Technologies

Carbon-enrichment of tropical agricultural soil with organic matter [Brazil]

Enriquecimento de carbono em solo de lavoura com matéria orgânica (Brazil)

technologies_1250 - Brazil

Completeness: 80%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
SLM specialist:

Irmler Prof. Dr. Ulrich

Institute for Ecosystem Research

Germany

SLM specialist:

Wantzen Prof. Dr. Karl M.

CNRS UMR CITERES

France

Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: Making sense of research for sustainable land management (GLUES)
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Carbon optimized land management strategies for southern Amazonia (CARBIOCIAL / GLUES)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
University of Kiel (University of Kiel) - Germany
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso) - Brazil
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Université Francois-Rabelais de Tours (Université Francois-Rabelais de Tours) - France

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

1.4 Declaração de sustentabilidade da tecnologia descrita

A tecnologia descrita aqui é problemática em relação a degradação da terra de forma que não pode ser declarada uma tecnologia sustentável de gestão de terra?

Não

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches (documented using WOCAT)

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

Carbon-enrichment of tropical agricultural soils with locally available organic matter in the Cerrado agricultural landscape, Brazil.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

In the Carbiocial Project viable land management strategies were explored to optimize the level of carbon in soil and water, helping to maintain and/or improve ecosystem functions, under changing climatic conditions in the Southern Amazon and the Brazilian Cerrado. In the framework of this project, on-farm experiments were performed to enrich tropical agricultural soils in the medium term, with different types of organic matter (OM). In the experiment the effect of different types of OM amendments on soil carbon and macro-nutrients (N, P, and K), soil physical properties (waterholding capacity) and crop yield (soy biomass and grain production) were assessed. The amendments applied are locally available, and are either free (being waste materials) or considered cost-efficient.

The objective of this on-going experiment is to compare the impact of (i) the quality and quantity of OM applied, (ii) and the application methods (directly on the soil surface or incorporation by harrow) on soil chemical and physical properties. It is hypothesised that the addition of OM can enhance crop yields and, potentially, soil biodiversity. The effects of the different OM types, amounts and application methods were evaluated after one, two and three years. From the results, the aim is to provide recommendations for the development of soil OM-enrichment schemes and carbon-friendly landscape management programs for farmers, using local resources.

The experiment was established on an area of about one hectare on a ferrasol (red latosol) at the Rio Engano Farm, in the municipality of Campo Verde, Mato Grosso State. The farm has a total area of ca. 1500 ha, 830 ha of which are cultivated with soybean and maize rotation, under a zero-tillage system, which is typical of many farms in this region. It is located in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna) biome at about 685 m a.s.l. This biome covers 2 million km2, which is 23% of the country area. It has a semi-humid climate with a pronounced dry season. The precipitation during the rainy season (September-April) varies between 800 and 2000 mm/year.

At the beginning of the experiment (February 2012), three different types of OM amendments were applied. They comprised (a) sugarcane filter cake (Saccharum officinarum from ethanol/sugar-production, (b) sawdust of peroba and cedrinho (Peroba jaune and Erisma uncinatum, respectively) and (c) coarse chips of Eucalyptus sp. Quantities applied were 0 (control), 6, 12 and 18 tonnes of each per hectare; using two methods: directly on the soil surface, and incorporated by harrow. There were three repetitions per treatment. The area was not fenced to allow the farmers to continue with their field routines on all plots. In February 2013, 2014 and 2015 soil samples were taken to analyze their chemical and physical properties. Soybean samples were also taken in February 2014 and 2015 to estimate biomass and grain production. From the initial results some conclusions can be drawn: 1) Organic amendment addition to ferrasols can significantly increase soil organic carbon, even in amounts as low as 6 t/ha. 2) Amendments should be reapplied every 2 years. 3) The amendment type and application method does not have a significant effect on increasing soil organic carbon. 4) The addition of OM amendments is a win-win situation as a solution for organic matter waste recycling, and simultaneously to improve soil quality.

The area was not fenced to allow the farmer to continue with their arable field routines on all treatment plots. In February 2013, 2014 and 2015 soil samples were taken to analyze their chemical and physical properties. Soy bean samples were also taken in February 2014 and 2015 to estimate biomass and grain production.
From our first results we can draw some conclusions:
1) Organic amendment addition to Ferrasol can increase significantly soil organic carbon (SOC) percentage, even in small amounts such as 6 ton/ha.
2) Amendment reapplication should be done in 2 years intervals.
3) The amendment type and disposition did not have a significant effect on increasing SOC.
4) The addition of OM amendments is a win-win situation as a solution for organic matter waste recycling and to improve soil quality.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Brazil

Region/ State/ Province:

Mato Grosso

Further specification of location:

Campo Verde

Especifique a difusão da tecnologia :
  • Uniformemente difundida numa área
If the Technology is evenly spread over an area, specify area covered (in km2):

0,011544

Comentários:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.011544 km2.
In the São Valentim Farm, located in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna) biome. The experimental soil enrichment was established in February 2012, on a Ferrasol. The area was under a soybean-corn crop rotation

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • durante experiências/pesquisa
  • através de projetos/intervenções externas
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

The enrichment of the soil by OM application is a traditional practice. Some of the added OM types in this experimet are already used in the Cerrado without any technical specification. This project aim to identify of one or more types, amounts and application methods of OM, which improve significantly soil quality and carbon stock. The OM effects are evaluated after 2 and 3 years of its addition, which was initially done in February 2012.

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Melhora a produção
  • Preserva ecossistema

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Land use mixed within the same land unit:

Sim

Specify mixed land use (crops/ grazing/ trees):
  • Agro-pastoralism (incl. integrated crop-livestock)

Terra de cultivo

Terra de cultivo

  • Cultura anual
Número de estações de cultivo por ano:
  • 2
Especifique:

Longest growing period in days: 150, Longest growing period from month to month: November to March; Second longest growing period in days: 120, Second longest growing period from month to month: April to July

Pastagem

Pastagem

Extensive grazing:
  • Fazenda
Pastagem intensiva/produção de forragem:
  • Semiestabulação/sem pastagem
Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Croplands demonstrate a reduction in soil organic matter, after their conversion from indigenous vegetation into agricultural fields. It is especially critical in the ferrasol soils of the Brazilian Cerrado, as its organic matter content is relatively low, and tropical temperatures and humidity accelerate microbial activity (Price and Sowers 2004)
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): There are also problems regarding soil compaction and rainfall regime change
Grazingland comments: There is some grazing by tapir, capibara, wild pig, ema, papagay
Type of grazing system comments: There is some grazing by tapir, capibara, wild pig, ema, papagay

Livestock density: > 100 LU /km2

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Precipitação natural

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Gestão integrada de fertilidade do solo

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A2: Matéria orgânica/fertilidade do solo
  • A3: Tratamento da superfície do solo
  • A4: Tratamento do subsolo
Comentários:

Type of agronomic measures: manure / compost / residues, zero tillage / no-till, non-inversion tillage

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
Deteriorização física do solo

Deteriorização física do solo

  • Pc: Compactação
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bs: Qualidade e composição de espécies/declínio de diversidade
Comentários:

Main causes of degradation: soil management (Extensive areas of monoculture), crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (Intensive soil use), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (In the region, the native vegetation of Cerrado was deforested during the early 80´s for agricultural purposes.), population pressure (Most of the agricultural production from The Brazilian Cerrado meet the food demand from Europe and China)
Secondary causes of degradation: Heavy / extreme rainfall (intensity/amounts) (There is an increase of extreme rainfall events which take place during the rainy season), labour availability (Reduction of availability of skilled labor for instance, to carry out integral monitoring of plagues), education, access to knowledge and support services (There a positive relationship between education level of farmers and the adoption of new technologies for sustainable land management), governance / institutional (Part of the colonization and conversion of the Brazilian Cerrado into agricultural systems was encouraged by Research (Embrapa) and Financing Government Programs)

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Enrichment of Tropical agricultural soil (Ferrasol) with organic matter amendments. Experimental design: amendment types, amounts and disposition methods (direct on the soil or with harrow incorporation). Studied variables: soil carbon and nutrients, soil physical properties (water holding capacity) and crop yield (soy biomass and grain production).
Location: Rio Engano Ranch. Campo Verde / Mato Grosso / Brazil
Date: 6.11.2015

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low
Technical knowledge required for land users: low
Main technical functions: increase in organic matter, increase / maintain water stored in soil
Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of infiltration, increase of groundwater level / recharge of groundwater, water harvesting / increase water supply

Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: (a) Filter cake of sugarcane residues (Saccharum officinarum from alcohol/sugar-production, (b) saw
Quantity/ density: 6, 12, 18

Zero tillage / no-till
Remarks: A part of the organic matter was added directly on the soil surface

Non-inversion tillage
Remarks: Another part of the organic matter was incorporate into the soil by using harrow

Autor:

Diego Orduz, orduzrobles@gmail.com

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):

BRL

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

4,0

Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

25.00

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Comentários:

Duration of establishment phase: 0 month(s)

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. 1.Transport of amendments by trucks (0.2 tonne/US$)
2. 2.Spreading / incorporation of organic matter by tractor (US$ 3/ha for petrol and US$ 5/ha for tractor driver).

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra labour ha 1,0 5,0 5,0 100,0
Equipamento machine use ha 1,0 15,0 15,0 100,0
Equipamento truck transport ha 1,0 150,0 150,0 100,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 170,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 42,5

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

Amendment truck transport (0,2 ton/US$), amendment application by tractor(15 US$*ha/dia)
and tractor driver (5 US$*ha) costs.
The used organic matter amendments are cost-free. It is suggested to use cost-free materials if possible or cost–efficient materials to reduce implementation and maintenance costs. Transport of amendments is paid by tonne, independently of the type. The OM application methods (direct on the soil by hand or with harrow incorporation) did not show significant differences. For this reason only the costs for the tractor were calculated, because it is a more economic option.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

The area presents strong seasonality: dry season (May-Sep) and rainy season (Oct-Apr)

Zona agroclimática
  • Subúmido

Thermal climate class: tropics

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Fino/pesado (argila)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Alto (>3%)

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

5-50 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Bom

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

apenas para uso agrícola (irrigação)

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • low

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Comercial/mercado
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • Menos de 10% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Média
  • Rico
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
Nível de mecanização:
  • Mecanizado/motorizado
Gênero:
  • Homens
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: In the Cerrado most of the extensive crops (soy bean, corn and cotton) are managed by men
Population density: < 10 persons/km2
Annual population growth: > 4%; 7%
3% of the land users are very rich.
46% of the land users are rich.
51% of the land users are average wealthy.
Off-farm income specification: The off-farm income in the Cerrado is in most cases not relevant for farmers, both applying or not conservation meaures. Their income depent principally on agricultural activities such as soy bean, corn and cotton crops among others.

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Pequena escala

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Indivíduo, intitulado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Indivíduo
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Arrendado
Comentários:

The water used is regulated by the Environmental Secretary of the State (SEMA). Thus, water users have to obtain an Environmental License, where the volumen of water consumption is declared. The license is free of charge.

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado

Risco de falha de produção

Elevado
Diminuído

Gestão de terra

Impedido
Simplificado
Comentários/especificar:

There is not specific machinery for organic matter application in large scale

Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Demanda por água para irrigação

Elevado
Diminuído
Renda e custos

Despesas com insumos agrícolas

Elevado
Diminuído

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

In case the technology reduces the crop demand for chemical fertilization, nonetheless this effect has not been yet evaluated

Outros impactos socioeconômicos

It provides a better environmental and technical use for agroindustrial residues

decreased
increased

costs of transport and application of OM amendments

increased
decreased

Impactos socioculturais

Atenuação de conflitos

Agravado
Melhorado

Impactos ecológicos

Solo

Umidade do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

Ciclo e recarga de nutrientes

Diminuído
Elevado

Matéria orgânica do solo/carbono abaixo do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Outros impactos ecológicos

increased soil micro-organisms and fauna

decreased
increased

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Mudança climática gradual

Mudança climática gradual
Estação do ano increase or decrease Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temperatura anual increase não bem

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local bem
Tempestade de vento local bem
Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Seca não bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) não bem

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Período de crescimento reduzido não bem

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

ligeiramente negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

ligeiramente negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

positivo

Comentários:

The technology cost of maintenance is the same as establishment cost. According with our results, amendment reapplication should be done in 2 years intervals, starting from small amounts such as 6 ton/ha.

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

Comentários:

There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Antonio Huebner, land owner and user of the Rio Engano Farm is aware of the technology benefits for soil fertility. However, he considers that OM costs of transport and application can hinder the technology incorporation into common practice for soil management.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The addition of industrial organic matter (OM) waste from levels of only 6 tonnes/ha onwards can significantly increase soil organic carbon on a ferrasol in the Brazilian Cerrado. This increase took place regardless of the type of OM waste applied and even when the soil was under no-tillage for more than 20 years

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The costs of transport and application can hinder the extensive use of soil OM enrichment practices among land users in the Brazilian Cerrado Subsidies could encourage the technology adoption.
There is no specific machinery for OM spreading / incorporation, which increases human workload To reduce human labour, it is recommended to design / adapt machinery for this purpose (e.g. of lime or mulch application machinery). However, more tests and improvements of the application methods are desirable.
Materials used as OM amendments could be toxic and pose a risk of soil pollution It is important that land users are well informed about the risks. Crude forest material such as sawdust from peroba and cedrinho or roughly processed material such as filter cake of sugarcane used in this study should not have a toxic effect. Regarding the potential allelopathic effect of eucalyptus, its decomposing biomass does not seem to have a significant inhibitory effect on other crops (Chu et al. 2014)

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

  • field visits, field surveys
  • interviews with land users

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Price PB, Sowers T (2004) Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival.

Available from where? Costs?

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101:4631-4636

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Tivet F et al. (2013) Aggregate C depletion by plowing and its restoration by diverse biomass-C inputs under no-till in sub-tropical and tropical regions of Brazil.

Available from where? Costs?

Soil and tillage research, 126 :203-218

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Zech W. et al. (1997) Factors controlling humific G. ation and Mineralization of soil organic matter in the tropics.

Available from where? Costs?

Geoderma 79 : 117-161

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Chu, C. et al. (2014) Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus on native and introduced tree species

Available from where? Costs?

Forest Ecology and Management, Volume 323: 79-84

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