Home Garden (Pomelo, Lemon, Supplementary Crops) [Cambodia]

Mixed Cropping

technologies_2099 - Cambodia

Completeness: 92%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

Chief of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Sambo District:
land user:

Ouk Sophoeurn



Acting Chief of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries ,Preaek Prasab District Office:
Official of Chetr Borei district office of agriculture, forestry and fisheries:

Saravuth Ly

Chetr Borei district office of agriculture, forestry and fisheries


Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Scaling-up SLM practices by smallholder farmers (IFAD)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Royal University of Agriculture (RUA) - Cambodia

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?



Because they grow crop don’t use chemical fertilizer and get high yield

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

This technology involves the cultivation of crops around the house, including pomelos, lemons and other supplementary crops, with solely the application of cattle and chicken manure as fertilizer, whilst abstaining from the use of chemicals. The purpose of this technology is to obtain various products, generate a household income especially from the lemon trees as it is a long-term crop which provides a continuous supply of daily produce and is also relatively easy to grow, as well as to establish a comfortable environment for people to live in.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


A home garden is the practice of planting different crops around the house such as a variety of vegetables, herbs, fruit trees, and other annual crops for the family’s daily consumption as well as for commercial purposes. Home gardens have been set up in Cambodia and in many countries all over the world, albeit they might be named differently (Helen Keller International/Cambodia., 2003). This technique provides both economic and environmental benefits: generating household incomes and regulating the micro-climate by creating a desirable and ambient temperature around the house which makes the lives of family members more comfortable. More importantly, the technology provides opportunities for marginal groups like women, children, aging people and the disabled, to carry out agricultural work that contributes to an increase in household income (Landon-Lane C., 2012; Helen Keller International, 2010).

Home garden technique is being applied at Samraong village, Sambour commune, Sambour district, Kratie province, where the farmer is growing pomelo (30 trees) and lemon (10 trees) as the main crops for sale and other supplementary crops (banana, pineapple, pomegranate, lemongrass, coconut, mango and jackfruit mainly for household consumption. The technology is being implemented in an area of 1500 square meters (30x50 meters), with the Mekong River being located behind the house.

In order to plant the pomelo and lemon trees, the farmer digs 0.6 x 0.6 meter square pits that are 0.5 meters in depth. There is a distance of three meters from one pit to another to allow ample space for the trees to fully spread their branches. Animal manure is also added into the bottom of the pits. In addition, the farmer builds a small circular dike around the trunk of each pomelo and lemon tree in order to avoid water run-off while watering, and furthermore this can retain some water during rainfall. This technology only applies cattle and chicken manure, and avoids the use of chemical fertilizers.

Through the implementation of the home garden technology involving the cultivation of lemon and pomelo trees as the main produce as well as other supplementary crops, the farmer can gain many benefits. These include improving the farmer’s daily income, creating greenery around the house and providing a favorable living environment that can adapt to the rising temperature caused by climate change. Also the technology is preventing or addressing soil erosion, and providing an appropriate environment for poultry raising. This technology is not expensive as the farmers are able to start implementing it on a step by step basis depending on the availability of labor and resources or they are also able to do it during their spare time.

Farmers can harvest lemons on a daily basis (around 10 to 15 kg per day) and also other supplementary crops. The pomelo trees produce fruit once per year (around 30 fruits per tree on average). In addition, such crop diversification also creates a natural habitat for biodiversity underground, which is an important factor in enhancing soil nutrients and other aggregates. It also avoids the use of chemicals that could harm the health of the family.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

General remarks regarding photos:

There is a river behind the house.

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Comments, short description:


Name of videographer:


2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Samrorng Village, Sambo Commune, Sambo District, Kratie Province

Further specification of location:

Village land

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:


2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Learn to do this from other farmers

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Perennial (non-woody) cropping
  • Tree and shrub cropping
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • citrus
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1

Long term crop


Pomelo and lemon which can be harvested from the 3rd year and continue for about 15 years.
Livestock density: 20 chickens, cage size 3 x 5 = 15 square meters

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • Yes (Please fill out the questions below with regard to the land use before implementation of the Technology)


  • Tree and shrub cropping
Tree and shrub cropping - Specify crops:
  • mango, mangosteen, guava

Before the farmer was growing mango trees.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • mixed rainfed-irrigated

The farmer pumps water from the Mekong River behind her house.

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • integrated pest and disease management (incl. organic agriculture)
  • home gardens

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
structural measures

structural measures

  • S4: Level ditches, pits

As structural measures of small the dikes 10 cm in height are piled ub around the tree.

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bl: loss of soil life
water degradation

water degradation

  • Ha: aridification

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

Getting shadow for the soil and supporting the increase of beneficial species

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

The total land area of the technology is 1500 square meters (30 m x 50 m), with the Mekong River behind the house. Within the home garden around the house, there are 30 trees of pomelo and 10 trees of lemon, together with another supplementary crops such as banana, coconut, lemongrass, coconut and pineapple. The space between lemon and pomelo trees is three meters and a small circular dike around the trunk of each pomelo and lemon tree is made to prevent water run-off. The other supplementary crops are scattered amongst the pomelo and lemon trees especially at the backyard and along the fence. The farmer used a pumping machine to pump the water from the river which was then connected with a pipe for irrigation.


Mr. Khuon Sophal



4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

1500 square meters

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

20000 /day

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Buy pomelo it at Koh Trong Dry season
2. Buy Lemon along road Dry season
3. Buy equipment, pump machine, pipes Dry season
4. Buy tools: hoe, shovel, basket Dry season
5. Ridge of the row for plantation Dry season
6. Plant the crops Rainy season
7. Constructing small dikes around the tree trunks Dry season

Growing in raining season could damage the plant due to muvh of rainfall.

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Digging hole (own self) day 10.0 20000.0 200000.0 100.0
Equipment Pumping machine and pipe set 1.0 2000000.0 2000000.0 100.0
Equipment Hoe piece 4.0 20000.0 80000.0 100.0
Equipment Shovel piece 1.0 15000.0 15000.0 100.0
Equipment Basket piece 5.0 10000.0 50000.0 100.0
Plant material Buy soil to fill Small trucks 100.0 25000.0 2500000.0 100.0
Plant material Pomelo seedlings Tree 30.0 40000.0 1200000.0 100.0
Plant material Lemon seedlings Tree 10.0 15000.0 150000.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Cattle Manure Sack 20.0 3000.0 60000.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 6255000.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 1563.75

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Puting fertilizer 3 times per year Early, middle and lately year
2. Weeding Every week
3. Watering Every 3 days
4. Pick out some pomelo if it is too much For the first fruiting
5. Spray mosquito killer to kill ants In rainy season during no rain
6. Pomelo harvesting In May
7. Lemon harvesting Everyday

When the plant grows big, weeding can be reduced.

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Put fertilizer (done by the farmer herself) day 10.0 20000.0 200000.0 100.0
Labour Weeding times 32.0 14000.0 448000.0 100.0
Labour Harvesting hours 635.0 2500.0 1587500.0 100.0
Equipment Gasoline for pumping mechine liters 608.0 3000.0 1824000.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Manure Sack 30.0 3000.0 90000.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 4149500.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 1037.38
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:



Everyday for lemons can be piked, which concludes in average an hour per day.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

They use own labour and only natural fertilizer, so that they get more income and reduce costs.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

The average annual rainfall in 2015 is 1138.2 mm, in 2014 is 1696.5 mm, in 2013 is 1661.8 mm.

Indicate the name of the reference meteorological station considered:

Department of Meteorology, Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology (2015)

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

The weather is warm and humid with 2 different seasons: dry and rainy seasons.

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Sandy clay along river bank

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • high (>3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Sandy clay along river bank

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

> 50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?


Is flooding of the area occurring?




Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

The famer use water from the Mekong River for drinking and for irrigation.

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low
Habitat diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • commercial/ market
Off-farm income:
  • > 50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • mechanized/ motorized
  • women
Age of land users:
  • middle-aged
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

The land user is 45 years old.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale

She has another 10 ha of paddy fields and crop land which she keeps uncultivated for 10 years.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production

Comments/ specify:

Increase around 20% if compare to previous productions of mango trees.

crop quality

Comments/ specify:

Crop quality of both pomelo and lemon are increase slightly because there are enough water if compared to other place.

risk of production failure

Comments/ specify:

Pomelo and lemon are higher demand that lead to increase household income by getting higher price.

product diversity


land management

Comments/ specify:

The dike construction around tree trunks is keeping water for longer time.

Water availability and quality

demand for irrigation water

Comments/ specify:

Water irrigation still demanded because beside of pomelo and lemon she planted as other crop mango trees.

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

Comments/ specify:

Not using pesticides

farm income

Comments/ specify:

Additional profit of around 20%

diversity of income sources

Comments/ specify:

Farmer received additional revenue after this practice


Comments/ specify:

The workload has decreased because previously she irrigated by hand, but now she is using a pump machine.

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

Comments/ specify:

She is obtainin higher yields

health situation

Comments/ specify:

She does not use chemicals or other toxic elements at all.

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

Comments/ specify:

The land user got knowledge about efficient water protection by dike construction around tree trunks and also about the positive effect of using of animal manure.

Ecological impacts


soil moisture

Comments/ specify:

Because of dikes around the trunks that preserve water for longer time.

soil crusting/ sealing

Comments/ specify:

Has been reduced by using natural fertilizers (chicken and cattle manure).

soil compaction

Comments/ specify:

Can be reduced by using natural fertilizers (chicken and cattle manure).

soil organic matter/ below ground C

Comments/ specify:

Increasing nutrition because plant leaves fall to the ground.

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

beneficial species

Comments/ specify:

There is an increase as instead of chemical fertilizers animals manure is used.

pest/ disease control

Comments/ specify:

Pest and disease are normal because this technique doesn't focus on that. And further there are no chemical or biotic fertilizers in use.

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability


reliable and stable stream flows in dry season


groundwater/ river pollution


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm moderately
local thunderstorm moderately
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought moderately
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood moderately
flash flood moderately
Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
epidemic diseases moderately
insect/ worm infestation moderately

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
extended growing period moderately
reduced growing period moderately
sea level rise moderately

The last a few years, there is no drought and floods

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:


How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:



After 2-3 years they can harvest the fruits and it should continue for the next 15 years.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • single cases/ experimental

There are 10 to 20 households which bought 1or 2 trees for cultivating them in the same way.

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Easier to sell due to the high demand of lemons and pomelo which are not planted frequently.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The kind of crops that can stand for a long time, provide high yields, be harvested for many years and the lemon crop delivers produce on a daily basis.
There are lack of people growing pomelos and lemon trees in this area, so it is quite good for market demand.
Applying animal manure can attain high yields and produce high quality crops.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Labor is needed to take care of the plants and to do the watering on a regular basis. When busy, just keep it going on or take sometimes to do it specially in the early morning and evening after doing the other primary work.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

One specific garden place

  • interviews with land users

one specific person (land user)

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

3 experts

When were the data compiled (in the field)?


7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Helen Keller International/Cambodia, 2003. Handbook for Home Garden in Cambodia: The Complete Manual for Vegetable and Fruit Production. Phnom Penh: Helen Keller Worldwide.

Available from where? Costs?


Title, author, year, ISBN:

Landon-Lane C. (2012) Livelihoods grow in gardens. Rome: Rural Infrastructure and Agro-industries Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Available from where? Costs?

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Galhena D.H, Freed R., and Maridia K.M. (2013) Home Gardens: a promising approach to enhance household food security and wellbeing.


Title/ description:

Helen Keller International (2010) Homestead Food Production Model Contributes to Improved Household Food Security, Nutrition and Female Empowerment-Experience From Scaling-up Programs in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and Philippines). Nutrition Bullein 8 (1).


Title/ description:

World Vegetable Center (2016) Home Garden in Cambodia. Retrieved on May 14 2017 from


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