Technologies

Pasture management in Western Pamir [Tajikistan]

технологияия идоракунии чарогоххо дар шароити Помири Гарби

technologies_1363 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 61%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Aknazarov Khudodod

Pamir Biological Institute

Tajikistan

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Pamir Biological Institute (Pamir Biological Institute) - Tajikistan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

Cluster Level Pasture User Union
approaches

Cluster Level Pasture User Union [Tajikistan]

Pasture User Unions (PUUs) at cluster level is consolidating several communities to jointly plan and implement pasture and livestock management related interventions. This approach is supporting to cover big area of pasture lands, which is used by several communities and do not have physical boundaries to define. Therefore joint planning ...

  • Compiler: Askarsho Zevarshoev
Pasture inclination used for developing grazing plan
approaches

Pasture inclination used for developing grazing plan [Tajikistan]

In this approach the inclination of pasture land and its effect on the spread of sun and shadow is used to identify different periods for grazing. This simple approach will raise awareness and provides biological aspects in pasture management. In this approach the vegetation cover of the pasture is linked ...

  • Compiler: Askarsho Zevarshoev
Rehabilitation of Pasture Land through fencing
approaches

Rehabilitation of Pasture Land through fencing [Tajikistan]

The approach demonstrates the effect and importance of rotational grazing by fencing certain areas of land in pasture areas as well as it demonstrates the rehabilitation process in comparison to the open space which is overgrazed. The approach involves mobilizing communities to observe the rehabilitation process by not grasing in ...

  • Compiler: Askarsho Zevarshoev

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Pasture management through introduction of a new pasture rotation technique focusing on pasture capacity

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

There are more than 1 million ha of pasture lands in Western Pamir. However, they have low capacity and this affects the development of cattle breeding in the region. In Soviet times remote pastures were used and yearly rotation contributed greatly to rational use of grazing territories. In recent years pasture rotation was critically damaged and nearby pastures have critically degraded. The technology is designed for rational use of nearby pastures: animals are driven 2-3 times to each gorge with a 30-day interval. Animals should be grazed on the basis of capacities of each separate pasture.

Purpose of the Technology: Preventing desertification and soil erosion on pastures

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The feature of the technology is that each farmer receives an area with specific capacity and vegetation. Farmers graze specific amount of animals for a specific period. As soon as the first period expires farmers drive animals to upper pastures and continue this process till late autumn. After a period of 50-60 days grass reaches specific length and is ready to be fed to animals. Pasture rotation is applied every year depending on visual condition of pastures.

Natural / human environment: Heavy climate conditions, long winter period with low snow cover, short and cold summer period. Average annual air temperature varies from -1 to -4.3 degrees C. Soil cover – high mountain, desert. Cattle breeding is the main agricultural activity in the region. Population is 14.000. Unemployment is more than 60%.

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

GBAO

Further specification of location:

Murgab

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • during experiments/ research
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Technology was introduced in 2010

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Grazing land

Grazing land

Extensive grazing land:
  • Nomadism
Main animal species and products:

yaks and sheep

Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Reduction of productive capacity of natural pastures, reduction of soil fertility, fast desertification processes

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): intensive soil erosion and reduction of productive capacity of pastures

Nomadism: yaks and sheep

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Grazing land: Ge: Extensive grazing land

3.3 Further information about land use

Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1
Specify:

Longest growing period in days: 120Longest growing period from month to month: May - August

Livestock density (if relevant):

< 1 LU/km2

3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • pastoralism and grazing land management

3.5 Spread of the Technology

Comments:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.1 m2.

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type
Comments:

Main measures: management measures

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Bc: reduction of vegetation cover

Main causes of degradation: soil management, over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (rooting out eurotia), overgrazing (growth of livestock), change of seasonal rainfall (reduced precipitation in summer period), population pressure (population growth), poverty / wealth (lack of fuel)

Secondary causes of degradation: land tenure

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land
Comments:

Main goals: prevention of land degradation

Secondary goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Author:

Aknazarov Khudodod, Khorog, 1 Kholdorov street

4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing

Location: Murgab. GBAO

Date: 20 July 2010

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)

4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • US Dollars
other/ national currency (specify):

сомони

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

5.00

4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Equipment Machine use ha 1.0 50.0 50.0 50.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 150.0
Comments:

Duration of establishment phase: 5 month(s)

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • arid

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 3500 - 4500

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is low

Soil water storage capacity is low

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Availability of surface water: Also poor/ none

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • very poor
  • poor
Individuals or groups:
  • groups/ community
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: < 0.5%

5.7 Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Water use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

fodder production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

0,05

Quantity after SLM:

1,3t/ha

fodder quality

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

5%

Quantity after SLM:

50%

animal production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

20%

Quantity after SLM:

40%

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season Type of climatic change/ extreme How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase not well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period not well

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
opportunity to produce fodder crops

How can they be sustained / enhanced? always
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Preventing soil erosion through optimal load on vegetation cover

How can they be sustained / enhanced? always
low cost of fodder crops

How can they be sustained / enhanced? always

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