Orchard of mangoes and oranges for food and income security [Uganda]

Poto Muyema akuba

technologies_2819 - Uganda

Completeness: 84%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Akello Scovia

Amuru District Farmers froup


Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Scaling-up SLM practices by smallholder farmers (IFAD) {'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 155, 'label': 'Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)', 'text': 'CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland', 'template': 'raw'}

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Species of Mangoes and Oranges planted for income and food security.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Growing mangoes and oranges is becoming a common practice among farmers in Northern Uganda for food security and increased household income. As seasons become shorter and erratic, failure of traditional crops like beans and maize is increasing. Mangoes and oranges are more adapted to sub-humid conditions and can endure longer dry spells yet yield well. Thus, farmers are taking on improved varieties of mangoes and oranges developed by the National Agricultural Research System. The mango and orange seedlings are planted with only spot weeding to maintain the grass cover for soil moisture. The activities involved in establishing the orchards include (1) linking up with the extension worker for information on what varieties and how to plant on which type of soils (2) site selection (3) buying seedlings (4) planting and (4) watering if planted during the dry season with the following input requirements seedlings, hired labour of at least 2-3 people paid on monthly basis and watering can. At the time of planting the land user digs a hole up to a depth of about 0.5 metres using a fork so that the roots are allowed to grow out easily and plant the fruit trees spaced at 10 metres x 10 metres allowing the grass to grow without removing or cutting. If planting is done in the dry season and the ground is too dry the farmer applies water once a week slowly using a bucket so that it has time to sink in the soil. If the land user plants during the wet season, watering is not necessary. This practice is liked because yields are high due to leaves litter as well as the demand for fruits in addition to being easily fertilised using organic fertilizer locally obtained and treated . In the long run, the high costs incurred at the time of establishment in buying seedlings and paying labour. The presence of fruits from the orchard provides both food and income to the household, which should be other crops such as maize and sim fail due to drought. What is not liked about this technology is that the grass grown in the garden is liked by livestock during the dry season. Herdsmen searching for pasture drive their animals into the gardens, resulting into constant conflicts between livestock owners and the land user. The grass also poses a risk of fire during the dry season. Additional efforts to put in place a community bylaw on controlled grazing would reduce conflicts and free range grazing of animals contrarily to fencing which may be an additional benefit to sustainably managing land by the land user.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Comments, short description:

Video Showing tree Orchard for soil fertility improvement.




Pakuma viallge , Palong parish, Pabbo sub-county Amuru District

Name of videographer:

Issa Aiga

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Amuru District, Northern Region,Uganda

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

Map showing technology site in Northern Uganda.

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:


If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

Supported by Norther Uganda Social Action Fund.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • agroforestry
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
  • A3: Soil surface treatment
  • A4: Subsurface treatment
  • A5: Seed management, improved varieties
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
management measures

management measures

  • M5: Control/ change of species composition

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wg: gully erosion/ gullying
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

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4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

0.5 acres

other/ national currency (specify):


If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

5000 per person per day but in most cases charge more than this depending on the season (sunny or rainy season)- sunny more money is charged.

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Look for land Before estaslishment
2. Look for seedlings and tools to use Once before establishment
3. Look for labour Before establishment
4. Dig holes (2-3 ft) During establishment
5. Plant suckers During establishment
6. Water: dry season After estabslishment
7. Weeding After estabslishment

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour persons 3.0 5000.0 15000.0 100.0
Equipment Hoe Pieces 1.0 10000.0 10000.0 100.0
Equipment Spray pump hire for a week Pieces 1.0 35000.0 35000.0 100.0
Equipment Panga Pieces 2.0 7000.0 14000.0 100.0
Plant material Seedlings Kgs 42.0 2500.0 105000.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Pestcide Litres 0.5 15000.0 7500.0
Fertilizers and biocides Fertilizer 2.0 1.0 2.0
Fertilizers and biocides Organic fertilizer (weekly) bags 2.0 30000.0 60000.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 246502.0

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Slashing Around December every year
2. Spraying with herbicide against pests Every time they are observed
3. Weeding Twice a year
4. Watering During the dry season, when they are young
5. Fertilisation Twice a year

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Labour for on daily basis Persons 3.0 5000.0 15000.0 100.0
Equipment Hire of spray pump for one week Pieces 7.0 5000.0 35000.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 50000.0

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour takes the most of costs.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specify average annual rainfall (if known), in mm:


Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

March April at the on set of the forst rainy season and second rainy season on set in the month of August.

Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • concave situations

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

poor drinking water (treatment required)

Is water salinity a problem?


Is flooding of the area occurring?


Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

The flooding occurs during the month of excess heavy rains (Nov-Dec and March-May).

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • high
Habitat diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • men
Age of land users:
  • youth
  • middle-aged

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production

Comments/ specify:

Due to leaves litter.

crop quality

Comments/ specify:

due to grass cover and maintaining soil fertility.

product diversity

Comments/ specify:

Mangoes and oranges.

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

Comments/ specify:

Only paying for for labour to do simple weeding.

farm income

Comments/ specify:

From sale of fruits.

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

Comments/ specify:

Fruits - oranges and mangoes.
Selling mangoes and oranges and buying food.

national institutions

Comments/ specify:

Operation Wealth Creation (OWC) / National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS).

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

Comments/ specify:

Use of grass cover and littered leaves.

conflict mitigation

Comments/ specify:

Conflicts caused by roaming animals searching for pasture.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

Comments/ specify:

Due to grass cover.


soil moisture

Comments/ specify:

Due to grass cover.

soil cover

Comments/ specify:

Due to grass cover and leaves.

soil loss


soil organic matter/ below ground C

Comments/ specify:

Due to mulching.

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

Vegetation cover

Comments/ specify:

Due to permanent grass cover.

plant diversity

Comments/ specify:

Due to allowed growth of the vegetation cover.

beneficial species

Climate and disaster risk reduction

landslides/ debris flows


6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

water availability

Comments/ specify:

Due to presence of vegetation cover.

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature decrease well
seasonal temperature wet/ rainy season decrease well
annual rainfall increase moderately
seasonal rainfall wet/ rainy season increase well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
land fire very well
Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
insect/ worm infestation well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:


6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 51-90%

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Appropriate for small and large scale land users.
The technology can be replicated elsewhere by other farmers.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Good at providing income when mangoes and oranges are sold.
Appreciated by the land user due its ability to provide household income and fruits for consumption and sale.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Requires skilled labour at the time of establishment to dig the holes and applying the right spacing. Train family labour to acquire the skills.
Use extension workers and expert farmers to provide the skills
The technology is liked by thieves since it provides income and food. Fencing to prevent intruders from piking the fruits without payment.
Put in place strict byelws and harsh penalties for offenders.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Fruit trees are having canopies in close contact hence reduced fruiting with the spreading of branches. The technology is not well managed as would be expected. The farmer should trim the branches.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys


  • interviews with land users


When were the data compiled (in the field)?


Links and modules

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