Approaches

Promotion of Acacia ampliceps rehabilitation on severely salt-affected soil [Thailand]

Planting Acacia ampliceps on the severely salt-affected land.

approaches_4203 - Thailand

Completeness: 97%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Approach

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
land user:

Tathaisong Nurean

+66-62-1521591

-

25 Ban Kok Sa-ard, Moo 10, T. Danchang, A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

Thailand

land user:

Panikom Chartee

+66-85-4395414

-

136/1 Moo 2, T. Danchang, A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima

Thailand

land user:

Salanok Mongkoen

+66-98-1181365

-

184 Moo 2, T. Danchang, A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima

Thailand

land user:

Palinee TubseKaew

+66-87-8706265

-

275 Moo 9, T. Danchang, A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima

Thailand

Soil doctor volunteer:

Ponrat Kumpu

+66-85-6308129

-

106 Moo 9, T. Danchang, A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima

Assistant of village leader:

Pawanna Pakorn

+66-86-2586926

-

34 Moo 9, T. Danchang, A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima

SLM specialist:

Phaosrakhu Chakkaphan

+66-44-371397

yom42@hotmail.com

Technical Group for Land Development, Land Development Regional Office 3, Land Development Department

64 Moo 7, T. Joho, A. Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30310

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Oechaiyaphum Kaewjai

+66-83-5429245

issabellalala@gmail.com / KuKaewKaLDD@gmail.com

Chaiyaphum Land Development Station

268/5 Moo 14, T. Na Fai, A. Muang, Chaiyaphum

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Prachansri Saowanee

+66-44-371354

prachansri@gmail.com

Land Development Regional Office 3, Land Development Department

64 Moo 7, T. Joho, A. Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30310

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Phiprakon Apisit

+66-44-371397

Technical Group for Land Development, Land Development Regional Office 3, Land Development Department

64 Moo 7, T. Joho, A. Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30310

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Prawanna Prasit

+66-44-371397

Technical Group for Land Development, Land Development Regional Office 3, Land Development Department

64 Moo 7, T. Joho, A. Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30310

Thailand

National Consultant:

Arunin Somsri

ssarunin@gmail.com

Land Development Department

2003, 61 Phaholyothin Road, Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

Thailand

SLM specialist:

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Decision Support for Mainstreaming and Scaling out Sustainable Land Management (GEF-FAO / DS-SLM)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Approach (if relevant)
Land Development Department LDD (Land Development Department LDD) - Thailand

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

09/10/2018

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Approach

2.1 Short description of the Approach

Planting perennial salt-tolerant trees in the severely salt-affected area in Lam Satad of Chi-Mun watershed was induced by the Land Development Department at A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima. This project aimed at the extension of planting Acacia ampliceps through demonstration plot of 4,665 rai or 746.4 ha (1 ha = 6.25 rai).

2.2 Detailed description of the Approach

Detailed description of the Approach:

The rehabilitation of Acacia ampliceps on severely salt-affected soils has been the subproject of the LDD project on "Planting Perennial Salt-tolerant Trees in Salt-affected Areas in the Northeast of Thailand", which started since 1996. The area of Acacia ampliceps has extended larger than 10,000 rai through public relations, demonstration plots, a collaboration of community leaders, local governmental administration, community volunteers on soil improvement and land users.
The soil salinity map (LDD, 1995) shows the severely salt-affected land in Northeast Thailand occupies 475,204 rai. One of the technologies to decrease the salinity is to decrease the saline shallow groundwater level by planting salt-tolerant trees which are low input compared with engineering measures. The LDD has been extensively planting Acacia ampliceps through close collaboration and participation of stakeholders and demonstration plots in many severely salt-affected locations of several sub-watersheds, one of the sites being Lam Satad of Chi-Mun watershed. The objectives of the approach are (1) to extend the area of planting Acacia ampliceps to prevent and decrease salination, (2) to maximize the use of salt-affected land for a better environment and crop production, and (3) to extend the knowledge of vegetative measure for salinity control to land users and laymen.
The methods used are through (1) demonstration plot of the technology which is planting Acacia ampliceps of 2-month-old seedlings in the pit of 0.3x0.3x0.3 m as the single row on the 2 m wide, 0.5 m high bed, the top of the bed being 1.5 m wide and the number of plants per rai is 80; (2) the land users got to know the approach by public relations media, local administration, community soil doctor volunteer on soil improvement, community leaders, SLM specialists, and researchers; (3) selection of interested land users under LDD requirement is processed; (4) training of selected land users after joining the project, and (5) monitoring and evaluation is done after 1 year of planting.
Stakeholders involved are LDD researchers and SLM specialists responsible for establishing planting method, preparation of land (land leveling and beds for planting), production of seedlings and carrying out demonstration plots, as well as monitoring and evaluation and training at the beginning of planting in new areas. The local administration, community soiil doctor volunteers on soil improvement are involved in public relations, recommendations, and strengthening closer participation among farmers. Land users/farmers are to be trained and instructed to follow the technology by SLM specialists. They are also to participate in the monitoring and evaluation and persuade other land users/farmers to plant Acacia ampliceps.
The land users/farmers favour the project because they had observed that salinity could be controlled and they utilize the trees as a shade for cattle and the tree branches for producing charcoal. Besides, the land users are self-organized as a group to watch the young trees from stumbling by cattle. The disadvantage of Acacia ampliceps is its sensitivity to flash flood and forest fire. Furthermore, the production from trees is not sufficient socially and economically.

2.3 Photos of the Approach

General remarks regarding photos:

This picture shows a group of Land Development Department officers, land users and any stakeholders during knowledge-sharing process through meeting and discussion.

2.4 Videos of the Approach

Comments, short description:

Conversation and lesson learned

Date:

09/10/2018

Location:

Ban Nong Mek T. Danchang, A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima

Name of videographer:

Jilayus Sommutram

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Approach has been applied

Country:

Thailand

Region/ State/ Province:

Nakhon Ratchasima

Further specification of location:

Ban Kok Sa-ard, Moo 10 T. Danchang, A. Buayai

Comments:

The approach has been applied at Ban Kok Sa-ard M. 10 T. Danchang, A. Buayai, Nakhon Ratchasima

2.6 Dates of initiation and termination of the Approach

Indicate year of initiation:

2014

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date when the Approach was initiated:

less than 10 years ago (recently)

Year of termination (if Approach is no longer applied):

2017

Comments:

This approach has been used since 2014 until now.

2.7 Type of Approach

  • project/ programme based

2.8 Main aims/ objectives of the Approach

The purpose is to scale-out the approach to persuade farmers on severely salt-affected land in other districts and provinces to grow Acacia ampliceps.

2.9 Conditions enabling or hindering implementation of the Technology/ Technologies applied under the Approach

social/ cultural/ religious norms and values
  • enabling

Farmers have mutual respect for the community leader and for each other.

availability/ access to financial resources and services
  • enabling

Farmers can access the financial resources through the housing fund.

institutional setting
  • enabling

Public relations is done by Sub-district Administration Organization (SAO).

collaboration/ coordination of actors
  • enabling

Community leaders, soil doctors (soil improvement volunteers) and successful farmers are working together.

policies
  • enabling

Thai government has the policy in rehabilitating salt-affected soils.

knowledge about SLM, access to technical support
  • enabling

LDD officers educate farmers in study areas.

3. Participation and roles of stakeholders involved

3.1 Stakeholders involved in the Approach and their roles

  • local land users/ local communities

The LDD officers, community leader, soil doctors (soil improvement volunteers) and local administration officers.

Provide knowledge of the technology.

  • SLM specialists/ agricultural advisers

SLM specialist, community leader, soil doctors (soil improvement volunteers) and local administration officers.

Technology transfer and implementation

  • local government

Local administration / Community leader

Public relations and coordination

If several stakeholders were involved, indicate lead agency:

TThe LDD officers had extensively worked through close collaboration and participation of community leader, soil doctors (soil improvement volunteers) and local administration officers.

3.2 Involvement of local land users/ local communities in the different phases of the Approach
Involvement of local land users/ local communities Specify who was involved and describe activities
initiation/ motivation passive Training and demonstration plot was held in the study area.
planning interactive Public hearing planning was set up before the beginning of the project.
implementation external support Some farmers were hired labourers in this project.
monitoring/ evaluation interactive Volunteer soil doctors and community volunteers were in charge of the coordination.

3.3 Flow chart (if available)

Description:

Flow chart shows three phases of the implementation and approach.

Author:

Mrs. Phatranit Chuaysanoi

3.4 Decision-making on the selection of SLM Technology/ Technologies

Specify who decided on the selection of the Technology/ Technologies to be implemented:
  • mainly SLM specialists, following consultation with land users
Explain:

LDD started to do demonstration plot and educate farmers in 2014.

Specify on what basis decisions were made:
  • evaluation of well-documented SLM knowledge (evidence-based decision-making)

4. Technical support, capacity building, and knowledge management

4.1 Capacity building/ training

Was training provided to land users/ other stakeholders?

Yes

Specify who was trained:
  • land users
If relevant, specify gender, age, status, ethnicity, etc.

Mrs. Nurean Tathaisong, female, 56 years old, married, Thai

Form of training:
  • demonstration areas
Subjects covered:

The rehabilitation of severely salt-affected soils by growing Acacia ampliceps could reduce household expenditure and is easy to follow.

Comments:

Mrs. Nurean Thathaisong, female, 56 years old, married, Thai, has been playing an important role as a land user who received training and operated demonstration areas since 2014.

4.2 Advisory service

Do land users have access to an advisory service?

Yes

Specify whether advisory service is provided:
  • on land users' fields
Describe/ comments:

1. LDD officers educate farmers in the study area.
2. There is cooperation among community leader, volunteer soil doctors (soil improvement volunteers) and successful farmers.

4.3 Institution strengthening (organizational development)

Have institutions been established or strengthened through the Approach?
  • no

4.4 Monitoring and evaluation

Is monitoring and evaluation part of the Approach?

Yes

Comments:

LDD officers are in charge of monitoring, investigating survival rates and planning for reparation in the next cropping season.

If yes, is this documentation intended to be used for monitoring and evaluation?

Yes

Comments:

There are many issues in a document, which should be used for monitoring and evaluation.

4.5 Research

Was research part of the Approach?

Yes

Specify topics:
  • technology
Give further details and indicate who did the research:

LDD researchers

5. Financing and external material support

5.1 Annual budget for the SLM component of the Approach

If precise annual budget is not known, indicate range:
  • < 2,000
Comments (e.g. main sources of funding/ major donors):

Land Development Department

5.2 Financial/ material support provided to land users

Did land users receive financial/ material support for implementing the Technology/ Technologies?

Yes

If yes, specify type(s) of support, conditions, and provider(s):

Cost of compost, fertilizer, rice husk, Acacia ampliceps young seedlings

5.3 Subsidies for specific inputs (including labour)

  • labour
To which extent Specify subsidies
fully financed Plantation and maintenance
  • agricultural
Specify which inputs were subsidised To which extent Specify subsidies
seeds fully financed Free young seedlings
fertilizers fully financed Free compost, rice husk and chemical fertilizer with 15-15-15 formula
  • construction
Specify which inputs were subsidised To which extent Specify subsidies
farm rigged fully financed Reshape of farm ridge
Comments:

There were many subsidies such as labour, agricultural inputs, and construction material, which are free for farmers who engaged in this project.

5.4 Credit

Was credit provided under the Approach for SLM activities?

No

5.5 Other incentives or instruments

Were other incentives or instruments used to promote implementation of SLM Technologies?

No

6. Impact analysis and concluding statements

6.1 Impacts of the Approach

Did the Approach empower local land users, improve stakeholder participation?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

To develop food security and reduce farm household

Did the Approach enable evidence-based decision-making?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Learning center and source of information in the decision-making process on technology adoption

Did the Approach help land users to implement and maintain SLM Technologies?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Farmers were taking care of technology because it causes of expenditure reduction

Did the Approach mobilize/ improve access to financial resources for SLM implementation?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

It would be a guarantee for loan deposit

Did the Approach improve knowledge and capacities of land users to implement SLM?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Self-adaptation and changing of SLM patterns

Did the Approach improve knowledge and capacities of other stakeholders?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

Government agencies and the private sector development patterns of SLM

Did the Approach lead to improved access to water and sanitation?
  • No
  • Yes, little
  • Yes, moderately
  • Yes, greatly

According to technology adoption, it could result in desalinization and income enhancement

6.2 Main motivation of land users to implement SLM

  • increased production

Increase of arable land

  • reduced land degradation

Desalinization

  • reduced workload

Increase of pasture land

6.3 Sustainability of Approach activities

Can the land users sustain what has been implemented through the Approach (without external support)?
  • yes
If yes, describe how:

Most farmers have a good understanding of the rehabilitation of Acacia ampliceps on severely salt-affected soils. Moreover, farmers can get benefit of expenditure reduction through utilization of tree branches as charcoal.

6.4 Strengths/ advantages of the Approach

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
1) Acacia ampliceps is a perennial salt-tolerant tree, which can grow well in the severely salt-affected area.
2) Desalinization resulted from Acacia ampliceps plantation after 2 years of planting, native grasses return and become grazing land.
3) Tree branches of Acacia ampliceps could be utilized as charcoal; acacia leaves fallen on the soil revive soil properties and the land was changed from barren to trees that become shading.
4) Soil doctors (soil improvement volunteers) were in charge of coordination.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
1) There were LDD officers working with a community leader, soil doctors (soil improvement volunteers) and SAO (Sub-district Administration Organization) officers, who can suggest and support necessary information to the farmer.
2) Land Development Department operates demonstration plots.

6.5 Weaknesses/ disadvantages of the Approach and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
1) If a farmer does not engage with this project, he will have no knowledge how to plant Acacia ampliceps on the farm ridge. Moreover, he will not know where to buy Acacia ampliceps seeds. The LDD has extensively worked through close collaboration and participation of community leader, soil doctors (soil improvement volunteers) and local administration officers on public relations and persuade other land users/ farmers to plant Acacia ampliceps.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
1) If a farmer doesn’t engage with this project, they don’t have knowledge how to desalinization by planting Acacia ampliceps. Moreover, they don’t know that severely salt-affected soils become less saline to become rice field after 3 years of planting Acacia ampliceps. There must have training/ suggesting farmers to know the benefits of Acacia ampliceps planting.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • interviews with land users

Six persons about Acacia ampliceps plantation

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

Seven LDD officers

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Land Development Department

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.ldd.go.th/

7.3 Links to relevant information which is available online

Title/ description:

Where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

URL:

http://www.ldd.go.th/www/lek_web/

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