View sectionsExpand all Collapse all
1. General information
1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT
When were the data compiled (in the field)?
The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:
2. Description of the SLM Technology
2.1 Short description of the Technology
Definition of the Technology:
Agronomic/structural measure using straw of maize and/or sorghum.
2.2 Detailed description of the Technology
Trashlines are constructed seasonaly by the family members using maize and/or sorghum straws. It has multi purposes like water harvesting, soil trapping, soil fertility improvement, etc. It is common in gentle to steep slopes in semi-arid areas.
2.3 Photos of the Technology
2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment
2.6 Date of implementation
If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
- more than 50 years ago (traditional)
2.7 Introduction of the Technology
Specify how the Technology was introduced:
- as part of a traditional system (> 50 years)
Comments (type of project, etc.):
According the farmers it is an indigenous technology past from generation to generation (ancestors).
3. Classification of the SLM Technology
3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology
- reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied
- Annual cropping
- Perennial (non-woody) cropping
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Rainfall shortage. Farm land shortage.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Rainfall shortage. Crop/livestock diseases. Farm land shortage.
3.3 Further information about land use
Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
Number of growing seasons per year:
Longest growing period in days: 90 Longest growing period from month to month: Jul - Sep
3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs
- cross-slope measure
3.5 Spread of the Technology
Specify the spread of the Technology:
- evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered:
- 1,000-10,000 km2
Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 2000 m2.
3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology
- A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
Main measures: agronomic measures
3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology
soil erosion by water
- Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
chemical soil deterioration
- Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
- Ha: aridification
Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Ha: aridification
4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs
4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low
Technical knowledge required for land users: low
Main technical functions: increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, water harvesting / increase water supply
Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, improvement of soil structure
Construction material (other): Maize and/or sorghum straws
For water harvesting: the ratio between the area where the harvested water is applied and the total area from which water is collected is: 1:3
Vegetation is used for stabilisation of structures.
4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs
other/ national currency (specify):
Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD =:
Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:
4.4 Establishment activities
|Activity||Type of measure||Timing|
|1.||1. Harvesting grain/cop||Structural||dry season|
|2.||2. Browsing leaves by livestock||Structural||dry season|
|3.||4. Layout of straw||Structural||dry season|
|4.||3. Cutting straw||Structural||dry season|
4.6 Maintenance/ recurrent activities
|Activity||Type of measure||Timing/ frequency|
|1.||Harvesting grain/cop||Agronomic||dry season / annual|
|2.||Browsing leaves by livestock||Agronomic||dry season / annual|
|3.||Cutting straw||Agronomic||dry season / annual|
|4.||Layout of straw||Agronomic||dry season / annual|
|5.||Realignement of straw after storms||Structural||dry season/as needed|
4.7 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)
On gentle slope, spacing of 4 m between lines, average wealth of farmer.
4.8 Most important factors affecting the costs
Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:
Competition with fodder and fuel wood.
5. Natural and human environment
- < 250 mm
- 251-500 mm
- 501-750 mm
- 751-1,000 mm
- 1,001-1,500 mm
- 1,501-2,000 mm
- 2,001-3,000 mm
- 3,001-4,000 mm
- > 4,000 mm
Slopes on average:
- flat (0-2%)
- gentle (3-5%)
- moderate (6-10%)
- rolling (11-15%)
- hilly (16-30%)
- steep (31-60%)
- very steep (>60%)
- mountain slopes
- hill slopes
- valley floors
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Soil depth on average:
- very shallow (0-20 cm)
- shallow (21-50 cm)
- moderately deep (51-80 cm)
- deep (81-120 cm)
- very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
- medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
- medium (1-3%)
- low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.
Soil fertility is medium
Soil drainage/infiltration is good
Soil water storage capacity is high-medium
5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology
- less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
Level of mechanization:
- manual work
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:
Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
10% of the land users are rich and own 20% of the land (have additional sources of fodder / fuel wood).
30% of the land users are average wealthy and own 40% of the land.
60% of the land users are poor and own 40% of the land.
Off-farm income specification: Crafts, daily labourer
Level of mechanization is manual work (Hoe, sometimes oxen)
5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights
Land use rights:
6. Impacts and concluding statements
6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown
Water cycle/ runoff
Quantity before SLM:
Quantity after SLM:
Quantity before SLM:
Quantity after SLM:
6.4 Cost-benefit analysis
How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
6.5 Adoption of the Technology
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
25000 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates
There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: Confined in the area due to other cultures (oxen plough) outside the area.
7. References and links
7.2 References to available publications
Title, author, year, ISBN:
Inventory of indigenous SWC measures on selected sites in the Ethiopian Highlands. SCRP Research Report 34. 1997.
Available from where? Costs?