Technologies

Hill Agroforestry [Bangladesh]

Anas o mizalya Fal bagan (chakma) ; Mishra Faler Bagan (Bangla)

technologies_1342 - Bangladesh

Completeness: 53%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI) (Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI)) - Bangladesh

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

04/03/2004

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Mixed fruits gardening on hill slope with forest trees on hill top and bamboo at the lower part of the hill.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

On upper part of the slope natural forest tree species were allowed to grow and lower part with bamboo. On the middle part, pineapple was cultivated along the contour as short term cash earning crop and long term fruit trees were planted for long term return within the space (alley) between two rows of pineapple. Generally farmers are acquainted to cultivate pineapple along the slope as cash earning crops and they occasionally incorporate fruit trees in the system. The technology " Hill agroforestry" describe a change in farming system where pineapple and fruit trees are grown along the contour.

Purpose of the Technology: Parmenent farming with short and long-term income generation for better livelihood as well as soil consevation.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Slash and burn (Jhum) at initial stage followed by pineapple and fruit trees along the contour to establsh a parmenent farming. Three times weedding, accumulaion of weeded material as mulch and using chemical fertilizer (urea, TSP, MP) on Pineapple on rows and individual fruit trees.

Natural / human environment: Steep slope, acidic soil, secondary vegetation, chakma community, poor, subsistance livellihood, adoption of new technology.

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Bangladesh

Region/ State/ Province:

Chittagong Hill Tracts

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI)

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Mixed (crops/ grazing/ trees), incl. agroforestry

Mixed (crops/ grazing/ trees), incl. agroforestry

  • Agroforestry
Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Poor secondary forest where bamboo and small timber species were harvested that accelarate land degraded.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Poor return from jhum.

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Pine apple can harvest first then fruits in second, them timber and again fruits and timber

3.3 Further information about land use

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 3
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 290; Longest growing period from month to month: Jun - Aug

3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • agroforestry

3.5 Spread of the Technology

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 1-10 km2
Comments:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.4 km2.

Pineapple cultivation on variable degrees of hill slopes along the contour with different types of fruit trees in alley and secondary forest on the top where bamboo at the lower part of the slope as well as in the upper parts of the valley.

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
Comments:

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (No off-farm work leads to overexploitation of forest), lack of captial (Only male are illigible to get loan from Bank), lack of knowledge (Lack of technical Know-how)

Secondary causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (If no work available peoples harvest forest product not considering carrying capasity leads to deforestation.), labour availability (Labor shortage in peek period)

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil

Fruit trees / shrubs species: Jack fruit, mango, jam, Goava,Suppery,Olive, Banana, pine apple

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 50.00%

Gradient along the rows / strips: 5.00%

4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Taka

Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD =:

60.0

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

1.50

4.4 Establishment activities

Activity Type of measure Timing
1. slash and burn Vegetative Jan to Feb
2. Jhum Vegetative May
3. Fruit trees plantation Vegetative May to July
4. Pine apple Plantation Vegetative Aug to Sep

4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 0 month(s)

4.6 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Type of measure Timing/ frequency
1. Weeding Vegetative May /three times
2. Fertilizer Aplication Vegetative May to June /two times
3. Mulching with weeded material Vegetative Feb/March /once in a year

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Landforms: Footslopes: The area is mostly in Dupitila formation where hill tops are rounded or flat resembling almost like plateau. The area is in general closely disected with V- shaped valley. Hill agroforestry is practiced on the slope and upper part of the valley. Most cases valley floors are used for paddy cultivation.

Slopes on average: Cultivation practices on variable slopes. Therefore it is difficult to define the slope class on which the technology strictly practiced.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
  • fine/ heavy (clay)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil depth on average: Soils on slope are shallow in general and also compact. Soils on the hill top and/or at foot slope are moderatly deep.

Soil texture: Soil texture also varies with position on the slope.

Soil fertility is very low. Soils on steep to vey steep slope has very low OM and most of the fertile topsoils are already eroded. But soil around the homsteads is more fertile (medium) because of incorporation of houshold wast. But soil around the homsteads is more fertile because of incorporation of houshold wast.

Topsoil organic matter: But soil around the homsteads is more fertile because of incorporation of houshold wast. Low as non- accumulation of OM.

Soil drainage / infiltration is good and well drained in hilly part. Valleys or upper part of the valley are of poorer drainage area.

Soil water storage capacity is high in deep or moderatly deep soil. Medium in shallow to very shallow soil.

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%

and own 20% of the land (Few family purchase lands after getting normal lease amount and they have acces to othr busines or i).
and own 80% of the land (They donot have other options for more income.).

Off-farm income specification: Only one farmer was employed

Level of mechanization: Sometimes they share within theselves to over come labor crisis. The labor and the work is suppervised by the female member of the family as the male is employed else where.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Long-term returns:

positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Long-term returns:

positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

13 households covering 35 percent of stated area.

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%
Comments:

13 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: survey results

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: There are some other areas near by adopted this type of farming.

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