Tecnologías

Maize strip tillage [Suiza]

Streifenfrässaat

technologies_1009 - Suiza

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación de la Tecnología

Persona(s) de referencia clave

Especialista MST:
usuario de la tierra:

Schneider Markus

Schneider Agrarservice

Suiza

usuario de la tierra:

Bangerter Roland

Suiza

Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
CDE Centre for Development and Environment (CDE Centre for Development and Environment) - Switzerland
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Bangerter-Gisleren - Switzerland
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
Schneider Agrar-service - Switzerland

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT:

2. Descripción de la Tecnología MST

2.1 Breve descripción de la Tecnología

Definición de la Tecnología:

Maize strip tillage is a technology used for corn cultivation. It cultivates only thoses stripes in which the seed is added to.

2.2 Descripción detallada de la Tecnología

Descripción:

Maize strip tillage is a soil-conservation method used in crop production. First of all the grass in the area needs to be prepared by splattering round-up some 3-10 days prior seeding. Then the actual maize strip tillage machine carves a stripe and the seed are inserted within this 30 cm strip. At the same time fertilizer is added on these cultivated stripes. Between those cultivated stripes the mulch-grass stripes (45cm) are unmechanised and protect the soil by increasing its stability. The work is done within one working unit compared to the traditional technique whereas the farmer needs to drive for each working step separately.
There are some clear ecological advantages using this technology. Like in a minimum tillage system the stability of the soil is enhanced.
Due to these mulch-stripes the matrix of the soil is more complex and therefore the stability is better especially during harvest in September. The interviewed farmer said compaction would occur less and the risk of soil erosion is decreasing. Especially in hilly areas the technology is suitable since soil erosion is a problems when using a plough. Another advantage is the better soil structure due to the mulch stripes and the minimal tillage ensures that the soil is more stable.
A high level of knowledge about the natural environment is a required when adopting this technology. On one hand, the farmer must time the date for seeding adequately to the natural conditions (not too humid). On the other hand, the farmer has to apply Glyphosphat one to three times after the seeding in order to guarantee an optimal growth period for the corn.The interviewed farmer found it problematic to use this amount of Glyphosat and he was not sure about the effects in the water. The timing to start seeding with this technology may be later cause corn is sensitive towards rival plants, low temperatures and humidity. When adopting the technology the farmer needs to have a certain level of knowledge and experience in order to guarantee a sound harvest.
This technology is applied in the village Seedorf (Canton Bern) after the farmers made positive experiences and if they see the economic advantages too. Generally there is only one work step needed for the seeding which lowers the costs compared to the traditional technology with about a third. Furthermore the subsidies of the canton of Berne enables farmers to apply this technology for the first 5 years. In this cycle the areas are usually left with grass first, second cultivated with corn (using maize strip tillage), then sugar beets and after all two years of cereals (wheat and rye) before the cycle starts again.

2.3 Fotografías de la Tecnología

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde la Tecnología fue aplicada y que se hallan comprendidos por esta evaluación

País:

Suiza

Región/ Estado/ Provincia:

Seedorf

Especifique más el lugar :

Bern

Comentarios:

27.2 km2 are owned by the farmer whereas he is applying the technology on 5 km2. He said that he is hired as a contract worker and applies the technology on approximately 90 km2. Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 90 km2.

2.7 Introducción de la Tecnología

Comentarios (tipo de proyecto, etc.):

A neighbouring farmer adapted the technology and after the first successful harvest Roland Bangerter bought a machine too some 5 years ago and started apply this technology.

3. Clasificación de la Tecnología MST

3.2 Tipo(s) actuales de uso de la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología

Tierras cultivadas

Tierras cultivadas

  • Cosecha anual
Cosechas anuales - Especifique cultivos:
  • cereales - maíz
  • cereales - centeno
  • cereales - trigo (verano)
  • cultivos de raíces/ tubérculos - remolacha
Comentarios:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): soil erosion in hillside areas

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): soil degradation in general

3.5 Grupo MST al que pertenece la Tecnología

  • perturbación mínima del suelo
  • medida de pendiente transversal

3.6 Medidas MST que componen la Tecnología

medidas agronómicas

medidas agronómicas

  • A1: vegetación/ cubierta del suelo
Comentarios:

Main measures: agronomic measures

Type of agronomic measures: cover cropping, retaining more vegetation cover, mulching, manure / compost / residues, rotations / fallows, minimum tillage

3.7 Principales tipos de degradación del suelo encarados con la Tecnología

erosión de suelos por agua

erosión de suelos por agua

  • Wt: pérdida de capa arable/ erosión de la superficie
  • Wg: erosión en cárcavas
deterioro físico del suelo

deterioro físico del suelo

  • Pc: compactación
degradación biológica

degradación biológica

  • Bc: reducción de la cobertura vegetal del suelo
Comentarios:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Pc: compaction

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover

Main causes of degradation: crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (the use of plough increases the danger of soil erosion)

3.8 Prevención, reducción o restauración de la degradación del suelo

Especifique la meta de la Tecnología con relación a la degradación de la tierra:
  • prevenir la degradación del suelo
  • reducir la degradación del suelo
Comentarios:

Main goals: mitigation / reduction of land degradation

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation

4. Especificaciones técnicas, actividades de implementación, insumos y costos

4.1 Dibujo técnico de la Tecnología

Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), increase of infiltration

Secondary technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: mulch stripes

Rotations / fallows
Remarks: a cultivation cycle of 5 year is needed

4.3 Actividades de establecimiento

Actividad Momento (estación)
1. Buying a 120 PS tractor
2. Buying a machine for maize strip tillage
3. buying a sowing machine

4.4 Costos e insumos necesarios para el establecimiento

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Equipo 120 PS tractor Farm 1,0 126000,0 126000,0 100,0
Equipo Machine for maize strip tillage Farm 1,0 165000,0 165000,0 100,0
Equipo Sowing machine Farm 1,0 12600,0 12600,0 100,0
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología 303600,0
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología en USD 303600,0

4.5 Actividades de establecimiento/ recurrentes

Actividad Momento/ frequencia
1. Adding some round-up on the field one week before technology is applied 1
2. Applying technology maize strip tillage 1
3. Adding herbicide on the mulch stripes 1-3
4. Harvest of corn 1

6. Impactos y comentarios para concluir

6.7 Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades de la Tecnología

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
Prevention of erosion

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Maintain green cover.
Improvement of soil quality (fertility, organic matter, moisture retention, soil structure)

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Ensure that cover vegetation doesn’t compete with the vines; improve soil properties by applying mentioned agronomic measures.
Contribution to a better balanced and more stable ecosystem (with living space for a wider range of organisms)

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Specific management of cover crops (alternating treatment of inter-rows; find solutions to replace application of herbicide).
In the long-term economically beneficial because of cutting costs of restoration of soils and fertility loss after heavy erosion events.
Possibilities of farm income increase through marketing wine under the ‘vinatura’ label, certifying ecologically produced wine.

6.8 Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos de la Tecnología y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
General competition of water and nutrients depending on climate, soil depth and species of cover vegetation Eliminate/reduce competitive effect of cover vegetation by cutting/mulching vegetation or ripping/ploughing soil.
Application of herbicides around vines because of undesirable vegetation in proximity of vine Find alternative solutions, or minimise application of herbicides.

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

7.2 Vínculos a las publicaciones disponibles

Título, autor, año, ISBN:

Güdel N . Boden- und Wasserkonservierung in Schweizer Rebbergen. Ein Beispiel im Rahmen von WOCAT. Unpublisheddiploma thesis.. 2003.

¿Dónde se halla disponible? ¿Costo?

Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Berne

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