Passive Solar House (PSH) [Afganistán]

Garm Khana

technologies_1602 - Afganistán

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1. Información general

1.2 Detalles de contacto de las personas de referencia e instituciones involucradas en la evaluación y la documentación de la Tecnología

Persona(s) de referencia clave

Especialista MST:
Especialista MST:
Especialista MST:
Nombre de la(s) institución(es) que facilitaron la documentación/ evaluación de la Tecnología (si fuera relevante)
HELVETAS (Swiss Intercooperation)

1.3 Condiciones referidas al uso de datos documentados mediante WOCAT

El compilador y la/s persona(s) de referencia claves aceptan las condiciones acerca del uso de los datos documentados mediante WOCAT:

1.4 Declaración de la sostenibilidad de la Tecnología descrita

¿La Tecnología aquí descrita resulta problemática en relación a la degradación de la tierra, de tal forma que no puede considerársela una tecnología sostenible para el manejo de la tierra?


2. Descripción de la Tecnología MST

2.1 Breve descripción de la Tecnología

Definición de la Tecnología:

A clean energy technology for converting solar energy into heat for warming homes.

2.2 Descripción detallada de la Tecnología


Passive Solar House technology is documented by Sustainable Land Management Project/HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation with financial support of Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.
Households in Bayman Centre experience very cold winters and meeting household energy needs for the Bamyan population is challenging. They mostly rely on unsustainable solutions such as burning manure or mountain shrubs. Shrub harvesting for firewood is a major cause of land degradation in the province. Fuel expenses also deplete the financial resources of an already impoverished population. Also, due to the intense cold, very few activities are possible during the winter. To overcome the challenges of heavy dependence on biomass for winter heating and to improve living conditions, many families in Bamyan Centre are adopting the passive solar technology for improving their living conditions, while reducing pressure on environment.
Passive solar technology captures sunlight in a room or building, and converts that energy into low-temperate heat. It provides an efficient mean of capturing the sun's energy, reducing the need for fuel wood and coal for heating.

(1)The passive solar house (PSH) technology has significant economic, socio-cultural and environmental benefits. They are as follows:
(2)reducing the reliance on shrubs and other heating materials; saving expenditure on fuel (aprox.25,000 Afghani/year) and the time usually spent on harvesting bushes;
(3)provision of extra space in the house for washing/drying cloths, bathing, social activities, play and study area, space for vegetable crops for home consumption; savings due to this technology offset the high initial investment cost;
(4)improved health due to less exposure to cold;
(5)reduced pressure on environment. The technology contributes to re-greening of common lands or rangelands where fewer shrubs are collected (uprooted) for firewood.
PSH should have a Southern exposure to take maximum advantage of the sun for daylight and passive solar heating. Most of the houses in Bamyan have southern exposures. The PSH is generally used for 6 months (November to April).
Although the technology was introduced in Bamyan by GERES, an International Non-Governmental Organization, many families have replicated it without any external support.

The main purpose of Passive Solar House technology is to make use of the solar energy for heating homes. As a result, the need for shrubs and coal for home heating is reduced significantly. The technology contributes to re-greening of common lands or range lands on which shrubs are harvested (uprooted) for firewood. Barat Ali's family bought about 60 donkey loads of shrubs per year for winter heating purposes. They did not have to do that after this technology was implemented by the PSH owner. The technology also contributes to the well-being of all family members, especially of women, who can do their household chores, and children who often got sick due to cold exposure.

The PSH presented here was established in September 2013 before the onset of winter. A transparent plastic sheet, metal pipes, wires and ropes to hold the plastic are used for construction work. Metal pipes were purchased from Kabul by the owner.
The PSH measures 17 m in length, 5 m in width and about 4 m in height. However, the PSH may vary from one house to another. The factor to consider is that the PSH should have long area to capture maximum sunlight. The upper part is slopping (about 30% gradient) to drain the water and snow. Local semi-skilled labor and skilled mechanic for welding the pipes were employed for construction works.
Approximately 45,000 Afghani/790 USD was spent on the construction of this PSH. The owner made significant investment. He purchased the pipes and plastic contributing approximately 70% of the costs. Plastic sheets, which are available on the market in Bamyan, are not of very high quality and have to be replaced each year. If the used plastic sheet is not too damaged, it is placed on roofs to protect from snow water/rain seepage. Otherwise, it is simply thrown away, which is not an environment friendly practice.
According to the PSH owner, a possibility for improvement is to use good quality wooden frame instead of pipes so that the plastic sheet can be kept intact by nailing it to the wooden frame. Using wooden frames may also reduce the cost of the technology, making it more affordable for poor families. Provision for ventilation is an aspect which needs to be considered while constructing PSH.

Bamyan province is a remote province of Afghanistan with high poverty rate. It has a temperate and arid climate. During winter, temperatures can drop below minus 22 degrees. Summer temperature can reach up to 34 degrees in the month of July. The average annual rainfall in the area is about 230 mm and some years can be very dry.
90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods and off-farm activities are marginal.

2.3 Fotografías de la Tecnología

2.5 País/ región/ lugares donde la Tecnología fue aplicada y que se hallan comprendidos por esta evaluación



Región/ Estado/ Provincia:


Especifique más el lugar :

Bamyan Center / Dashte Esakhan

Especifique la difusión de la Tecnología:
  • distribuida parejamente sobre un área
Si la Tecnología se halla difundida homogéneamente a lo largo de un área, especifique el área que cubre (en km2):


Si se desconoce el área precisa, indique el área aproximada cubierta:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.00027 km2.
The PSH and house areas are 85 and 270 square meter, respectively.

2.6 Fecha de la implementación

Si no se conoce el año preciso, indique la fecha aproximada:
  • hace menos de 10 años (recientemente)

2.7 Introducción de la Tecnología

Especifique cómo se introdujo la Tecnología:
  • mediante proyectos/ intervenciones externas
Comentarios (tipo de proyecto, etc.):

The PSH owner saw the technology applied by others and replicated it without any external support. The technology has been promoted by GERES (an International NGO) in Bamyan.

3. Clasificación de la Tecnología MST

3.1 Propósito(s) principal(es) de la Tecnología MST

  • crear impacto social benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) actuales de uso de la tierra donde se aplica la Tecnología

 asentamientos, infraestructura

asentamientos, infraestructura

  • Energía: gasoductos, líneas eléctricas

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Degradation of common lands due to shrub harvesting for firewood and overgrazing by sheep and goats.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Land degradation due to uprooting of shrubs required for domestic purpose like heating homes during winter and cooking.
Constraints of Infrastructure (House): Lack of alternative energy resources. Heavy dependence on biomass for burning.

Longest growing period in days: 180, Longest growing period from month to month: April-September

3.5 Grupo MST al que pertenece la Tecnología

  • tecnologías de eficiencia energética

3.6 Medidas MST que componen la Tecnología

medidas estructurales

medidas estructurales

  • S11: Otros

Specification of other structural measures: Passive Solar House

3.7 Principales tipos de degradación del suelo encarados con la Tecnología

degradación biológica

degradación biológica

  • Bc: reducción de la cobertura vegetal del suelo

Main causes of degradation: over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (Shrubs for fuel wood), overgrazing (Mainly sheep and goats), governance / institutional (Specially relating to common lands), lack of alternative energy options
Secondary causes of degradation: droughts, population pressure

3.8 Prevención, reducción o restauración de la degradación del suelo

Especifique la meta de la Tecnología con relación a la degradación de la tierra:
  • prevenir la degradación del suelo
  • reducir la degradación del suelo

4. Especificaciones técnicas, actividades de implementación, insumos y costos

4.1 Dibujo técnico de la Tecnología

Especificaciones técnicas (relacionadas al dibujo técnico):

Technical specification of South facing Passive Solar House constructed by the house owner comprising white plastic sheet, pipes for framers, string tied outside to secure plastic. Entrance gates.
Location: Dashte Esakhan. Bamyan Centre
Date: 12.05.2014

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate
Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover
Structural measure: Passive Solar House
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 4
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 5
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 17
Construction material (other): Plastic sheet, metal pipes, wires


SLM Project, Helvetas, HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation Afghanistan

4.2 Información general sobre el cálculo de insumos y costos

otra / moneda nacional (especifique):


Si fuera relevante, indique la tasa de cambio de dólares americanos a la moneda local (ej. 1 U$ = 79.9 Reales Brasileros): 1 U$ =:


4.3 Actividades de establecimiento

Actividad Momento (estación)
1. Purchase material from Kabul September 2013
2. Construction of PSH using 4 semi-skilled workers for 3 days and one skilled mechanic September 2013

4.4 Costos e insumos necesarios para el establecimiento

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra labour ha 1,0 190,12 190,12 100,0
Equipo plastic ha 1,0 70,28 70,28 100,0
Equipo pipes ha 1,0 530,31 530,31 100,0
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología 790,71
Costos totales para establecer la Tecnología en USD 13,87

Duration of establishment phase: 1 month(s)

4.5 Actividades de establecimiento/ recurrentes

Actividad Momento/ frequencia
1. Maintainance - plastic sheet As required
2. Replacement of plastic sheet every year

4.6 Costos e insumos necesarios para actividades de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (por año)

Especifique insumo Unidad Cantidad Costos por unidad Costos totales por insumo % de los costos cubiertos por los usuarios de las tierras
Mano de obra labour ha 1,0 13,78 13,78 100,0
Equipo plastic ha 1,0 68,92 68,92 100,0
Indique los costos totales para mantenecer la Tecnología 82,7
Costos totales para mantener la Tecnología en USD 1,45

Machinery/ tools: Plastic Sheets, Pipes, Wires, Generator, Welding Machine
The prices in Afghani are for September 2013. The exchange rate which was used for the conversion of US$ to Afghani was 1 US$ = 57 Afghani.

4.7 Factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

Describa los factores más determinantes que afectan los costos:

Pipes is the most expensive part of this technology

5. Entorno natural y humano

5.1 Clima

Lluvia anual
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Especificaciones/ comentarios sobre la cantidad de lluvia:

Most rainfall in spring (April and May) and also there is snow.

Zona agroclimática
  • semi-árida

Thermal climate class: temperate. Bamyan has cold winter (temperatures can fall up to -22 degree C) and temperate summer.

5.2 Topografía

Pendientes en promedio:
  • plana (0-2 %)
  • ligera (3-5%)
  • moderada (6-10%)
  • ondulada (11-15%)
  • accidentada (16-30%)
  • empinada (31-60%)
  • muy empinada (>60%)
Formaciones telúricas:
  • meseta/ planicies
  • cordilleras
  • laderas montañosas
  • laderas de cerro
  • pies de monte
  • fondo del valle
Zona altitudinal:
  • 0-100 m s.n.m.
  • 101-500 m s.n.m.
  • 501-1,000 m s.n.m
  • 1,001-1,500 m s.n.m
  • 1,501-2,000 m s.n.m
  • 2,001-2,500 m s.n.m
  • 2,501-3,000 m s.n.m
  • 3,001-4,000 m s.n.m
  • > 4,000 m s.n.m

5.3 Suelos

Profundidad promedio del suelo:
  • muy superficial (0-20 cm)
  • superficial (21-50 cm)
  • moderadamente profunda (51-80 cm)
  • profunda (81-120 cm)
  • muy profunda (>120 cm)
Textura del suelo (capa arable):
  • áspera/ ligera (arenosa)
Materia orgánica de capa arable:
  • media (1-3%)

5.4 Disponibilidad y calidad de agua

Agua subterránea:

5-50 m

Disponibilidad de aguas superficiales:

pobre/ ninguna

Calidad de agua (sin tratar):

agua potable de buena calidad

5.5 Biodiversidad

Diversidad de especies:
  • baja

5.6 Las características de los usuarios de la tierra que aplican la Tecnología

Ingresos no agrarios:
  • 10-50% de todo el ingreso
Nivel relativo de riqueza:
  • promedio
Individuos o grupos:
  • individual/ doméstico
  • mujeres
  • hombres
Indique otras características relevantes de los usuarios de las tierras:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: All the PSH construction work is done by men.
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 2% - 3%
100% of the land users are average wealthy.

5.7 Área promedio de la tierra usada por usuarios de tierra que aplican la Tecnología

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
¿Esto se considera de pequeña, mediana o gran escala (refiriéndose al contexto local)?
  • pequeña escala

5.8 Tenencia de tierra, uso de tierra y derechos de uso de agua

Tenencia de tierra:
  • individual, con título
Derechos de uso de tierra:
  • individual
Derechos de uso de agua:
  • individual

Well belongs to the house owner

5.9 Acceso a servicios e infraestructura

  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
asistencia técnica:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
empleo (ej. fuera de la granja):
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
caminos y transporte:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
agua potable y saneamiento:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno
servicios financieros:
  • pobre
  • moderado
  • bueno

6. Impactos y comentarios para concluir

6.1 Impactos in situ demostrados por la Tecnología

Impactos socioeconómicos


generación de energía

Comentarios/ especifique:

For winter season

Ingreso y costos

carga de trabajo

Comentarios/ especifique:

Time saved in shrubs collection, burning Bukharis stoves for house warming, going out for daily chores like drying clothes, etc...

Otros impactos socioeconómicos

Reduced expense on fuel (wood and coal)

Comentarios/ especifique:

Due to less consumption of coal and shrubs

Off-season vegetable production for self consumption

Comentarios/ especifique:

Harvested 5 times during winter/spring

Energy saving (coal bags)

Comentarios/ especifique:

Less use of coal for winter heating

Impactos socioculturales

seguridad alimentaria/ autosuficiencia

Comentarios/ especifique:

Due to increased fresh winter vegetable production. Cash saved can be used for buying food items.

situación de salud

Comentarios/ especifique:

Women, men and children are less exposed to severe cold. Also consumption of vegetables grown in the PSH contributes to food diversity and health. PSH also protects chimney smoke from outside entering the house.

oportunidades culturales

Comentarios/ especifique:

PSH used for social meeting, children play and studies, washing/drying clothes, bathing etc.

MST/ conocimiento de la degradación del suelo

Comentarios/ especifique:

In terms of reducing shrub cutting through alternative energy options. Others see and learn.

mitigación de conflicto


contribution to human well-being

Comentarios/ especifique:

The technology has contributed to less expenditure on fuel, improved health and has created socio-cultural opportunities.

Impactos ecológicos

Ciclo de agua/ escurrimiento de sedimento

escurrimiento superficial

Comentarios/ especifique:

As PSH has sloping top without any proper outlet for concentrated runoff

Biodiversidad: vegetación, animales

diversidad vegetal

Comentarios/ especifique:

As the family can grow certain vegetable crops and flowers inside the PSH during winter time.

Reducción de riesgos de desastres y riesgos climáticos

emisión de carbono y gases de invernadero

Comentarios/ especifique:

Because of less burning of coal and shrubs

6.2 Impactos fuera del sitio demostrados por la Tecnología

Increased vagetation cover

Comentarios/ especifique:

Due to less extraction of shrubs for firewood for winter heating

Reduced soil erosion

Comentarios/ especifique:


6.3 Exposición y sensibilidad de la Tecnología al cambio climático gradual y a extremos relacionados al clima/ desastres (desde la percepción de los usuarios de tierras)

Extremos (desastres) relacionados al clima

Desastres climatológicos:
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
tormenta de viento no muy bien

Otras consecuencias relacionadas al clima

Otras consecuencias relacionadas al clima
¿Cómo es que la tecnología soporta esto?
Intense sun light no muy bien

Pipes should be replaced by wooden frames because they get heated up and can damage the plastic. Also, using wooden frames may reduce the cost.

6.4 Análisis costo-beneficio

¿Cómo se comparan los beneficios con los costos de establecimiento (desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de tierra)?
Ingresos a corto plazo:

neutral/ balanceado

Ingresos a largo plazo:

muy positivo

¿Cómo se comparan los beneficios con los costos de mantenimiento/ recurrentes (desde la perspectiva de los usuarios de tierra)?
Ingresos a corto plazo:


Ingresos a largo plazo:

muy positivo


The cost of the PSH can be covered in 2 years time. This is only in financial terms but if we analyse the overall economic benefits considering health and ecological benefits, the benefits compared with establishment costs will be more.

6.5 Adopción de la Tecnología

De todos quienes adoptaron la Tecnología, ¿cuántos lo hicieron espontáneamente, por ej. sin recibir nada de incentivos/ materiales:
  • 91-100%

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
30 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

6.7 Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades de la Tecnología

Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra
Multiple benefits for the family - less expense for fuel, children can play inside in warm climate. It is also a good space for social meetings.
Fuerzas/ ventajas/ oportunidades desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave
PSH has multiple benefits: house warming using clean energy, less expenditure on fuel for winter, extra room for various activities (like studies, playing, washing, drying clothes, warming water, social meetings), less use of shrubs.
Due to PSH technology, families dependency on shrubs for firewood is reduced which leads to improved land management.
Convinced by the benefits of PSH technology, many families with financial resources have constructed it without seeking external support.

6.8 Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos de la Tecnología y formas de sobreponerse a ellos

Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del usuario de la tierra ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
Metal pipe is not good for frame because the plastic sheet cannot be nailed to it so that it does not get blown away by wind. Use of wooden frame.
Distance between pipes is more. More pipes needed to reduce that gap.
The air moisture can increase in the PSH as well as in the other parts of the house. The door and if possible the window of the PSH should be opened for some minutes during the day.
Debilidades/ desventajas/ riesgos desde la perspectiva del compilador o de otra persona de referencia clave ¿Cómo sobreponerse a ellas?
PSH does not have proper ventilation. Construction of a ventilator.
The poor households cannot apply it due to high establishment cost. Use of low cost wooden frame and some incentives to the poor families for establishment.

7. Referencias y vínculos

7.1 Métodos/ fuentes de información

  • visitas de campo, encuestas de campo
  • entrevistas con usuarios de tierras
¿Cuándo se compilaron los datos (en el campo)?


Vínculos y módulos

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