Strip farming [Turkey]

Seritvari Tarim (Turkish)

technologies_995 - Turkey

Completeness: 73%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

Crop Production

Crop Production [Turkey]

Adopting of the strip cropping-fallow-strip cropping system by farmers, with support from local SWC specialists and state agricultural organisations.

  • Compiler: Mehmet Zengin

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Strip farming is a kind of an agriculture method that cereals are sowed as strips which are 50 m witdh (strip-fallow-strip). Strips are perpendicular to wind direction in dropugth areas.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Cereals are grown as strip-fallow to conserve the soil from the wind. Cereal strip in current year will be fallowed next year while the fallowed strip in this yaer will be cereal strip in next year. Width of the strips should be 50 m and they have to be arranged perpendicular to wind direction. So can not move the soil as a wind erosion. Plant strip conserve the soil in their original place. Aim of this method is to conserve field soil in drought area. Field soil is keeped sown in every year as strip-fallow-strip in turn. In the system there is not much input. Field can not be sown in every year due to drought, but in can not be left as fallow compleately. Otherwise barren (without plant) soil losses by the wind. For this, the farmers must be informed in the drought regions. In the drought area (<400 mm annual precipitation), to conserve the soil in the field is very important with respect to environment. Because wind erosion both carries the soil and cause siltation (sedimentation) near the settlement areas.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:


Further specification of location:


Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 10-100 km2

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Annual cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - barley
  • cereals - maize
  • cereals - wheat (spring)
  • fodder crops - clover
  • root/tuber crops - sugar beet
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 1

Longest growing period in days: 10Longest growing period from month to month: Oct - Jul

Grazing land

Grazing land

Extensive grazing:
  • Nomadism

Livestock density (if relevant):

25-50 LU /km2

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Yearly precipitation (270 mm) is very low while evaporation is high (750 mm per year). Soils are shallowed by wind erosion and degradation. Additionally soil fertility is low and biomass is very poor. Plants are consumpting lots of water for growing. Strip farming is not prefered and drip irrigation is not used.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Irrigation water is not enough and pasture lands are very poor. The electric energy for the irrigation is very expensive.

Nomadism: sheep

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

Water supply: rainfed, full irrigation

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • windbreak/ shelterbelt

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
  • Ed: deflation and deposition
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bh: loss of habitats
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
  • Bs: quality and species composition/ diversity decline
  • Bl: loss of soil life

Main type of degradation addressed: Et: loss of topsoil, Ed: deflation and deposition

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Bh: loss of habitats, Bq: quantity / biomass decline, Bs: quality and species composition /diversity decline, Bl: loss of soil life

Main causes of degradation: droughts (drought is geting dominant and rain decreases.)

Secondary causes of degradation: soil management (crop management is not being done properly), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (trees and shrups were dejayed around in early times), population pressure (Population increasing attacks to the field and yield capacitiy is decreasing.), land tenure (Field is getting fragmentated by the inheritance.), education, access to knowledge and support services (Lack of technical informaton is hindering succesful farming.)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation


Main goals: prevention of land degradation
Secondary goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation
Third goal: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Secondary technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, increase of groundwater level / recharge of groundwater, sediment retention / trapping, sediment harvesting, reduction in wind speed, increase of biomass (quantity)

Contour planting / strip cropping
Material/ species: cereals
Quantity/ density: 450 grain
Remarks: strip-fallow-strip

Rotations / fallows
Material/ species: plants for strip cropping
Quantity/ density: normal
Remarks: strip-fallow-strip

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Turkish Liras

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Equipment Machine use ha 1.0 77.0 77.0
Plant material Seeds ha 1.0 230.0 230.0 90.0
Plant material Seedlings ha 1.0 230.0 230.0 90.0
Plant material Fertilizer ha 1.0 307.0 307.0 90.0
Plant material Biocides ha 1.0 77.0 77.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 921.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 70.85

Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Sowing Authumn / once a year
2. Fertilizing Authumn and spring / 2 times
3. Herbicide Spring / once a year
4. Harvest Summer / once a year

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)


Machinery/ tools: tractor, plough, sowing machine, pulverizator, fertilizing machine, harvest machine

The costs were calculated according to 2008 prices.

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Seeds and fertilizers are the most expensive inputs.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

In winter

Agro-climatic zone
  • semi-arid

Thermal climate class: boreal
Seven months drought in a year

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is: Low - medium
Soil drainage/infiltration is: medium
Soil water storage capacity is: medium

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:

poor/ none

Water quality (untreated):

poor drinking water (treatment required)

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Ground water table 5-50m (It decreases in summer, increases in winter)

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:

Plant number and species are very low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Level of mechanization:
  • mechanized/ motorized
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 0.5% - 1%
70% of the land users are average wealthy and own 30% of the land.
Level of mechanization: Mechanised (Every kind of machine is used )

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: 15-50 ha, 15-50 ha, 50-100 ha

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • individual

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production


fodder production


fodder quality


animal production


risk of production failure


Socio-cultural impacts

SLM/ land degradation knowledge


conflict mitigation


Improved livelihoods and human well-being

Comments/ specify:

Strip farming improved environment ecology, decreased run-off water, stopped wind erosion, increased organic matter in the soil due to soil was not sowed in every year. In the fallow strip this year, cereals good grew next year.

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

water quantity


surface runoff


groundwater table/ aquifer




soil cover

Other ecological impacts

Wind erosion


Soil livings


6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

wind transported sediments

Comments/ specify:

Strip farming system conserved soil particle in their site from wind power, so Karapınar city and Konya-Karapınar motorway got ride of soil particle mowing hazards.

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:



There is a not addition cost in this technology. Cereals are grown in the strips perpendicular to wind direction instead of wholly field.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):


Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 11-50%

30% of land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

290 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support

Comments on acceptance with external material support: Karapınar’s farmers could not give up their habits. They know to sow with cereals field completely in one year and next year this field will be fallow. While the field is fallow, surface is open to wind. So, wind erosion will be strong.

30% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

290 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: Educated or open minded farmers adopted easily this technology. The others then adopted strip farming sowing system after see next door private or government field models.

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Karapınar farmers adopted wholly this technology in dry areas anymore. But in the watering parts, they are growing watering plants such as sugar beet, corn, clover, sun flower, etc. now.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view

How can they be sustained / enhanced? To attantion
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Low expensive, usable, adoptable.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? By the training.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Lack of technical knowledge. By information.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
If the wind paralel long edge of the field contour strip cropping is not done by farmers. Training.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all