Technologies

Conservation agriculture [Royaume-Uni]

non-inversion tillage, incorporation of crop residues, non-selective herbicides

technologies_987 - Royaume-Uni

État complet: 67%

1. Informations générales

1.2 Coordonnées des personnes-ressources et des institutions impliquées dans l'évaluation et la documentation de la Technologie

Personne(s)-ressource(s) clé(s)

Spécialiste GDT:
Nom du projet qui a facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
Soil and water protection (EU-SOWAP)
Nom du projet qui a facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
Book project: where the land is greener - Case Studies and Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation Initiatives Worldwide (where the land is greener)
Nom du ou des institutions qui ont facilité la documentation/ l'évaluation de la Technologie (si pertinent)
Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust - Royaume-Uni

1.3 Conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées

Le compilateur et la(les) personne(s) ressource(s) acceptent les conditions relatives à l'utilisation par WOCAT des données documentées:

Oui

1.5 Référence au(x) Questionnaires sur les Approches de GDT (documentées au moyen de WOCAT)

Soil management initiative
approaches

Soil management initiative [Royaume-Uni]

An independent organisation that promotes the adoption of appropriate soil management practices, especially conservation agriculture, within England.

  • Compilateur: Alastaire Leake

2. Description de la Technologie de GDT

2.1 Courte description de la Technologie

Définition de la Technologie:

Improved soil management based on non-inversion tillage for cost-effective and timely crop establishment.

2.2 Description détaillée de la Technologie

Description:

Conservation agriculture (CA), involving superficial non-inversion tillage, began to be widely taken up in England following advances in seed drill technology, non-selective herbicides and straw-chopping combine harvesters in the late 1980s.
This case focuses on the Game Conservancy Trust’s Allerton Project at Loddington, which in 2000 pooled resources with its neighbour to purchase a single set of cultivation equipment, and replaced conventional mouldboard ploughing (with its multiple cultivations) by state-of-the-art CA. Contract services offered by the joint venture means that 1,000 ha are now covered each year. The main winter crops are wheat, oats, and oilseed rape. Beans are sown in the spring. The heavy clay loam is vulnerable to excessive surface moisture, restricting crop establishment
‘windows’.
Immediately after harvest the soil is loosened and straw incorporated, and then soil is consolidated (using a ‘cultivation train’ combining two machines: the ‘Simba Solo’ and the ‘Cultipress’). This encourages up to 60% of the weeds to emerge in a ‘stale seedbed’. Spraying then removes all the weeds and volunteer plants of previous crops. This is followed by a light surface tillage, using the ‘Väderstad Rapid Cultivator Drill’, before sowing into the seedbed created. Equipment comprises implements with tines and/or discs which create a tilth to around 10 cm
without inverting the soil. Cambridge rollers are then used to consolidate the sown land. After crop maturity, combine harvesting takes place - with simultaneous chopping of straw/crop residues. A trash rake is used to disperse the chopped straw. This way excessive trash is incorporated rapidly into the soil. Compaction may arise in the transition phase, because of the lack of soil loosening through ploughing: minimising traffic, keeping to tramlines and headlands can all help. In time, increases in soil organic matter content and earthworm biomass make compaction less of a problem. The problem of slugs can be reduced by improving seed-to-soil contact, and by drilling deeper.

Purpose of the Technology: The main purpose of conservation agriculture is cost effective, timely and rapid crop establishment, under good soil conditions. High-speed operations are the key. Compared with conventional ploughing, labour is saved and fuel costs lowered. However, an additional application of herbicides represents an extra expenditure. Yields per hectare haven’t risen but the key difference is that about four times as many hectares can be prepared in time for autumn planting under conservation tillage, thus improving overall production. Incorporation of crop residues improves soil structure and leads to a more friable, less erodible topsoil.

2.3 Photos de la Technologie

2.5 Pays/ région/ lieux où la Technologie a été appliquée et qui sont couverts par cette évaluation

Pays:

Royaume-Uni

Région/ Etat/ Province:

Leicestershire

Commentaires:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 10 km2.

2.7 Introduction de la Technologie

Spécifiez comment la Technologie a été introduite: :
  • par le biais de projets/ d'interventions extérieures

3. Classification de la Technologie de GDT

3.1 Principal(aux) objectif(s) de la Technologie

  • réduire, prévenir, restaurer les terres dégradées

3.2 Type(s) actuel(s) d'utilisation des terres, là où la Technologie est appliquée

Terres cultivées

Terres cultivées

  • Cultures annuelles
Cultures annuelles - Précisez les cultures:
  • légumineuses et légumes secs - fèves
  • céréales - avoine
  • céréales - blé d'hiver
  • cultures oléagineuses - tournesol, colza, autres
Nombre de période de croissance par an: :
  • 1
Précisez:

Longest growing period in days: 330Longest growing period from month to month: Mar - Dec

Commentaires:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Traditional inversion tillage is slow and costly. By moving to high speed non-inversion conservation tillage farmers can
spread costs over a larger area and maximise the area under winter crops. The speed at which ground can be worked in the autumn is critical: one month earlier planting can mean an extra ton in cereal yield.

3.4 Approvisionnement en eau

Approvisionnement en eau des terres sur lesquelles est appliquée la Technologie:
  • mixte: pluvial-irrigué

3.5 Groupe de GDT auquel appartient la Technologie

  • perturbation minimale du sol

3.6 Mesures de GDT constituant la Technologie

3.7 Principaux types de dégradation des terres traités par la Technologie

érosion hydrique des sols

érosion hydrique des sols

  • Wt: perte de la couche superficielle des sols (couche arable)/ érosion de surface
  • Wg: ravinement/ érosion en ravines
dégradation chimique des sols

dégradation chimique des sols

  • Cn: baisse de la fertilité des sols et réduction du niveau de matière organique (non causée par l’érosion)
Commentaires:

Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Wg: gully erosion / gullying, Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content

3.8 Prévention, réduction de la dégradation ou réhabilitation des terres dégradées

Spécifiez l'objectif de la Technologie au regard de la dégradation des terres:
  • réduire la dégradation des terres

4. Spécifications techniques, activités, intrants et coûts de mise en œuvre

4.1 Dessin technique de la Technologie

Spécifications techniques (associées au dessin technique):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase of infiltration, improvement of soil structure, increase in soil fertility

4.5 Activités d'entretien/ récurrentes

Activité Calendrier/ fréquence
1. Loosen the soil and incorporate the straw using the ‘Simba Solo’; soil consolidation, using the 'Cultipress' immediately post-harvest /
2. Spray the stale seedbed to remove all the weeds/volunteer plants of previous crops mid September
3. Light surface tillage and sowing into the seedbed; using the 'Väderstad Rapid Cultivator Drill' usually end September, just after spraying
4. Consolidation of the sown land using Cambridge rollers
5. After crop maturity, combine harvesting - with simultaneous chopping of straw
6. Disperse the chopped straw, using a trash rake.

4.6 Coûts et intrants nécessaires aux activités d'entretien/ récurrentes (par an)

Spécifiez les intrants Unité Quantité Coûts par unité Coût total par intrant % du coût supporté par les exploitants des terres
Equipements Machine use ha 1,0 180,0 180,0 100,0
Coût total d'entretien de la Technologie 180,0
Coût total d'entretien de la Technologie en dollars américains (USD) 180,0

4.7 Facteurs les plus importants affectant les coûts

Décrivez les facteurs les plus importants affectant les coûts :

No establishment costs for purchase of special conservation tillage equipment are included here – though this
investment is considerable. Tractors of sufficient horsepower and a couple of special machines (see above) are needed. The investment in this case was shared by two neighbouring farms, who implemented conservation agriculture on a joint venture basis. The only costs presented in the table above are total recurrent annual costs for tillage operations. This total, US$ 180, compares with US$ 260 for conventional tillage operations. While drilling is not included in the above conventional tillage calculation, subsequent application of additional herbicides represents an extra cost of conservation tillage of about US$ 80/ha. In balance the costs per hectare are broadly similar. Labour inputs however are reduced considerably as a proportion: the Allerton farm with its 260 ha of arable land is operated by a farm manager and just one farm worker.

5. Environnement naturel et humain

5.1 Climat

Précipitations annuelles
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1000 mm
  • 1001-1500 mm
  • 1501-2000 mm
  • 2001-3000 mm
  • 3001-4000 mm
  • > 4000 mm
Zone agro-climatique
  • subhumide

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 Topographie

Pentes moyennes:
  • plat (0-2 %)
  • faible (3-5%)
  • modéré (6-10%)
  • onduleux (11-15%)
  • vallonné (16-30%)
  • raide (31-60%)
  • très raide (>60%)
Reliefs:
  • plateaux/ plaines
  • crêtes
  • flancs/ pentes de montagne
  • flancs/ pentes de colline
  • piémonts/ glacis (bas de pente)
  • fonds de vallée/bas-fonds
Zones altitudinales:
  • 0-100 m
  • 101-500 m
  • 501-1000 m
  • 1001-1500 m
  • 1501-2000 m
  • 2001-2500 m
  • 2501-3000 m
  • 3001-4000 m
  • > 4000 m

5.3 Sols

Profondeur moyenne du sol:
  • très superficiel (0-20 cm)
  • superficiel (21-50 cm)
  • modérément profond (51-80 cm)
  • profond (81-120 cm)
  • très profond (>120 cm)
Texture du sol (de la couche arable):
  • moyen (limoneux)
  • fin/ lourd (argile)
Matière organique de la couche arable:
  • faible (<1%)
Si disponible, joignez une description complète du sol ou précisez les informations disponibles, par ex., type de sol, pH/ acidité du sol, capacité d'échange cationique, azote, salinité, etc.

Soil fertility is medium
Soil drainage/infiltration is medium
Soil water storage capacity is medium

5.6 Caractéristiques des exploitants des terres appliquant la Technologie

Orientation du système de production:
  • commercial/ de marché
Indiquez toute autre caractéristique pertinente des exploitants des terres:

Off-farm income specification: contract work on other farms is an important source of additional revenue for the ‘joint venture’ of the two neighbouring farms

5.7 Superficie moyenne des terres utilisées par les exploitants des terres appliquant la Technologie

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1 000 ha
  • 1 000-10 000 ha
  • > 10 000 ha

5.8 Propriété foncière, droits d’utilisation des terres et de l'eau

Propriété foncière:
  • entreprise
  • individu, avec titre de propriété
Droits d’utilisation des terres:
  • loué
  • individuel

6. Impacts et conclusions

6.1 Impacts sur site que la Technologie a montrés

Impacts socio-économiques

Production

production agricole

en baisse
en augmentation
Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Reduced yields in the early years (due to initial compaction)

Revenus et coûts

revenus agricoles

en baisse
en augmentation

Impacts socioculturels

institutions communautaires

affaibli
renforcé

institutions nationales

affaibli
renforcé

connaissances sur la GDT/ dégradation des terres

réduit
amélioré

apaisement des conflits

détérioré
amélioré

Impacts écologiques

Cycle de l'eau/ ruissellement

ruissellement de surface

en augmentation
en baisse

drainage de l'excès d'eau

réduit
amélioré
Sols

humidité du sol

en baisse
en augmentation

couverture du sol

réduit
amélioré

perte en sol

en augmentation
en baisse

matière organique du sol/ au dessous du sol C

en baisse
en augmentation
Autres impacts écologiques

Carbon sequestration

decreased
increased

Loss of nutrients (through leaching)

improved
reduced

Biodiversity enhancement

decreased
increased
Commentaires/ spécifiez:

Above and below ground

Soil structure

reduced
imporved

Organic matter depletion (in certain sandy soils)

increased
decreased

Reliance on herbicides

increased
decreased

6.2 Impacts hors site que la Technologie a montrés

inondations en aval

en augmentation
réduit

envasement en aval

en augmentation
en baisse

pollution des rivières/ nappes phréatiques

en augmentation
réduit

sédiments (indésirables) transportés par le vent

en augmentation
réduit

6.4 Analyse coûts-bénéfices

Quels sont les bénéfices comparativement aux coûts de mise en place (du point de vue des exploitants des terres)?
Rentabilité à court terme:

négative

Rentabilité à long terme:

positive

Quels sont les bénéfices comparativement aux coûts d'entretien récurrents (du point de vue des exploitants des terres)?
Rentabilité à court terme:

positive

Rentabilité à long terme:

très positive

6.5 Adoption de la Technologie

Commentaires:

There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Extent of adoption depends on farm size, enterprise & soil type. From 10% in 95, approx 40% of arable land in Eng is currently (04) under conservation agriculture/cultivation tillage.

Additional info: Farmers involved adopted the system without incentives other than those of timeliness, lower cost, speedier crop establishment, reduced soil erosion & benefits to wildlife. There is significant growing spontaneous adoption: the extent of adoption depends on farm size, enterprise & soil type. Editors’ comments: Conservation agriculture is rapidly catching on throughout the world. While most attention has been focussed on the Americas, a revolution is taking place in Europe also. In England, for example, around 40% of the large scale arable area is now under CA – a rise from just 10% a decade ago. CA helps to minimise costs and reduce local, and global, environmental impacts. This is a case from a leading proponent of CA in England. Comparative case studies are documented from Morocco, Australia and Kenya.

6.7 Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités de la Technologie

Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue de l'exploitant des terres
Increases soil biota (more than doubling earthworm mass) and biodiversity generally (nearly doubling the number of different organisms)

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Maintain system over time to maximise these benefits.
Points forts/ avantages/ possibilités du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé
Lowers recurrent soil tillage costs – mainly due to reduction in fuel use (down by about one third) and labour (saving around one person day per hectare)

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Spread over greater area to maximise cost reduction.
ncreases overall farm yield (and income) by speeding up land preparation in autumn, allowing a larger area to be planted as winter crops

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Ditto.
Improves soil structure and physical properties in various ways

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Maintain system over time to maximise these benefits.
Reduces runoff (by a half), soil erosion (by two thirds), and leaching of nutrients (by three quarters) thus decreasing movement of phosphates and nitrates to streams and rivers

How can they be sustained / enhanced? To improve further, combine with other measures such as adding organic matter or growing green manures and cover crops.
Increases soil buffering capacity against climatic extremes (especially rainfall) through maintaining surface cover and building up soil organic matter

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Maintain system over time to maximise these benefits.

6.8 Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques de la Technologie et moyens de les surmonter

Faiblesses/ inconvénients/ risques du point de vue du compilateur ou d'une autre personne ressource clé Comment peuvent-ils être surmontés?
Increased growth of grass weeds and thus greater cost of herbicides Use ‘stale seedbeds’ – surface tillage immediately post-harvest to induce weed germination – followed by spraying. Crop rotation, spring cropping, occasional ploughing (every few years as necessary).
Not suitable for all soil types (not appropriate on some sandy soils) Don’t introduce/promote CA indiscriminately.
Excessive surface trash/crop residues Good chopping, then spreading and incorporation.
Problems with slugs Drill seed deeper, ensure good seed-to-soil
Surface compaction in the early stages of conversion to conservation agriculture Appropriate loosening of soil, using tined implement.

7. Références et liens

7.1 Méthodes/ sources d'information

7.2 Références des publications disponibles

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

Soil Management Initiative/Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) A guide to managing crop
establishment.. (undated).

Disponible à partir d'où? Coût?

SMI, UK (www.smi.org.uk)

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

Soil Management Initiative Improved soil management for agronomic and environmental
gain.. (undated).

Disponible à partir d'où? Coût?

SMI, UK(www.smi.org.uk)

Titre, auteur, année, ISBN:

Soil Management Initiative/Väderstad Target on establishment: innovation for the future of farming.. (undated).

Disponible à partir d'où? Coût?

SMI, UK(www.smi.org.uk)

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