Technologies

Straw residues left on field after harvest and no tillage [China]

No tillage planting

technologies_3239 - China

Completeness: 84%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

Hongzhu Fan

Soil and Fertilizer Institute of the Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences

China

land user:

Wu Shengde

China

{'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 1017, 'label': 'Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)', 'text': 'Interactive Soil Quality assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural productivity and Environmental Resilience (EU-iSQAPER)', 'template': 'raw'} {'additional_translations': {}, 'value': 6153, 'label': 'Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)', 'text': '‒ Soil and Fertilizer Institute of the Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences (SFI) - China', 'template': 'raw'}

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

No

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Method of this agricultual technology the rice straw will be left on the field after mechanized harvesting. Succession crop, such as rape, wheat or potato, were seeded directly under no tillage condition. Both measures aim at better soil regeneration and soil conditions for agriculture and subsequently increased yield and less soil degradation.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

The SLM practice (straw mulching and no tillage) is applied in the Chengdu Plain Paddy Soil. The Chengdu plain has mild climate and abundant rainfall. It belongs to the warm humid subtropical Pacific monsoon climate zone.The main types of soil in the Chengdu plain are paddy soil and purple soil.The total land resources of the Chengdu plain are 1331800 hectares, and the per capita land resources are about 0.1044 hectares per person. In 2010, the total amount of cultivated land in the Chengdu plain was 478069 hectares, accounting for 35.90% of the area of the plain, accounting for 42.36% of the total area of agricultural land in the region, and the per capita arable land area was only about 0.0375 hectares. The Chengdu Plain is an important grain production base in Sichuan. Rice field-upland field rotation (rice - wheat, rice - rapeseed) is an important agricultural system.
On the case study area, the N, P and K fertilizers were applied as urea, calcium superphosphate and potassium chloride at the rates of 120-150 kg N ha-1, 75-120 kg P2O5 ha-1,and 75-120 kg K2O ha-1, during every crop. During crop season, the rate of 60% of N, 100% of P, and 50% of K fertilizers were applied as base fertilizer, while remaining 40% of N and 50% of K were used as top dressing fertilizer. The main measures of this SLM is rice straw or wheat straw mulching while havesting (leaving the straw after havest scattered on the field). Crops were harvested by a combine harvester (Kuotian combine harvester, model PR0488), then straw and stubble of crops were left at size of less than 20 cm in the field. The seeding of succession crop such as wheat and oil seed rape is done by a direct seeding machine. The land users are working eighter with a contractor or they use their own machines and labour force. The purposes of this technology were to increase production and improve soil fertility. Although plough layer can become shallow by long-term no tillage cultivation, more and more land users like this technology because it promises increased grain yield, reduction of fertilizers (and subsequently cost), and it improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Thus, it is expected that the measures of this SLM-Technology ends up in improved soil moisture, higher diversity of soil life and finally soil fertility .

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

China

Region/ State/ Province:

Basin plain, Chengdu, Sichuan

Further specification of location:

Guanhan City, Wenjiang District, Chongzhou City

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 100-1,000 km2
Comments:

This long-term straw mulch experiment was started in the 2005. This site is situated in subtropical monsoon region with anverage annual temperature of about 16.3℃, 281 days frost free. Annual precipitation is about 890mm.

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • during experiments/ research
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The current case study bases only on a test area within the scope of the iSQAPER Project. A long-term straw mulch and fertilization experiment was initiated in 2005 at Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute’s Guanghan agricultural experiment station in Sichuan province, southwest China. Thus, effects of long-term fertilization and straw much on crop yields, soil physical and chemical properties under rice-rapeseed rotation were assessed in a paddy soil

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production
  • reduce, prevent, restore land degradation
  • conserve ecosystem
  • preserve/ improve biodiversity

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Cropland

Cropland

  • Annual cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • oilseed crops - sunflower, rapeseed, other
  • wheat, rice
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2
Is crop rotation practiced?

Yes

If yes, specify:

Method of this agricultual technology the rice straw will be left on the field after mechanized harvesting. Succession crop, such as rape, wheat or potato, were seeded directly under no tillage condition.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • mixed rainfed-irrigated

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • rotational systems (crop rotation, fallows, shifting cultivation)
  • improved ground/ vegetation cover
  • minimal soil disturbance

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
  • A3: Soil surface treatment

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pc: compaction
  • Pk: slaking and crusting

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

{'additional_translations': {}, 'content_type': 'image/jpeg', 'preview_image': '/media/39/d/39d2c04c-b6b7-46ae-ae15-454b53e8e941.jpg', 'key': 'Technical drawing', 'value': '/media/50/7/5075acfc-ad72-45f5-a545-26111272e612.jpg', 'template': 'raw'}
Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

The SLM practice (straw mulching while harvesting and no tillage) is applied in the Chengdu Plain paddy soil. The main measures of this SLM method is straw mulching while harvesting and no tillage. Crops are harvested by machine (actually in this case study by Kuotian combine harvester/model was PR0488), and then straw and stubble were left at size of less than 20 cm on the soil surface. The N, P and K fertilizers to the succession crop were applied in form of urea, calcium superphosphate and potassium chloride at the rates of 120-150 kg N ha-1, 75-120 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 75-120 kg K2O ha-1. Rates of 60% of N, 100% of P and 50% of K fertilizers were applied as base fertilizers, while the remaining 40% of N and 50% of K were used as top dressing fertilizers. After previous crop harvest of rice the succession crop as for example wheat, oil rape, maize will be seeded directly under no tillage condition.

Author:

Hongzhu Fan

Date:

30/10/2017

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology area
Indicate size and area unit:

1 hectare

other/ national currency (specify):

Renminbi (RMB)

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

6.6

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

120 RMB per day

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. mechanized harvesting August or September
2. spreading the straw residues after havest on the field after harvest of crops
3. fertilization October
4. no tillage and direct seeding October

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour All reccurent labour (above) is done within the familiy* person-day 0.5 120.0 60.0 100.0
Equipment harvester (machine from contractor without labour force)* ha 1.0 3000.0 3000.0 100.0
Equipment Direct seeding machine (from contractor without labour force)* ha 1.0 1800.0 1800.0
Plant material seed (weat, rape) kg 120.0 2.0 240.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides urea kg 280.0 3.0 840.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides calcuim superphosphate kg 810.0 1.0 810.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides potassium chloride kg 200.0 3.5 700.0 100.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 7450.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 1128.79
Comments:

*The labour (for harvesting, fertilizering and seeding ) is unpaid when those were done by farm familiy.
But in China, there is no contractor to do all work (for harvesting, fertilizing and seeding). If all works done by a contractor, farms will give up planting crops. Usually, a contractor provide machine to farm, but no labor. Farm members engaged in agricultural production will do most of the work by themselves in order to save cost.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Most of important factor affecting the costs of this technology is the type of machine used for harvest. (E.g. cost is high by the mini combine harvester because of the low efficiency).

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil type is alluvial soil, PH is 5.5, SOC 31.3g/kg, N 2.02g/kg,P 1.04g/kg, K 7.69g/kg, available nitrogen 189.7mg/kg, available phosphorus 12.6mg/kg, ammonium acetate extractable potassium95.5mg/kg.

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?

No

Is flooding of the area occurring?

No

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • high
Habitat diversity:
  • high

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • groups/ community
Level of mechanization:
  • mechanized/ motorized
Gender:
  • women
Age of land users:
  • middle-aged

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Water use rights:
  • communal (organized)
Comments:

In China, land ownership belongs to the state, but land use rights belong to farm. In other words, farm can decide to plant rice, wheat, or fruit tree in the land, but the farm cannot sell this land.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

14.9 t ha-1*

Quantity after SLM:

15.5 t ha-1*

Comments/ specify:

* yield for rape
Wheat yield were 6.3 t ha-1 before SLM and 6.7 t ha-1 after SLM, respectively. Rice yield were 8.6 t ha-1 before SLM and 8.8 t ha-1 after SLM, respectively.

land management

hindered
simplified
Comments/ specify:

No tillage is an important way to reduce cost by machine plough field. Less fertilizing work and amount of fertilizers by leaving straw on field (straw contains a large amount of C, N, P, and K)

Water availability and quality

demand for irrigation water

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Straw mulching can decreased demand for irrigation water, because water can be keep in the straw, and straw mulching on the soil also can reduced evaporation of water.

Income and costs

expenses on agricultural inputs

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

No tillage is an important way to reduce cost by machine plough field. Less fertilizing work and amount of fertilizers by straw return compared with no straw mulching (straw contains a large number of C, N, P and K. Therefore agricultural inputs can be reduced.

farm income

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Do to better yield and reduction of costs.

workload

increased
decreased

Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

Increased knowledge on the benefits of straw mulching by the land users.

Ecological impacts

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Due to straw mulching, because the water can be kept in the straw and soil evaporation can be reduced to improved oil cover.

soil cover

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

Due to the mulching by straw, the soil remain covered practically the whole year round.

soil crusting/ sealing

increased
reduced
Comments/ specify:

Without ploughing the soil crusting can occur at long term use of the technology (findings from a long-term straw mulch and fertilization experiment was initiated in 2005 at Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute’s Guanghan agricultural experiment station in Sichuan province)

soil compaction

increased
reduced
Comments/ specify:

Without ploughing the soil gets more compact at long term use of the technology (findings from a long-term straw mulch and fertilization experiment was initiated in 2005 at Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute’s Guanghan agricultural experiment station in Sichuan province)

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Due to mulching by rice straw (crop residues)

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Due to mulching by rice straw (crop residues)

animal diversity

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Due to mulching by rice straw (crop residues), soil life has increased.

beneficial species

decreased
increased
Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Traditional burning of rice straw on the fields has been reduced, as straw is needed for mulching. Subsequently the C can be bound within the soil and will not be emitted into the air in form of CO2.

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

impact of greenhouse gases

increased
reduced
Comments/ specify:

Traditional burning of rice straw on the fields has been reduced, as straw is needed for mulching. Subsequently the C can be bound within the soil and will not be emitted into the air in form of CO2.

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 11-50%
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?

No

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
This technology can improve the yield
It can save labour by leaving straw on the field
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Straw mulching can increase the soil carbon input, and improve the soil quantity.
This technology can reduce land degradation.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Soil structure was deteriorated by no tillage cultivation. tillage
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Soil hardening occured, and also a thin impervious layer was built at the soil surface It could be good to plough up the soil after an interval of 5 years
Obstruction of rainwater infiltration
Soil plough layer becomes shallow

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • interviews with land users

94 people

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation
When were the data compiled (in the field)?

20/09/2016

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Composition of Wheat Rhizosphere Antagonistic Bacteria and Wheat Sharp Eyespot as Affected by Rice Straw Mulching. CHEN Huai-Gu, CAO Qi-Guang, XIONG Gui-Lin, LI Wei, ZHANG Ai-Xiang, YU Han-Shou and WANG Jin-Sheng.2010.

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Effects of pre-sowing irrigation and straw mulching on the grain yieldand water use efficiency of summer maize in the North China Plain. Zhenxing Yan, Chao Gao, Yujie Ren, Rui Zong, Yuzhao Ma, Quanqi Li. 2017

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Effects of snow cover plus straw mulching on microorganisms in paddy soil during winter.Hao Zhanga,b, Jie Tanga, Shuang Liang.2017

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Effects of Non-flooded Cultivation with Straw Mulching on Rice Agronomic Traits and Water Use Efficiency. QIN Jiang-tao , HU Feng , LI Hui-xin , WANG Yi-ping , HUANG Fa-quan , HUANG Hua-xiang.2006

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Growth Characteristics and Yield of Late-Season Rice under No-tillageand Non-flooded Cultivation with Straw Mulching. WANG Dong, LI Hui-xin, QIN Jiang-tao, LI Da-ming, HU Feng.2010

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Impact of tillage practices on soil bacterial diversity and composition under the tobacco-rice rotation in China. Yanping Lei, Yongliang Xiao, Lifeng Li,Chaoqiang Jiang, Chaolong Zu, Tian Li, and Hui Cao.2017

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Nutrient Decomposition Rate and Sugarcane Yield as Influenced by Mung Bean Intercropping and Crop Residue Recycling Tie-Guang He,Li-Rong Su,Yang-Rui Li,Tian-Ming Su2 Fang Qin,Qin Li.2017

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Process rates of nitrogen cycle in uppermost topsoil after harvesting in no-tilled and ploughed agricultural clay soil. Merjo Laine . Tobias Ru¨ tting . Laura Alakukku . Ansa Paloja¨rvi . Rauni Stro¨mmer.2017

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Research on the effect of straw mulching on the soil moisture by field experiment in the piedmont plain of the Taihang Mountains. LI Man, ZHANG Wei, HE Yu-jiang, WANG Gui-ling.2017

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Rice–wheat cropping system: tillage, mulch, and nitrogen effects on soil carbon sequestration and crop productivity Keshav R. Adhikari,Khem R. Dahal,Zueng-Sang Chen,Yih-Chi Tan,Jihn-Sung Lai.2017

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Soil Carbon Sequestration and Crop Yields in Rice–Wheat and Sugarcane–Ratoon–Wheat Cropping Systems Through Crop Residue Management and Inoculation of Trichoderma viride in Subtropical India.S. K. Shukla,Swaha Shee,S. K. Maity,S. Solomon,S. K. Awasthi,Asha Gaur,A. D. Pathak,V. P. Jaiswal.2017

Available from where? Costs?

ScienceDirect. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

成都平原麦稻双免耕秸秆还田技术模式.汤永禄 , 黄钢, 郑家国, 李朝苏,邓先和,付书明.2008

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.cnki.net/. No

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Influence of straw mulching with no-till on soil nutrients and carbon pool management index.CHEN Shang-hong, ZHU Zhong-lin, LIU Ding-hui, SHU Li , WANG Chang-quan.2008

Available from where? Costs?

http://www.cnki.net/. No

7.3 Links to relevant online information

Title/ description:

Effects of pre-sowing irrigation and straw mulching on the grain yieldand water use efficiency of summer maize in the North China Plain.

URL:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.02.017

Title/ description:

Effects of snow cover plus straw mulching on microorganisms in paddy soil during winter

URL:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.05.023

Title/ description:

Growth Characteristics and Yield of Late-Season Rice under No-tillageand Non-flooded Cultivation with Straw Mulching

URL:

DOI: 10.1016/S1672-6308(08)60117-1

Title/ description:

Impact of tillage practices on soil bacterial diversity and composition under the tobacco-rice rotation in China

URL:

DOI 10.1007/s12275-017-6242-9

Title/ description:

Nutrient Decomposition Rate and Sugarcane Yield as Influenced by Mung Bean Intercropping and Crop Residue Recycling

URL:

DOI 10.1007/s12355-017-0548-0

Title/ description:

Process rates of nitrogen cycle in uppermost topsoil after harvesting in no-tilled and ploughed agricultural clay soil

URL:

DOI 10.1007/s10705-017-9825-2

Title/ description:

Rice–wheat cropping system: tillage, mulch, and nitrogen effects on soil carbon sequestration and crop productivity

URL:

DOI 10.1007/s10333-015-0511-1

Title/ description:

Soil Carbon Sequestration and Crop Yields in Rice–Wheat and Sugarcane–Ratoon–Wheat Cropping Systems Through Crop Residue Management and Inoculation of Trichoderma viride in Subtropical

URL:

DOI 10.1007/s12355-016-0470-x

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all

Modules