Participatory Sustainable Rural Livelihood Approach [Índia]

approaches_2367 - Índia

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1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da abordagem

Pessoa(s) capacitada(s)

Especialista em GST:
Especialista em GST:
Nome da(s) instituição(ões) que facilitou(ram) a documentação/avaliação da Abordagem (se relevante)
Orissa Watershed Developemnt Mission - Índia

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

O/a compilador/a e a(s) pessoa(s) capacitada(s) aceitam as condições relativas ao uso de dados documentados através da WOCAT:


1.4 Referência ao(s) questionário(s) sobre tecnologias da GST

Contour Trench cum Bund

Contour Trench cum Bund [Índia]

Contour trench cum bund is a bund laid out on contour along with trench either staggered or continuous to check the velocity of run off, conserve in situ moisture, increse ground water recharge and there by establish a sustainable land use system.

  • Compilador/a: Niranjan Sahu

2. Descrição da abordagem de GST

2.1 Descrição curta da abordagem

Participatory Sustainable Rural Livelihood Approach adopts participatory tools for livelihood situational analysis of the five capitals(Physical, Financila,Social, Human and Natural) and prepare livelihood focussed micro plan with the commuity for sustai

2.2 Descrição detalhada da abordagem

Descrição detalhada da abordagem:

Aims / objectives: Participatory Sustainable Rural Livelihood Approach uses the DFID's Sustainable Rural Livelihood Framework. The approach adopts participatory processes during planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.The out put of the planning process is a livelihood focussed micro plan. The process of micro plan preparation with the community consists of rapport building, livelihood situational analysis, problem identification and prioritisation, negotiation and development of action plan. The livelihood situational analysis focuses on identifying the strength of the community by diagonising the five capitals(Physical, Natural, Financial, Social, Human) and suggest options for livelihood improvement. Objective: 1.Livelihood improvement of the poor and vulnerable.2. Creating an enabling environment 3. Capacity building of the primary and secondary stake holders.Out puts:1.Enhanced and sustainable livelihood options for resource poor and disadvantaged identified and supported in project areas. 2.Resource poor and disadvantaged organised in project areas to effectively identify, plan and implement livelihood activities and participate in wider for a and processes.3.GO,PRI, NGO,PIA work effectively with communities on (pro poor) livelihoods and initiatives in four project districts. 4.Strategic constraints to livelihood of resource poor and disadvantaged are identified and reviewed and improvements proposed to Government.5.Appropriate approaches and interventions developed through the project are replicated in the four project districts and disseminated within Orissa and national level for a.

Methods: Participatory, Collaborative and Convergence. Stages of implementation: Rapport building,Community mobilistion, Preparation of micro plan, Formation of village level institutions, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Role of stakeholders: Community members are actors and all others are facilitators.

2.5 País/região/locais onde a abordagem foi aplicada





2.6 Datas de início e término da abordagem

Indique o ano de início:


Ano de término (caso a abordagem não seja mais aplicada):


2.7 Tipo de abordagem

  • Baseado em projeto/programa

2.8 Principais metas/objetivos da abordagem

The Approach focused mainly on SLM with other activities (Promotion of tuber crops for food security, Participatory technology development, Livestock management, Grassroot institutions building,Microenterprise development through Self Help Groups, Policy advocacy,Adopt participatory processes)

1.Livelihood of the poorest improved in four districts in a sustainable and replicable way.2.WORLP will provide ENABLING ENVIRONMENT to initiate this experiment.3.Bring about a clear understanding of-what is watershed- (emphasizing equity, social justice and local government / PRI).4.develop a synergistic strategy.5.Orient agencies to work towards the synergistic strategy- capacity building.5.Create and strengthen appropriate institutions at different levels for implementing and monitoring common strategy. 6.Pursue necessary policy change in regards to fund management and inter-department, inter-agency coordination.7.At the grassroots level i.e., watershed level demonstrate convergence of activities.

The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: Capacity building(Knowledge, skill and attitude) of the primary and secondary stake holders.Limited livelihood options.Sectoral approach by line departments.

2.9 Condição que propiciam ou inibem a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias aplicada(s) segundo a abordagem

Normas e valores sociais/culturais/religiosos
  • Inibitivo

Skewed distribution of weath, Community management of natural resources

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Identify well being groups,Promote communty farming, Capacity building on CPR management

Disponibilidade/acesso a recursos e serviços financeiros
  • Inibitivo

Poor affordibility of farmers and ownership

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Financial aid to farmers through WC, SHG and UG. Voluntary contribution to create a sense of ownership

Quadro institucional
  • Inibitivo

Poor grass root institutions

Treatment through the SLM Approach: Strengthening of existing institutions and promotion of WC, SHG, UG and CIG

Quadro jurídico (posse de terra, direitos de uso da terra e da água)
  • Inibitivo

The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights hindered a little the approach implementation Due to small land holding

Conhecimento sobre GST, acesso a suporte técnico
  • Inibitivo

poor knowledge on land and water management practices

Treatment through the SLM Approach: In-field training and demonstration, exposure, development of NRM volunteers

3. Participação e papel das partes interessadas envolvidas

3.1 Partes interessadas envolvidas na abordagem e seus papéis

  • Usuários de terra/comunidades locais

Village level institutions like WC,SHG,UG,CIG etc.

Working land users were mainly men (mainly main supported by women). Men participate more in WC and UG meetings where as women participate in SHG meetings. The no of women in UG is also less. Decision making is mainly done by men on SWC technology. The resource poor land user is also a member of the UserGroup. So, he/She participate in the meetings and share his/her views.

  • Organização não governamental
  • Governo nacional (planejadores, responsáveis pelas decisões)


  • Organização internacional


3.2 Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais nas diferentes fases da abordagem
Envolvimento do usuários de terra/comunidades locais Especifique quem estava envolvido e descreva as atividades
Iniciação/motivação Participativo Exposure visit and demonstration; Approach is initiated with rapport building stage through small interactive meeting, conducting mapping exercises and focussed group discussion to understand the village situation.Exposure and demonstration help the land users to identify gaps in the existing and im
Planejamento Participativo Mainly: rapid/participatory rural appraisal; partly: public meetings; 1.For livelihood situational analysis. 2. Focussed Group discussion for indepth analyis of constraints and oppertunities of a particular group.3. Palli Sabha to negotiate and obtain a consensus on the plan.
Implementação Apoio externo Mainly: responsibility for major steps; partly: responsibility for minor steps; Implementation of the programme is the prime responsibility of the user group.NRM volunteers are assisting the UG on technical guidance like laying contours, bunds and trenches.Involved landless during the implementation
Monitoramento/avaliação Automobilização Mainly: measurements/observations; partly: reporting; Watershed Development Team member and WC check measure the work before payment. The report submitted by the WC is reviewed by the Project implementing agency(PIA). The estimated cost is approved by the committee and then the expenditure is made.
Research Nenhum

3.4 Decisão sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias de GST

Especifique quem decidiu sobre a seleção de tecnologia/tecnologias a serem implementadas:
  • Principalmente usuários da terra, apoiados por especialistas em GST

Interventions promoted mainly on the existing indegeneous practices and based on peoples strength.

Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by mainly by land users supported by SLM specialists. The technical knowhow was transferred to the NRM volunteers and land users through training and demonstration Then the volunteer assisted the land users in developing proposal and implementation of the SWC Technology.

4. Suporte técnico, reforço das capacidades e gestão do conhecimento

4.1 Reforço das capacidades/formação

Foi oferecida formação aos usuários da terra/outras partes interessadas?


Especifique quem foi capacitado:
  • Usuários de terra
  • extensionists/trainers (2), SWC specialists (3)
Tipo de formação:
  • Em exercício
  • Agricultor para agricultor
  • Áreas de demonstração
Assuntos abordados:

Understanding of present land use and future treatment measures, determination of slope, use of tools like A frame, hand level, layout of contours, trench and bund, role of UG etc.

4.2 Serviço de consultoria

Os usuários de terra têm acesso a um serviço de consultoria?


Especifique se foi oferecido serviço de consultoria:
  • nas áreas dos usuários da terra

Name of method used for advisory service: Participatory technology development, field demonstration, exposure visits and in field training; Key elements: Use of participatory tools, NRM volunteers, Insitu training, demonstration and exposure visits; 1) Mainly: NRM volunteers, Partly: projects own extension structure and agent 2) Mainly: NRM volunteers, Partly: projects own extension structure and agent; Extension staff: specifically hired project employees 3) Target groups for extension: land users; Activities: Meeting, exposure,training and demonstration

Advisory service is inadequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; Five NRM volunteers have been created in each watershed to assist in SWC work.Three WDT and three LST have been in position for extension and awareness creation among the land users for ten watersheds.

4.3 Fortalecimento da instituição (desenvolvimento organizacional)

As instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas através da abordagem?
  • Sim, moderadamente
Especifique a que nível (níveis) as instituições foram fortalecidas ou estabelecidas:
  • Local
Especifique o tipo de apoio:
  • Financeiro
  • Reforço das capacidades/formação

4.4 Monitoramento e avaliação

Monitoramento e avaliação são partes da abordagem?



bio-physical aspects were ad hoc monitored through observations

technical aspects were regular monitored through observations

socio-cultural aspects were ad hoc monitored through observations

economic / production aspects were regular monitored through measurements

area treated aspects were regular monitored through observations

no. of land users involved aspects were regular monitored through measurements

management of Approach aspects were regular monitored through observations

There were several changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Focussing the poorest through well being grouping for livelihood improvement, Grant component for the poorest earmarked in the livelihood guideline from watershed plus funds,Block approach for treatment considering poor people, poor land, contributiona nd ridge to valley, developed livelihood focussed micr plan process for the project.Transperency through social audit.

4.5 Pesquisa

A pesquisa foi parte da abordagem?


Especifique os tópicos:
  • Economia/Marketing
  • Tecnologia
Dê mais detalhes e indique quem realizou a pesquisa:

Participatory technology development in farmers field.MART, New Delhi has taken up a six months study on developing marketing strategy.

Research was carried out on-farm

5. Financiamento e apoio material externo

5.1 Orçamento anual para o componente de GST da abordagem

Caso o orçamento exato seja desconhecido, indique a faixa:
  • > 1.000.000
Comentários (p. ex. principais fontes de recursos/principais doadores):

Approach costs were met by the following donors: international (DFID,UK): 85.0%; local community / land user(s) (UG): 15.0%

5.2 Apoio financeiro/material concedido aos usuários da terra

Os usuários da terra receberam apoio financeiro/material para a implementação de tecnologia/tecnologias?


5.3 Subsídios para entradas específicas (incluindo mão-de-obra)

  • Nenhum
Se a mão-de-obra pelos usuários da terra foi uma entrada substancial, isso foi:
  • Pago em dinheiro

5.4 Crédito

Foi concedido crédito segundo a abordagem para atividades de GST?


6. Análise de impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos da abordagem

A abordagem auxiliou os usuários da terra a implementar e manter as tecnologias de GST?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

treating the land from ridge to valley,reduced soil loss and sand casting in the down stream, increased moisture availabilty, water harvesting of the excess runoff,

A abordagem melhorou as questões de posse de terra/diretos do usuário que inibiam a implementação das tecnologias de GST?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Working in group in a participatory manner has facilitated a process of identifying their own constraints and oppertunities and plan interventions accordingly, thus implamentation is more effective.

Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
  • Não
  • Sim, pouco
  • Sim, moderadamente
  • Sim, significativamente

Adoption of the SRL approach and compact area treatment in non-WORLP watersheds in WORLP project districts.

6.3 Atividades de sustentabilidade de abordagem

Os usuários da terra podem manter o que foi implementado através da abordagem (sem apoio externo)?
  • Sim

6.4 Pontos fortes/vantagens da abordagem

Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades na visão do usuário da terra
We are working together (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Ugs and SHGs be promoted in amore democratic way)
It is our work (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Feeling of ownership needs to be strengthed)
We have been able to practise the SWC activity in a better way (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Exposure to learn more about SWC activities.)
Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades na visão do/a compilador/a ou de outra pessoa capacitada
Community take their own decision (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: making the institutions more democratic)
Revolving fund (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Increased frequency of internal lending and repayment)
Village level institutions (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: provide autonomy)
Village volunteers/link workers (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: capacity building)

6.5 Pontos fracos, desvantagens da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Pontos fracos/vantagens/riscos na visão do/a compilador/a ou de outra pessoa capacitada Como eles podem ser superados?
Poverty categorisation based on criteria developed by the community Criteria has already been developed nad circulated
Difficult to address all the issues of livelihood within the project time frame Strategy needs to be developed for better convergence with line department to expedite the process

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • visitas de campo, pesquisas de campo
  • entrevistas com usuários de terras

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Título, autor, ano, ISBN:

Success stories compilation, News letter, Project memorandum, Livehood microplan of watershed

Disponível de onde? Custos?

Project Director(Watershed), Nuapada Project Director(Watershed)