Integrated Apiculture and Forestry [Uganda]

Penywii bee keepers association

technologies_2257 - Uganda

Completeness: 86%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

Odora Phillip

Penywi beekeeping association


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1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Maintaining colonies of honey bees within trees and shrubs for environmental conservation and household income.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Integrated apiculture and forestry technology is promoted and practiced by farmers with small, medium or large scale land holdings of 0.5 acres to 10 with an average of 5-28 local bee hives or more. The farmer may decide to increase the number of the beehives when he sells honey and he gets income.
The farmer (1) identifies the land with trees and shrubs where Local wooden bee hives made in rectangular shape are cited in a distance of not less than 5 -10 metres from one hive to the other (2) Clean the surrounding to reduce the weeds around the cited area (3) cite the beehives within the tree and shrubs (4) keep monitoring bush fires and thieves.
The necessary labour requirements for establishment of this technology include wooden beehives made locally and 4 people to install the bee hives who are paid on daily or monthly basis depending on request.
The benefits from this SLM technology are slightly negative due to the high costs of local bee hives at the time of establishment but positive in the long term of environmental conservation, honey provision and increased income from the sale of honey in addition to using local materials obtained locally associated with low costs.
Wild fires are a common threat during the dry seasons and in order to overcome this issue, it is needed to constantly keep monitoring and establish fire lines to guard against the wild fires

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Comments, short description:

Video link showing Integrated apiculture and forestry in Akwang Village, TAA parish, Paimol Sub-county, Agago District.




Akwang Village, TAA Parish, Paimol Sub-county, Agago District

Name of videographer:

Rick Kamugisha

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Northern Region,Uganda

Further specification of location:

Agago District

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

Map showing technology site in Northern Uganda.

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:


If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS ) supported with training.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem
  • mitigate climate change and its impacts
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

(Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands: Specify management type:
  • Selective felling
Products and services:
  • Fuelwood
  • Nature conservation/ protection

Conserved for bee keeping with selective felling and firewood.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • forest plantation management
  • beekeeping, aquaculture, poultry, rabbit farming, silkworm farming, etc.

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
  • V3: Clearing of vegetation
structural measures

structural measures

  • S9: Shelters for plants and animals
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bh: loss of habitats
  • Bf: detrimental effects of fires
  • Bp: increase of pests/ diseases, loss of predators

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

No cultivation that take place where the bee hives are installed. This reduces and prevents degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

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Adora Phillip



4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

0.5 acres

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Site selection (location, distance) Once before establishment
2. Look for labour to clear Once before estsblishment/ can be routine
3. Clear the sorrounding During establishment/ Routine
4. Buy the local wooden bee hives Once during establishment
5. Installation of the beehives During establishment

The farmerrelies on family labour to install the bee hives.

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Persons days on monthly basis persons 4.0 150000.0 600000.0 100.0
Equipment Bee hives Pieces 25.0 75000.0 1875000.0 100.0
Other Transport for bee hives Number 1.0 250000.0 250000.0
Other 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 2725000.0

High cost of buying local wooden bee hives compared to labour and transport cost.

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Slashing Twice a year
2. Making fireline to pevent fires Once a year but this requires maintanance
3. Monitoring Daily
4. Supervision Daily

Replacement of bee hives is done when the bee hives are spoilt / stolen but this may take longer time without replacement.

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Persons days for slashing, making fireline, monitoring persons 4.0 150000.0 600000.0 100.0
Other Transport 1 1.0 250000.0 250000.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 850000.0

High costs of labour for maintaining the technology compared to other inputs.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Purchase of bee hives.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Two dry season and two wet season : Dry season June to August and January to February
Wet season: March to May and September to December

Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • concave situations

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?


Is flooding of the area occurring?


5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Habitat diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
  • women
  • men
Age of land users:
  • youth
  • middle-aged
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Owns a shop from which she derives more income.
The technology is applied by both men and women but majorly by men. Women use hired men to provide labour.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

Own 0.5 acres of land.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
Land use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


forest/ woodland quality

Comments/ specify:

The conserved trees and shrubs integrated with bee hives.

land management

Comments/ specify:

Where the bee hives are installed, no cultivation and grazing activities are taking place.

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

Comments/ specify:

Uses local wooden materials.

farm income

Comments/ specify:

From the sale of honey.

diversity of income sources

Comments/ specify:

Sale of honey and firewood.


Comments/ specify:

Required for Slashing , installation and carrying bee hives during establishment. This reduces over time.

Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

Comments/ specify:

Installation and spacing the bee hives.
Establishing fire line.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

Comments/ specify:

Presence of protected trees and shrubs.


soil cover

Comments/ specify:

Presence of growing vegetation in the apiary.

soil loss

Comments/ specify:

presence of rees and shrubs protect the soil from run off

soil organic matter/ below ground C

Comments/ specify:

Decomposition of the leaves from the trees.

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

plant diversity

Comments/ specify:

More trees and shrubs grow as result of protected apiary.

Climate and disaster risk reduction

fire risk

Comments/ specify:

Presence of fireline.

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability

Comments/ specify:

Presence of a check dam where bees get water .

Specify assessment of off-site impacts (measurements):

Generally the protected trees where the beehives are installed have a positive impact on the environment because no destructive human activities are taking place

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature decrease well
seasonal temperature wet/ rainy season decrease well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
forest fire moderately
Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
insect/ worm infestation well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

slightly positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

slightly positive


High costs for buying beehives and paying labour compared to benefits which are rather low in the long term associated with obtaining income from the sale of honey.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • single cases/ experimental
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

This is a demosntration for farmers learning.

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%

The farmer is a model farmer supported by Operation Wealth Creation. So farmers are encouraged to come and learn without any incentive like transport or any other addtional support.

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Helps control soil erosion because the land user does not dig where the bee hives are established.
Provide income from the sale of honey.
Can easily be replicated to other areas.
Uses locally obtained materials.
Easy to establish and maintain with minimum costs when the farmer has enough money.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The technology uses materials which are locally obtained.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Requires technical knowledge on spacing and processing wax which is 20% of total honey produced. Provide training to the land user on how to add value to the wax.
The technology is liked by pests (obusinsibirizi) in the local language. Training on how to control pests for increased production .
Thieves like stealing the honey. The technology is a good attraction for thieves. Facilitate formation of local level by-laws and enforcement of strong fines and bylaws.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Affected by Wild fires. Promote firebreaks to guard against fires.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

01 - Land user

  • interviews with land users

01- land user

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

01 specialist - To provide the compilers or key resource persons view.

When were the data compiled (in the field)?


Links and modules

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