Technologies

Intercropping [Uganda]

Okusimba oba okulima ebinme ebisoba mukimu kutaka lyelimu (Luganda)

technologies_1170 - Uganda

Completeness: 76%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Kateregga Matia

MAAIF-Rakai District

Uganda

SLM specialist:

Lubega Emma

MAAIF-Rakai District

Uganda

SLM specialist:

Kiyingi Jamil

MAAIF-Rakai District

Uganda

SLM specialist:

Mutagubya Joseph

MAAIF-Rakai District

Uganda

SLM specialist:

Mazimakwo Kukundakwe

MAAIF-Kabale District

Uganda

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
The Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project for the Kagera River Basin (GEF-FAO / Kagera TAMP )
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
FAO (FAO) - Italy
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Ministry of agriculture, animal industry and fisheries (MAAIF) - Uganda

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Soil erosion control for annual crops in flat land using intercropping.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

This technology involves growing of minor crops with major crops. More than one crop is grown on the same piece of land. The land user we visited had managed beans in a banana plantation . He used light labour during weeding and harvesting season.

Purpose of the Technology: The purpose of practicing intercropping was to reduce soil erosion , to increase agricultural outputs, to raise water holding capacity in the soil.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Establishment: sowing of seeds was done through use of light labour . Minor seeds were sown with major seeds like beans with banana plantation.

Weeding: Is also done in the middle of the season , leguminous crops are planted to maintain the soil fertility.

Various inputs are used , e.g.. hoes, pangas and light labour.
20 persons were used and each paid Shs 10000 per week.

Natural / human environment: The nature of the area /village where the technology is being practiced is a flat area with loamy soils.

The area receives two rain seasons in a year.

This village has 160 households (Kijonjo village) 55% of farmers have already adopted this technology.
They normally grow annual & perennial crops like banana, coffee, beans and ground nuts purposely for commercial and subsistence purpose.

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Uganda

Region/ State/ Province:

Uganda

Further specification of location:

Rakai

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 0.1-1 km2
Comments:

The technology is applied on 3 acres but this farmer has 10 acres. 7 acres is left uncultivated due to inadequate funds.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

This technology was initiated in 1995 by extension advisors in partnership with farmers.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • legumes and pulses - beans
  • oilseed crops - groundnuts
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • coffee, open grown
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 40 Longest growing period from month to month: March to May. Second longest growing period in days: 92 Second longest growing period from month to month: September to December.

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): There was over cropping in this village which led to soil erosion and deforestation.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): There was rapid loss of soil fertility due to mono culture practice.

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Cropland: Ca: Annual cropping

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: The area favored the growing of ground nuts together with banana and some coffee on the same piece of land.

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Comments:

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Cropland: Ca: Annual cropping: Perennial (non-woody) cropping

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • rotational systems (crop rotation, fallows, shifting cultivation)

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A7: Others
Comments:

Main measures: agronomic measures

Specification of other agronomic measures: Intercropping.

Type of agronomic measures: mixed cropping / intercropping

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover

Main causes of degradation: soil management (soil was poorly managed due to monoculture practice.), change in temperature (lead to death of living organism that are used in soil formation.), poverty / wealth (lead to deforestation to earn a living.)

Secondary causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires), over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (most trees whic are supporting soil were reduced.)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: increase in organic matter

Secondary technical functions: improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), reduction in wind speed

Mixed cropping / intercropping
Material/ species: Hand hoe
Quantity/ density: 15 hoes
Remarks: 3 hectares

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Purchase of tools

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 10.0 10.0 75.0
Equipment Tools ha 1.0 6.5 6.5 75.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 16.5
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 16.5
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Removing weeds from garden. Dry season.
2. Direct seeding. Early october
3. site is left for fallowing for 10 months and apply surface soil treatment. After harvest.

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 25.0 25.0 75.0
Equipment Tools ha 1.0 6.8 6.8 75.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 31.8
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 31.8
Comments:

Machinery/ tools: hand hoesand panga.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour was expensive due to compaction of soil present by then.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • humid
  • sub-humid

Thermal climate class: tropics

Thermal climate class: subtropics

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 1233.3 &1633.3 m.a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • high (>3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil texture: Medium (ranked 1, it is well structured) and fine (ranked 2, have fine particles)
Soil fertility: High (Due to growing of leguminous crops)
Soil drainage/infiltration: Medium (ranked 1, small holes on soil available) and good (There is no compaction on soil)
Soil water storage capacity: Very high (living organisms formed holes on soil) and high (It is a flat area, no flowing of soil from one part to another, both ranked 1)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:

good

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Ground water table: <5m (The area is flat naturally)
Availability of surface water: Good (especially in rain season)
Water quality (untreated): Good drinking water (They have two bore holes in the whole village)

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
  • rich
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 1% - 2%
55% of the land users are rich and own 65% of the land (They grow for commercial.).
45% of the land users are average wealthy and own 35% of the land (They grow for subsistence).
Off-farm income specification: In the area visited, the income from off farm is on average because the profit they gain from their business is very low, they have retail business.
Level of mechanization: Manual work (light labour is used)
Market orientation: Subsistence (ranked 1, crops are grown on small scale) and mixed (ranked 2, fewowave big banana plantation, and few grow beans & groundnuts on large scale)

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)
  • individual
Comments:

Part of land in this village is owned by land lord with a tittle, water is communal.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

150kg

Quantity after SLM:

850kg

Comments/ specify:

beans,cassava & bananas increased.

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

2 hand hoe

Quantity after SLM:

20 hoes

Comments/ specify:

Demand for hoes increased.

workload

increased
decreased
Quantity before SLM:

5 persons

Quantity after SLM:

20persons

Comments/ specify:

light labour demand increased.

Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

Individual farmers increased.

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Yes due to increased production. For example the land user said that before conservation , he used to produce 150 kgs of beans, 50 bunches of bananas , 150 kgs of coffee, but after the conservation he produced 850 kgs of beans. The income he got from the sale of produce, enabled him to educate his five children who are in secondary school. And malnutrition reduced.

Ecological impacts

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

28%

Quantity after SLM:

65%

Comments/ specify:

leguminous crops are grown.

soil compaction

increased
reduced
Quantity before SLM:

40%

Quantity after SLM:

80%

Comments/ specify:

compaction rate reduced.

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Long-term returns:

negative

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Comments:

In the establishment of this technology he invested a lot and benefits were very low, but maintenance costs od coffee were low, which means that the profit was high and takes short term returns.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

532

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%
Comments:

68% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

32% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

170 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: The percentage is medium because some land users lack inputs like hoes ,and others lack funds to buy seeds.

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Adoption culture ranging in 50% among some farmers.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
It improved soil fertility.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage farmers to grow more annual crops that increase nutrients in soil.
It allows them to get variety of crop outputs ,and reduces poverty in the community.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Government should provide them with seeds.
It reduces famine among the farmers because crops mature early.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage government subsidies to improve it.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
There is maximum utilization of land.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? 1. Encourage farmers to practice it.
Improves soil fertility.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? 2. Planting more leguminous crops.
Total yields per unit area are high.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? 3. Practice it regularly. Farmer field school should be promoted.
Easy weed control since there is no space left.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? 4. Positive attitude towards technology should be increased.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
There is wastage of fertilisers when legumes are included. Farmer field schools should be provided.
Machines can not be used. Proper spacing.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
There is competition for light, moisture , water and other nutrients. Technical advice should be provided on spacing.
It encourages pests and diseases. Encourage constant treatment of crops.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Kagera TAMP Project website

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.fao.org/nr/kagera/en/

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