Micro-catchment Rehabilitation [Nepal]

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Reporting Entity: Nepal

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights: Yes

Comments: Most of the land belongs to the government, however, there are settlement and agricultural land parcels with in micro-watershed.

Completeness: 80%

General Information

General Information

Title of best practice:

Micro-catchment Rehabilitation



Reporting Entity:


Property Rights

Clarify if the technology described in the template, or a part of it, is covered by property rights:


Please provide relevant information on the holder of the rights:

Most of the land belongs to the government, however, there are settlement and agricultural land parcels with in micro-watershed.


Section 1. Context of the best practice: frame conditions (natural and human environment)

Short description of the best practice

Pani-kholsi is a degraded micro-catchment of foot hills of the Chure region.  Due to loss of vegetation and fragile geological condition of the catchment a huge quantity of soil were being eroded to the downstream annually. The settlements in the upstream were highly vulnerable due to gully and landslides and downstream communities were vulnerable by flash flood, river/stream bed rising, and sedimentation, that affected the agricultural land, settlement and infrastructure. Most of cultivated land areas along the river/stream were converted to the unproductive and sandy area due to stream bank cutting and debris deposition by the stream.
The District Soil Conservation Office under the Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management in partnership with local community has designed the technology for the rehabilitation of land since 1995. The activities implemented were;
•Series of gabion and dry-stone check dams construction in highly risky area
•Contour ditches and trenches all over the degraded area
•Forest and fruit tree plantation based on the site condition
•Bamboo, Fodder and grass plantation.
•Bamboo shaft witling and cutting plantation  
•Construction of proper and safe drainage system
•Thinning and pruning in time to time
•A watch man for the take care of conservation works
After 10 years of rehabilitation works, the area of micro-catchment became protected and more than 1000 households of upstream and down-stream of this catchment were saved from the hazard of landslides, gully and flash floods. Presently the user group are actively managing the catchment and utilizing the forest products systematic manner.


Panikholsi, Bardibans VDC-4, Mahottari District, Nepal

Brief description of the natural environment within the specified location.

Sub tropical climate with maximum temperature is 370C and minimum temperature is 2.60C and average annual rainfall nearby this location is 1841.1 mm
Chure hill is formed by the classic fluvial and terrestrial sedimentary rocks and varies from clay stone, sandstone to conglomerates with the soils of sandy-clay, silts and pebbles. The geological units of Pani kholsi Micro-catchment is falls under the middle Siwalik.
Located in the bottom of Chure hills with the slopes of 10-20 percent. Panikholsi micro-catchment is directed to south west aspect with the altitude ranges from 410 - 500 meter from mean sea level.

Prevailing socio-economic conditions of those living in the location and/or nearby

The income level of this community is below the national average due to traditional rain fed agricultural practices and subsistence livestock farming.
The total number of household in this Pani-kholsi micro-catchment is 415 and average size of the family is 6 people per family with a total population of 2492 (Census 2001). The main occupations of these families are agriculture and only few do business as shop keeper. The literacy rate of the residents is only 66 percent. Presently the secondar
An average land holding of each family is 0.5ha, with the private ownerships and land use right.  
Agriculture is the main sources of income for the majority of farmers in this micro-catchment area. Except the agriculture, they are getting the income from cash crops i.e. vegetable, fruits and forest product.

On the basis of which criteria and/or indicator(s) (not related to The Strategy) the proposed practice and corresponding technology has been considered as 'best'?

Panikholsi micro-catchment rehabilitation is a best practice for the degraded catchment rehabilitation because it rehabilitated the land and converted highly degraded land into the dense forest within the period of 12 years. This best practice also created oncome for local community by selling forest products and livestock raising due to increased biomass production. At the same time, the level of confidence on technology and the level of awareness on people have been increased for the replication of technology in the locality.

Section 2. Problems addressed (direct and indirect causes) and objectives of the best practice

Main problems addressed by the best practice

Rehabilitation of degraded land through micro-catchment treatment activities

Outline specific land degradation problems addressed by the best practice

The catchment of more than 300 hectares of sloppy land was degraded due to removal of vegetation that accelerated soil erosion, gulling and landslides. Deforestation happened due to uncontrolled cutting of forest. The lands of this catchment became unproductive and the settlements around the catchment and downstream became highly vulnerable due to the risks of landslides, gullies, stream bank cutting, flood and sedimentation.
After implementation of the program of micro-catchment rehabilitation, this area is reclaimed and controlled the soil loss and river bed rising, flooding to the settlements and cultivated lands and created an income generation opportunities to the local community.

Specify the objectives of the best practice

The main objectives of best practices are;
1.Rehabilitation of degraded land.
2.Control of landslides, gully and stream bank cutting, and degraded land rehabilitation,
3.Reduce soil loss from degraded land and reduce sedimentation in river and reduce incidence of flooding to the settlements.
4.Creation of opportunity for the income generation for the local people.  

Section 3. Activities

Brief description of main activities, by objective

Rehabilitation of catchment by applying different techniques like landslides treatment, gully control through check dam, stream bank protection,
Protect water source, and construction of runoff harvesting dams etc.
Control the soil erosion from the degraded catchment
Reduce vulnerability of sedimentation, river bed rising, and control of flood to the settlements and stream bank cutting.  
Income generation for the local people through watershed protection

Short description and technical specifications of the technology

This best practice involves treatment of micro-watershed through the application of integrated watershed management practices.

Section 4. Institutions/actors involved (collaboration, participation, role of stakeholders)

Name and address of the institution developing the technology

District Soil Conservation Office Mahottari under the Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management , Nepal|District Soil Conservation Office Mahottari, Bardibans, Mahottari District, Nepal

Was the technology developed in partnership?


Specify the framework within which the technology was promoted

  • Local initiative
  • National initiative – government-led

Was the participation of local stakeholders, including CSOs, fostered in the development of the technology?


List local stakeholders involved:

Local community groups

For the stakeholders listed above, specify their role in the design, introduction, use and maintenance of the technology, if any.

1. Collection of local materials used check-dam construction
2. Earthwork excavation for construction
3. Surface grass plantation
4. Fruit tree/fodder tree plantation

Was the population living in the location and/or nearby involved in the development of the technology?


By means of what?
  • Consultation
  • Participatory approaches


Section 5. Contribution to impact

Describe on-site impacts (the major two impacts by category)

Increased milk and meat production due to increment of biomass production.
1. Greenery promotion through the development of vegetation
2. Increases the soil moisture and soil fertility
Improvement of water sources and extended the household water supply
1. Timber, firewood, grass and fodder production
2. Cash income by selling the bamboo cane
3. Additional income from the sale of bamboo, fruits and fish from the conservation pond.
1. Soil conservation and greenery development
2. Increases the water sources for the downstream users
1. Control the soil loss and land degradation
2. Promote the greenery with increases the biodiversity
1. Increase the household income by selling the forest products
2. community felt safety from the risk of natural disaster

Describe the major two off-site (i.e. not occurring in the location but in the surrounding areas) impacts

1. Degraded microcatchment rehabilitation in Dahalni kholsi, Maisthan VDC -4, Mahottari district
Degraded micro-catchment rehabilitation in Hawaldarni kholsi, Khayarmara VDC-9, Mahottari district.

Impact on biodiversity and climate change

Explain the reasons:

This best practice is very much compatible to lower down gthe impact of climate change in the local level mainly through increased biomass from grass and tree plantation, conservation of productive soil and reducing the risk of flood, sedimentation and damage of agricultural land and infrastructure protection in the downstream area. Other positive impact is increased agriculture production that secures food security of local people. Planting of fodder, grass, tree species and fruit in the community land and vegetable and cash crops are farming reduce farmers vulnerability to climate change impact.

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?

Has a cost-benefit analysis been carried out?


Section 6. Adoption and replicability

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?

Was the technology disseminated/introduced to other locations?



In other 50 districts in nepal

Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?

Were incentives to facilitate the take up of the technology provided?


Specify which type of incentives:
  • Financial incentives (for example, preferential rates, State aid, subsidies, cash grants, loan guarantees, etc)
  • Fiscal incentives (for example, exemption from or reduction of taxes, duties, fees, etc)

Can you identify the three main conditions that led to the success of the presented best practice/technology?

Community participation and support from government office
Motivation among local community and government staffs


In your opinion, the best practice/technology you have proposed can be replicated, although with some level of adaptation, elsewhere?


At which level?
  • Local
  • Sub-national
  • National
  • Regional

Section 7. Lessons learned

Related to human resources

1.Active participation and involvement of local community is necessary from the planning to the implementation and monitoring
2.All the member of community should be given an opportunity to participate in decision making and access to benefits.

Related to technical aspects

Technology of rehabilitation should be easily replicable.
Locally people needs to be trained for implementation of the activities

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