nature and the environment, especially rangelands, forests, water and soil and plant and animal biodiversity and exchange experiences and knowledge with other local communities on various levels, has been promoted the environmental awareness and nature conservation in the community, etc.|Reviving Indigenous Community Conserved Areas (ICCAs) in Customary Territories of Mobile Pastoralists is one of the approaches to cope with the Effects of Climate Change and Drought through Local Initiatives and Ecological Management, for example: good practices in participatory and Evolutionary Plant breeding;|Improvement of resilience of biodiversity of seeds regarding drought and climate change in arid and semi-arid areas: a tool for SLM (in future in rangeland seeds)
Section 3. Activities
Brief description of main activities, by objective
Holding Project feasibility workshop and planning for the project execution with council of elders of Hamule tribe;|Set up project working team “collaborative group of natural resources” (composed of representatives of the tribe’s council, government agency and CENESTA) and preparing participatory management plans following a meeting with different groups;|To hold one to two workshops with all stakeholders and beneficiary groups; (negotiating for a participatory planning and management of a part of the summering tribal territory of Hamule "inverted tulip plain").|The plan’s final Workshop for agreement on "inverted tulip plain" overall conditions, with the specification of various stakeholders role, civil and governmental;|Trying towards drawing financial and spiritual support from relevant and interested organizations and institutions;
Improving the status of migratory tribes Institute of Bakhtiari tribal confederacy and determine its role in the tribal and national decisions;|Documentation: Participatory video regarding to "inverted tulips plain as an Indigenous Protected Area";|Preparing three newsletters in the whole course of the project;
Other items such as photos, trip reports, posters according to the plan requirements;
participatory research and survey on flora and fauna biodiversity of inverted tulip plain from the viewpoint of indigenous knowledge and biology;|Making biodiversity conservation programs for inverted tulip plain (planting, seeding, conserving and needed protection)
start some possible small income-generating projects (tribal products)|Trying to get the economic management of inverted tulip plain for tourism and other purposes as a protected area by migratory nomads;
Short description and technical specifications of the technology
This initiative, with setting up small income generating projects (micro credit) for Bakhtiari women in different clans of the tribe to improve the tribe crafts in particular, the use of herbal dyes from the inside and outside of the region, planning the community management based ecotourism, and the projects of restoration, conservation and sustainable use of plant diversity (inverted tulips, shallots, celery, marjoram, etc.) in Farrokhvand tribe ICCA, which potentially would reach to an acceptable income and then will be issuing the increase of executive operation level|
Section 4. Institutions/actors involved (collaboration, participation, role of stakeholders)
Name and address of the institution developing the technology
Centre for Sustainable Development (CENESTA) |http://www.cenesta.org/
Was the technology developed in partnership?
List the partners:
UNINOMAD “Union of Nomads”
Specify the framework within which the technology was promoted
- Local initiative
- National initiative – government-led
- National initiative – non-government-led
- International initiative
- Programme/project-based initiative
Was the participation of local stakeholders, including CSOs, fostered in the development of the technology?
List local stakeholders involved:
The Farokhvand nomads of Bakhtiari as the main beneficiary group of the initiative in promoting the ICCA;|The supportive role of sustainable livelihoods council of Bakhtiari tribe in the regions project activities and advocacy of project implementation in events and meetings at various levels;|Women members of Bakhtiari tribe council as the active group of women in the tribe council in small income-generating projects in handy-crafts;
For the stakeholders listed above, specify their role in the design, introduction, use and maintenance of the technology, if any.
Mobile pastoralists (stakeholders) have traditional norms and customs regarding natural resources that are based on their customary rules, experiential traditional knowledge, sense of ownership and autonomy, self-sufficient lifestyles, specific cultural, spiritual and dignity values, strong social structures and hierarchy (confederacy, tribe/ sub tribe/ nomadic camp based), elder-based management systems, and collective governance and management systems compatible with environmental conservation.
This initiative (ICCA) with other project operations guarantees the rehabilitation and utilization of valuable plant species both ecologically and in terms of income, such as the crown imperial, shallots and celery mountain, setting up small income-generating projects run by the women's tribe and other ancillary activities such as social-based ecotourism, as the foundation strengths and its stability.
At this time the Bakhtiari tribe council with the active participation of 12 tribal women of Arpanahi clan, has established micro-credit schemes to improve the tribe crafts (especially the use of vegetable dyes from the inside and outside the region). This achievement would be the start to engage more women in the tribe council and empower them to make more income by producing and selling their products away from brokers and dealers in the region and improve their livelihood from this site.
Was the population living in the location and/or nearby involved in the development of the technology?
By means of what?
- Participatory approaches
Section 5. Contribution to impact
Describe on-site impacts (the major two impacts by category)
Increased sense of belonging and tribal identity, and increase their sensitivity to the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity and land-based resources due to the activation and responsibility for implementation of such plans and measures by local organizations.|
The idea of ICCA in Bakhtiari tribe, increases the sensitivity of various tribes in the protection of threatened species, for example, the Farokhvand clan primarily relying on its own initiative, during a series of spontaneous actions, prepared a project entitled “Conservation of rare plant specious|
Another Bakhtiari clans passion and desire in forming the customary councils, and introducing the representatives of these clans to join the tribe council and therefore socio - cultural and economic commissions of tribe and its dramatic impact on the promotion of social position.|
In terms of economic values they are providing various sources for income generation and sustaining the livelihoods of indigenous or local communities through farming, livestock keeping, tourism, dairy produce etc. |
In terms of political values, ICCAs are important in securing and maintaining territorial integrity, border security, cultural and linguistic diversity, traditions and revival of weakened social organisations of ILCs.|
To change the positive attitude of government officials and their support of ICCAs following the interested and applying of local organizations and trying to bring this idea to the prospect of future plans of national development.
This initiative, with setting up small income-generating projects (micro credit) for Bakhtiari women in different clans of the tribe to improve the tribe crafts in particular, the use of herbal dyes from the inside and outside of the region, planning the community management based ecotourism.|
Describe the major two off-site (i.e. not occurring in the location but in the surrounding areas) impacts
Indigenous and academic knowledge synergy to develop the ICCAs idea and accept the vital role of indigenous knowledge and customary rights of indigenous communities and originality of their customary organizations for the outside groups;
To advocate and support the ICCAs around the country in order to empower the local communities delegates in preparing Participatory Biodiversity Registers, the subject of ICCAs, management and sustainable use of pasture in traditional tribal territory, to exchange the experiences with other migratory tribes and willingness of local organizations to take the responsibilities for management conservation and sustainable utilization of natural areas, due to article 44 of the constitution;|
Impact on biodiversity and climate change
Explain the reasons:
Due to the three main characteristics of ICCAs (Close relationship of these communities with the territories because of cultural and economic reasons, having the power for decision making and implementation of them in the area and finally voluntary protection) it seems that if there is strong support from relevant organizations, allocating the resources for assignment the management, restoration, improvement, preservation and sustainable exploitation of these areas to local organizations, recognizing the "ICCAs" as one of the main types of protected areas in the country, makes their modeling possible in many of country’s natural resources and conservation and sustainable use of these resources will be strengthened and consolidated.|
Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?
Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?
Section 6. Adoption and replicability
Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?
Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?
Wetlands: Kushkeh Zar • Damgahs (Douma) of Fereydunkenar, • Sorkhrud and Ezbaran • Soldouz (or • Sirangöli) • Traditional Ab-Bandans in the Caspian Sea region • Modified Ab-Bandan in Anzali Lagoon • Kani Brazan|Marine: • Traditional fishing in several locations • (Damgostar) in southern coasts of the Caspian Sea • Qeshm Island (northern Persian Gulf) • Salakh ICCAs in Qeshm Island|Desert: • Khar-Touran region • God-Maliran • Qazi Qanat|Forest: • Sechah dehsard • Talesh forests • Galazani in Havareh Khol Village • Boushehr Assalouyeh |Rangelands: • Inverted Tulips Plain, Summering grounds of Hamuleh Tribe of Bakhtiari Tribal Confederacy • Moghan Plain, Anghout and Sabalan • Lebde Bala
Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?
Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?
Specify which type of incentives:
- Policy or regulatory incentives (for example, related to market requirements and regulations, import/export, foreign investment, research & development support, etc)
- Financial incentives (for example, preferential rates, State aid, subsidies, cash grants, loan guarantees, etc)
- Fiscal incentives (for example, exemption from or reduction of taxes, duties, fees, etc)
Can you identify the three main conditions that led to the success of the presented best practice/technology?
Customary management of the Rangelands by community elders
Conflicts because of the Nationalization of Rangelands, the local community have to obey government rules for entering and leaving the territory but usually practice their own customary systems;|
Diversity of flora and fauna in project site including medicinal and food value. Plants such as: wild celery, shallot, wild garlic, mushroom, wild pennyroyal, acanthus, rhubarb, marjoram, mountain sesame, etc. and fauna such as: wild goat, partridge, rabbit, mountain sheep, leopard, bear;|
In your opinion, the best practice/technology you have proposed can be replicated, although with some level of adaptation, elsewhere?
At which level?
Section 7. Lessons learned
Related to human resources
ICCAs should be officially recognized in the context of the customary laws governing them, as per the
UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples;
Sense of ownership of ICCAs need to be enhanced in a better regulatory framework, primarily through restoration of rights and security of tenure for the communities that have conserved and used them sustainably;|
Related to technical aspects
ICCAs should be included in decision-making over natural resources as the key right-holders
Networks of ICCAs should be formed at local, provincial and national levels;
Indigenous knowledge, needs to be better researched, recognised and applied (respecting patent rights of ICCAs).