Barreiras Vivas de Leucaena [Cape Verde]

Banqueta de linhaço

technologies_1574 - Cape Verde

Completeness: 80%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Varela Larissa


Cape Verde

SLM specialist:

Bentub Jailson


Cape Verde

SLM specialist:

Amarós Regla


Cape Verde

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
INIDA (INIDA) - Cape Verde

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Vegetative measure based on the planting of the bush, Leucaena leucocephala, on line along the level curves in the steep slopes

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


The technique consists of planting rows of Leucaena leucocephala in the level curves along the slopes. This legume has high rate of reproduction and the permanence of their seeds in the soil can reach 10 years before germination. It is very resistant to fire and to pruning. Can reach 4m in height and if not controlled, can invade a field of culture. The plant has great potential for feeding of livestock (protein (21-26% DM), fiber (15-25% of crude cellulose MS) vary depending on the age of the plant)

Purpose of the Technology: The planting in curves level is to achieve the stabilization and restoration of degraded soil. The technique reduces the runoff, retain sediment, solid, incorporates greater quantity of organic matter in the soil, promotes infiltration and covering the soil with vegetation.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Its installation requires a medium level of technical knowledge to marking the curves level where it will install. Planting is done in a simple way of transplanting a plant nursery to the ground. It is easy to spread a culture, its management after the fruit must be rigorous, ensuring that the fields become invasive. The early harvest fruit is an option to take into consideration when implementing this technique. The bar between the plant is 1m and the distance between the bands is associated with 5m.Sometimes it is ssociated with olds small punch to rehabilitating that structure.

Natural / human environment: The top of the slopes where they practice pluvial agriculture is more susceptible to soil erosion because of its steep slopes and the inappropriate cultivation techniques carried out there, is the area of higher prevalence of this technique. The production of Leucaena is used both for animal feed as a source for energy (firewood).

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment


Cape Verde

Region/ State/ Province:

Santiago / Cabo Verde

Further specification of location:

Ribeira Seca

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):



Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 4.8 km2.
The technology is used, mostly in arid and semi arid zones, mainly in the sous bassins of the Godim. In sous bassins of Longueira has been increasingly important.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

It was introduced by FIDA project around 1990.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • reduce risk of disasters
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

Type of tree:
  • Leucaena leucocephala
Products and services:
  • Fruits and nuts
  • Grazing/ browsing
  • Protection against natural hazards

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The loss of soil by runoff, influenced by its low coverage, reducing their fertility and their thickness
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): The loss of soil by runoff, low productive soils, low organic matter

Longest growing period in days: 90, Longest growing period from month to month: Aug - Oct

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • improved ground/ vegetation cover
  • cross-slope measure

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V2: Grasses and perennial herbaceous plants

Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -linear

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline

Main causes of degradation: soil management (It is cultivated corn and peanuts on land slopes very pronounced and boot up the plants by the root in end of the cycle), disturbance of water cycle (infiltration / runoff) (There are many crusts exposed, because of loss of soil, reducing infiltration of water), poverty / wealth (Leads sensitized peoples to advocate action against the landscape for survival of the family), education, access to knowledge and support services (Knowledge and technical training increase the options for means of survival of the community that acts on the forest, the degree of attending school is low and the illiteracy rate is 17%)

Secondary causes of degradation: overgrazing (Creation of the wild animals compact the soil, destroying the structures for the conservation of soil and water exists, and creates conflict), Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (Sometimes heavy rains (intensity) that occur associated with poor vegetation cover, increase soil erosion), governance / institutional (Lack of applicability of the laws that manage the land)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Barreiras Vivas of Leucaena. Shows the coverage of the soil made by its roots.

Location: Praia. Cabo Verde

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (It's needed sufficient knowledge to make a mark in level curves)
Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), sediment retention / trapping, sediment harvesting
Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, reduction of slope angle, reduction of slope length, increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration

Aligned: -linear
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 5000
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 3-5
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.4

Trees/ shrubs species: Leucaena leucocephala
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 30-60%
Gradient along the rows / strips: 50%

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Market of the level curves(5 to 5m) June
2. Planting end July

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 171.85 171.85
Equipment Tools ha 1.0 62.5 62.5 100.0
Plant material Seedlings ha 1.0 3750.0 3750.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 3984.35
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 49.8

Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Harvest of the leucaena fruits before theirs ripening 1 time, in November
2. Pruning 1 time in April to May

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour ha 1.0 6.24 6.24 100.0
Equipment Tools ha 1.0 5.0 5.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 11.24
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 0.14

Machinery/ tools: Cavale used to level the surfaces; Knife; machete

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

The cost of seedlings is the more diterminate cost, but the seedlings is produced by the project in arboretum, before de planting when it,s transplanted to the soil. The cust of the production in arboretum is more less than the seedlings cust.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Agro-climatic zone
  • humid
  • sub-humid
  • semi-arid
  • arid

Thermal climate class: tropics. average temperature around 26 º C. The exposure and altitude are factors diterminantes for agroclimatic estratização. the higher areas and targeted to the SE are more humid.

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 101-500 m a.s.l. (Ranked 1, this value belonging to the stratum semi-arid to sub-humid) and 501-1000 m a.s.l. (ranked 2, includes mainly the cliffs and ridges)
Landforms: Mountain slopes (ranked 1, technique applied to both concave and convex situations) and ridges (ranked 2, the hazards associeted of a convex situations, does not allow its application in)
Slopes on average: Steep (ranked 1, the SE-NE part of Ribeira Seca is the most sloping) and hilly (ranked 2)

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil depth on average: Very shallow (ranked 1, this depth is associated with the sloping hillsides used for rainfull agriculture) and shallow (ranked 2, found mainly in the valley bottoms of the downstream)
Soil texture: Medium (ranked 1, the soil texture varies with the physiographic position of the area. The Argyle decreases when climbs the slopes(15,4 to 15); the lime also decreases - fine lime (15,3 to 14,6), thick lime (11,0 to 9) and coarse/light (ranked 2, the soil overlay mainly basaltic rocks, piroclastic, conglomerates and aluvial deposits)
Soil fertility: Medium (ranked 1) and low (ranked 2)
Soil drainage/infiltration: Medium (ranked 1, It's compatness coefficient is 1,31) and good (ranked 2)
Soil water storage capacity: Medium

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

poor/ none

Water quality (untreated):

poor drinking water (treatment required)

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Ground water table: 5-50m (Ranked 1, in rain months, it is more superficial than in the dry months) and <50m (ranked 2)
Availability of surface water: Poor/none (It existe just when it's raining)
Water quality (untreated): poor drinking water (treatment required, salinization of water due to over exploitation of wells and boreholes, ranked 1) and good drinking water (ranked 2)

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:

In the occidental side of the área, where the hotspot, the landscape is greener and much rich in species (fauna and flora). Nevertheless, on the side facing W or the oriental side, the ecosystems are

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • > 50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • mechanized/ motorized
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: 200-500 persons/km2
Annual population growth: > 4%
(With income supirior than $10000 by year).
(Income more or equal than $7500 by year).
(Income equal or less than $3750 by year).
(Income less than $2000 by year).

Off-farm income specification: The land users who apply the technology are mostly exclarecidas and more young people than those who did not implement the technique
Market orientation: Subsistence (ranked 1, it's produced by the poors end very poor land users) and mixed (ranked 2, The majurity of thats production is maked by the richs end the average land users)
Level of mechanization: Manual labour (ranked 1, it's used the family manual labour to the farms works in subsistence production) and mechanised (ranked 2, it´s not much used because it's expensive, and so much land are not gatway to them)

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale

1-2 ha (Ranked 1, it's used by poors and verry poors land users)
2-5 ha ( Ranked 2, the average and the richs land users have more ha)

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)
  • individual

The land uses is majurity esed by the sistem of rent a farm. Low percentage of owners, is land users of theirs area

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production


fodder production


fodder quality


animal production


production area

Comments/ specify:

It's needed a little area to be implanted the tecnique

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

Comments/ specify:

The manegement of the Leucaena have a litle cost

farm income


Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency


health situation

Comments/ specify:

The grass of leucaena become dengerous to the cattle health if it´s used excessive

SLM/ land degradation knowledge


Improved livelihoods and human well-being

Comments/ specify:

Before the establishment of the tecnologie occour education programs to sencibilizate the comuty to agreed to the tecnoogie and it make them more cleared.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity




soil cover


soil loss


soil compaction


soil organic matter/ below ground C

Climate and disaster risk reduction

wind velocity

Other ecological impacts


Comments/ specify:

Reduces the availability of water and nutrients to crops

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

reliable and stable stream flows in dry season


wind transported sediments


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local windstorm well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought not known
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:


How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

neutral/ balanced

Long-term returns:



The maintenance costs occur in the some time with the benefits of the tecnique are feeling by the land user

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

375 households and 100% of the area covered


85% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
320 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
Comments on acceptance with external material support: The maintenance costs occur in the some time with the benefits of the tecnique are feeling by the land user

15% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
53 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
Comments on spontaneous adoption: Someone who have implimented the tecnology with external support, today, they make it in others parcels of land voluntarily, like some others that never receive any external support

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: There are some land users that don't like that tecnology, but 80% who implement it says that it's ggod and that thesecret is a good manegement

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Stabilizes the soil, and increases the organic matter
Provides forage green almost all year for cattle. Once dead, produces firewood
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Retencion of sidement
Soil stabilization and improvement of its structure

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Reduction in of the cultivation area , when the Leucaena invade the field. Be always alert to the operations of Leucaenas punch.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Requires a strict maintenance, so that they are spread and infest the entire agricultural field Technical assistance to farmers, warning them, through community radio stations, the arrival of the harvest season of the pods of Leucaena and the other cultural operations due
Its control is extremely difficult and costly in terms of resistance to the kind of garden and fire
It can generate conflict between users of adjacent land , because its propagacion is easy

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Cape Verde water and soil consevation/ Sabino, António Advino,1984

Available from where? Costs?

Cape Verde

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Desertification at the Santiago Island, Desire, 2008

Available from where? Costs?

Cape Verde

Title, author, year, ISBN:

QUIBB 2007, INE, 2007

Available from where? Costs?

Cape Verde

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