Technologies

Planting poplar forest in the flood plains of high mountain river areas [Tajikistan]

Буньедкардани чакалакзор дар сохили даръехои баландкух (tajik)

technologies_1515 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 82%

1. Informação geral

1.2 Detalhes do contato das pessoas capacitadas e instituições envolvidas na avaliação e documentação da tecnologia.

Pessoa(s)-chave

SLM specialist:
local community:

Jonbekov Ikbol

Tajikistan

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU_EHS) - Germany
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
UNEP (UNEP) - Kenya
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
UNDP/GEF Project Uzbekistan (UNDP/GEF Uzbekistan) - Uzbekistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Tajik Soil Insitute (Tajik Soil Institute) - Tajikistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences) - Tajikistan

1.3 Condições em relação ao uso da informação documentada através de WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Sim

2. Descrição da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

2.1 Descrição curta da tecnologia

Definição da tecnologia:

The afforestation of the low productivity sandy lands in the river valley areas of arid highlands with fast growing poplar trees, provides the population with firewood as well as timber and also provides conservation benefits.

2.2 Descrição detalhada da tecnologia

Descrição:

In the Jamoat Vankala area of the Shugnan district in GBAO, low temperatures make it very difficult to grow fruit or trees other than poplar (Populus pamirico) or Salix Schugnanica Coerz.
The natural forest consists mainly of the latter and this grows very slowly. It is very cold for 6-7 months of the year in this region, so the demand for cheap firewood to heat homes is extremely high.
In the 1980s, the sovhoz decided to transform 10ha of a low productivity pasture land into more productive irrigated forest land. After the collapse of the Soviet system, the Jamoat rented this forest land to a farmer, who still remains in charge of this piece of land.

Purpose of the Technology: The creation of a poplar forest on the river shore in this treeless desert alpine zone can go someway towards meeting the local's demand for firewood. It can provide cheap timber and environmental benefits as well as a pleasant environment.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The process of establishing this poplar forest began with the creation of irrigation canals and the planting of seedlings. In the first few years, the seedlings had to be watered frequently due to the thirsty sandy soils.
Other factors that needed to be considered were protecting the area from grazing cattle, watering areas around the forest away from the the river bank, the selective felling of some poplars, the additional planting of trees on barren soil, as well as the protection of the forest from predatory deforestation by the locals (which has increased during the economic crisis). Thanks to natural regeneration processes, farmers can now prepare firewood for the winter and do not have to bring the timber from far away.

Natural / human environment: 88% of the Pamir region is covered by glaciers, snow, and rocks, and is thus completely devoid of soil. Consequently, the area of arable and orchard lands in the GBAO region is only about 2%, with a forest area of 0.4%. Two-thirds of all the Pamir natural forests are located along the river banks of the Vanch, Gunt, Tokuzbulak, and others, at an altitude of 3200m.
In the narrow V-shaped valleys of the Western Pamirs, the lowest points are at an altitude of 1,200m,extending up to the highest points at 7,400m. This explains the climatic differences within the region, because the lower parts in the valleys enjoy a warmer climate than the higher parts. Overall, the annual average air temperature in the region is 9°C, and most rainfall occurs between the winter and spring periods with an average precipitation of 191-227mm.

2.3 Fotos da tecnologia

2.5 País/região/locais onde a tecnologia foi aplicada e que estão cobertos nesta avaliação

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Tajikistan / GBAO

Further specification of location:

Shugnan / Vankala

2.6 Data da implementação

Caso o ano exato seja desconhecido, indique a data aproximada:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introdução da tecnologia

Especifique como a tecnologia foi introduzida:
  • atráves de inovação dos usuários da terra
Comentários (tipos de projeto, etc.):

During the 1980s much of the low productivity sandy land was converted to poplar forest. This was initiated by a local group who put in many voluntary hours. From 1993 onwards, this forest was part of the local jamoat "Vankala" lands. The local administration rented it to a local farmer- (Jonbekov Ikbol).

3. Classificação da tecnologia de gestão sustentável da terra

3.1 Principal/principais finalidade(s) da tecnologia

  • Atenuar a mudanças climáticas e seus impactos
  • Criar impacto econômico benéfico

3.2 Tipo(s) atualizado(s) de uso da terra onde a tecnologia foi aplicada

Pastagem

Pastagem

Animal type:
  • cattle - dairy
Species:

cattle - dairy

Count:

2

Floresta/bosques

Floresta/bosques

  • Florestas/bosques (semi)naturais
  • Plantação de árvores, reflorestamento
(Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands: Specify management type:
  • Derrubada seletiva
Tree plantation, afforestation: Specify origin and composition of species:
  • Monocultura de variedade local
  • Populus pamirico, Salix Schugnanica Coerz, dog rose
Produtos e serviços:
  • Madeira
  • Lenha
  • Pastagem/Alimentação de folhas e brotos
  • Conservação/proteção da natureza
  • Lazer/turismo
  • Proteção contra desastres naturais
Comentários:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The main problems include; Low soil productivity, a short growing season, desertification, low temperatures and a sharp drop in average daily temperatures and an early night frost. Very sparse vegetation of drought-tolerant grass and little shrubs

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): water shortages, low soil fertility, low yields

Selective felling of (semi-) natural forests: Every autumn

Plantation forestry: Every year they plant new seedlings to assist with afforestation

Forest products and services: timber, fuelwood, grazing / browsing, nature conservation / protection, recreation / tourism, protection against natural hazards

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Forests / woodlands: Fp: Plantations, afforestations

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: The farmer owns 1-2 of his own cows which graze in the forest over the smmer. They use these cows for milk. The cows are not allowed to roam free, they are tied up. Someimes the children try to sell milk and dairy products on the roadside, but there is not much passing trade.

Livestock is grazing on crop residues

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Pastagem

Pastagem

Floresta/bosques

Floresta/bosques

  • Florestas/bosques (semi)naturais
  • Plantação de árvores, reflorestamento
(Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands: Specify management type:
  • Derrubada seletiva

3.4 Water supply

Abastecimento de água para a terra na qual a tecnologia é aplicada:
  • Irrigação completa
Comentários:

Water supply: Also mixed rainfed

Longest growing period in days: 120 longest growing period from month to month: May- September

3.5 Grupo de gestão sustentável da terra ao qual pertence a tecnologia

  • Solo/cobertura vegetal melhorada
  • Redução de riscos de desastre baseada no ecossitema

3.6 Medidas de gestão sustentável da terra contendo a tecnologia

Medidas agronômicas

Medidas agronômicas

  • A1: cobertura vegetal/do solo
Medidas vegetativas

Medidas vegetativas

  • V1: cobertura de árvores/arbustos
Medidas estruturais

Medidas estruturais

  • S3: Valas graduadas, canais, vias navegáveis
Medidas de gestão

Medidas de gestão

  • M1: Mudança no tipo de uso da terra
Comentários:

Main measures: vegetative measures, management measures

Secondary measures: structural measures

Type of vegetative measures: in blocks

3.7 Principais tipos de degradação da terra abordados pela tecnologia

Erosão do solo pela água

Erosão do solo pela água

  • Wt: Perda do solo superficial/erosão de superfície
Deteriorização química do solo

Deteriorização química do solo

  • Cn: declínio de fertilidade e teor reduzido de matéria orgânica (não causado pela erosão)
Degradação biológica

Degradação biológica

  • Bc: redução da cobertura vegetal
  • Bq: quantidade/ declínio da biomassa
Comentários:

Main type of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bq: quantity / biomass decline

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (24hr electricity has been available only for the last 2 years. Over the last 16 years the local population have cut down all the surrounding trees.), over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (All the trees were cut down for use as animal feed and fire wood.), overgrazing (Livestock were grazed in the areas around the village all year round.), change in temperature (The summeres have become colder in recent years, the summer became more colder, most of crops ripen at low temperatures), poverty / wealth (most of the population are poor, thus placing high pressure on the natural reasources as they are forced to use these for fuel and food.)

Secondary causes of degradation: droughts (Low levels of rain fall, strong сold winds, high insolaton, low soil moisture), war and conflicts (During the civil war the area had high rates of food insecurity.)

3.8 Redução, prevenção ou recuperação da degradação do solo

Especifique o objetivo da tecnologia em relação a degradação da terra:
  • Reduzir a degradação do solo
  • Recuperar/reabilitar solo severamente degradado
Comentários:

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation

4. Especificações técnicas, implementação de atividades, entradas e custos

4.1 Desenho técnico da tecnologia

Especificações técnicas (relacionada ao desenho técnico):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (Needs to use chainsaws so some extra technical knowledge required.)

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase of biomass (quantity), spatial arrangement and diversification of land use

Secondary technical functions: improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), improvement of subsoil structure (hardpan), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase / maintain water stored in soil, reduction in wind speed, promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Aligned: -graded strips
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 400
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 5
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 5

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Trees/ shrubs species: Populus pamirico, Salix Schugnanica Coerz, dog rose

Grass species: different natural grasses

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 5.00%

Structural measure: main irrigation canal along the plot upper border
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.8
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 2000

Structural measure: irrigation networks inside the forest
Vertical interval between structures (m): 5
Spacing between structures (m): 5
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.2
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 200000

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 5%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 5%

Change of land use type: low-productivity grasslands have changed to a high productive poplar forest

Change of land use practices / intensity level: Changed from an area of open access to locals, to having controlled access (pasture land, forest land)

4.2 Informação geral em relação ao cálculo de entradas e custos

Outro/moeda nacional (especifique):

Somoni

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

4,53

Indique a média salarial da mão-de-obra contratada por dia:

30

4.3 Atividades de implantação

Atividade Timing (season)
1. Growing seedlings in a nursery one year (5 month irrigation)
2. Digging holes 50x60cm on 1 ha - 400 on 10 hectares - 4000 holes During Spring
3. Manure (dung) in Spring
4. Delivering of manure to plot by tractor and truck in Spring
5. Prepare a mixture of soil and dung for filling planting holes on 10 ha in Spring
6. Planting poplar seedlings and watering them in Spring
7. Planting trees along the irrigation canal along the road to Jelondi and the upper boundaries of the site (10m on 1day) before tree planting in spring
8. Establishment of irrigation networks from the canal in the garden(7x 1000м per day) before tree planting in spring
9. Collection of sea buck thorn stems and branches before tree planting
10. Load sea buck thorn stems and branches into the car and unloadthem before tree planting
11. Delivering stems and branches using a car before tree planting
12. Fencing the area before trees planting

4.4 Custos e entradas necessárias para a implantação

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Growing seedlings in a nursery (irrigation and nursering) Persons/day 25,0 30,0 750,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Digging holes Persons/day 100,0 30,0 3000,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Prepare a mixture of soil and dung Persons/day 40,0 30,0 1200,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Planting poplar seedlings and watering them Persons/day 40,0 30,0 1200,0 100,0
Equipamento Tractor for delivering manure hours 8,0 75,0 600,0 100,0
Equipamento Labour: Planting trees along the irrigation canal Persons/day 200,0 30,0 6000,0 100,0
Equipamento Labour: Establishment of irrigation networks from the canal in the garden Persons/day 30,0 30,0 900,0 100,0
Equipamento Car for transporting branches Trucks/day 20,0 100,0 2000,0 100,0
Fertilizantes e biocidas Manure (dung) tons 40,0 50,0 2000,0 100,0
Outros Labour: Collection of sea buck thorn stems and branches Persons/day 20,0 30,0 600,0 100,0
Outros Labour: Load sea buck thorn stems and branches into the car and unload them Persons/day 10,0 30,0 300,0 100,0
Outros Labour: Fencing the area Persons/day 100,0 30,0 3000,0 100,0
Custos totais para a implantação da tecnologia 21550,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 4757,17

4.5 Atividades recorrentes/manutenção

Atividade Calendarização/frequência
1. Watering seedlings 2 times per week first year (40 pers days on 1 month - 10 ha) 5 months per year
2. Watering seedlings once per week per year (20 pers days -1 month- 10 ha) 5 months per year
3. Protection, avoidance of grazing(5 hour per day) 5 months per year
4. Annual harvest of firewood every year/autumn
5. Selective felling of trees(Ø=40-50см) After 10 years / October
6. Annual haymaking of natural grass every year/summer
7. Repairs and cleaning of the main irrigation canal to clear sediment and debris Before the irrigation season/in spring
8. Repairs and cleaning of the irrigation network to clear sediment and brancheson 10 ha Before the irrigation season in spring
9. Repairing fences if needed

4.6 Custos e entradas necessárias pata a manutenção/atividades recorrentes (por ano)

Especifique a entrada Unidade Quantidade Custos por unidade Custos totais por entrada % dos custos arcados pelos usuários da terra
Mão-de-obra Watering seedlings (First year and followin year) Persons/day 300,0 30,0 9000,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Protection, avoidance of grazing Persons/day 87,0 30,0 2610,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Annual harvest of firewood Persons/day 10,0 30,0 300,0 100,0
Mão-de-obra Selective felling of trees (after 10 years Persons/day 15,0 30,0 450,0
Outros Labour: Annual haymaking of natural grass Persons/day 40,0 30,0 1200,0
Outros Labour: Repairs and cleaning of the main irrigation canal abd irrigation network Persons/day 15,0 30,0 450,0
Custos totais para a manutenção da tecnologia 14010,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 3092,72
Comentários:

Machinery/ tools: shovel

The costs were calculated for the whole plantation area of 10 ha

4.7 Fatores mais importantes que afetam os custos

Descreva os fatores mais determinantes que afetam os custos:

Labour is the most determinate factor affecting the costs, however, in this situation, most of it was provided by the land users themselves. Costs reported are those for additional labour that would need to be paid for.

5. Ambiente naturale e humano

5.1 Clima

Precipitação pluviométrica anual
  • <250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1.000 mm
  • 1.001-1.500 mm
  • 1.501-2.000 mm
  • 2.001-3.000 mm
  • 3.001-4.000 mm
  • > 4.000 mm
Especificações/comentários sobre a pluviosidade:

200-230 mm average rainfall. Main season is during winter to spring period.

Zona agroclimática
  • Árido

Thermal climate class: boreal
In general, the Pamirs are is characterised by dry air and low precipitation

5.2 Topografia

Encostas em média:
  • Plano (0-2%)
  • Suave ondulado (3-5%)
  • Ondulado (6-10%)
  • Moderadamente ondulado (11-15%)
  • Forte ondulado (16-30%)
  • Montanhoso (31-60%)
  • Escarpado (>60%)
Formas de relevo:
  • Planalto/planície
  • Cumes
  • Encosta de serra
  • Encosta de morro
  • Sopés
  • Fundos de vale
Zona de altitude:
  • 0-100 m acima do nível do mar
  • 101-500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 501-1.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.001-1.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 1.501-2.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.001-2.500 m acima do nível do mar
  • 2.501-3.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • 3.001-4.000 m acima do nível do mar
  • > 4.000 m acima do nível do mar
Indique se a tecnologia é aplicada especificamente em:
  • Posições côncavas
Comentários e outras especificações sobre a topografia:

Altitudinal zone: 3200 m a.s.l.

Slopes on average: It is a narrow river valley

5.3 Solos

Profundidade do solo em média:
  • Muito raso (0-20 cm)
  • Raso (21-50 cm)
  • Moderadamente profundo (51-80 cm)
  • Profundo (81-120 cm)
  • Muito profundo (>120 cm)
Textura do solo (solo superficial):
  • Grosso/fino (arenoso)
Matéria orgânica do solo superficial:
  • Médio (1-3%)
Caso disponível anexe a descrição completa do solo ou especifique as informações disponíveis, p. ex. tipo de solo, PH/acidez do solo, nitrogênio, capacidade de troca catiônica, salinidade, etc:

Soil depth on average: The soil is sandy-loam, shallow, with low productivity

Soil texture: Sandy-loamy soil

These soils have low natural fertility, and irrigation increases the productivity of this soil

Topsoil organic matter: After irrigation and changing the land use type, organic matter increases

Soil drainage / infiltration is good because this soil is sandy-loam

Soil water storage capacity is low because this soil is sandy-loam

5.4 Disponibilidade e qualidade de água

Lençol freático:

< 5 m

Disponibilidade de água de superfície:

Bom

Qualidade da água (não tratada):

Água potável boa

Comentários e outras especificações sobre a qualidade e a quantidade da água:

Ground water table: 2/3 of the forest is close to the river and the ground water level is 2-3m

Availability of surface water: The River Tokuzbulak is in close proximity (somtimes also just medium)

Water quality (untreated): The river can provide clean drinking water

5.5 Biodiversidade

Diversidade de espécies:
  • high
Comentários e outras especificações sobre biodiversidade:

Poplar trees provide a favourable microclimate for growing many bushes and herbaceous plants beneath, and also provides a good natural habitat for birds and some wild animals.

5.6 Características dos usuários da terra que utilizam a tecnologia

Orientação de mercado do sistema de produção:
  • Subsistência (autoabastecimento)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Rendimento não agrícola:
  • >50% de toda renda
Nível relativo de riqueza:
  • Rico
Indivíduos ou grupos:
  • Indivíduo/unidade familiar
Nível de mecanização:
  • Trabalho manual
Gênero:
  • Mulheres
  • Homens
Indique outras características relevantes dos usuários da terra:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly Leaders / privileged

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%

10% of the land users are rich (He has a car, big forest plot, 5 yaks, 2 cows, 20 sheep).

Off-farm income specification: The farmer owns a car, sometimes he works as a tour gide, he sells the timber and firewood, and in autumn he buys meat in Murgab to resell in Khatlon.

Market orientation of production system: subsistence (self-supply), mixed (subsistence/ commercial, mixed (subsistence/ commercial

Market orientation of production system: In the first 7 years subsistence and after 7-10 years some of the trees had reached maturity, the rest he sold (20-30m3). ( In the autumn haymaking and firewood (10m3) for himself and 3 cars (30m3) firewood for sale)


Level of mechanization: Watering, pruning of poplars, haymaking is all manual

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0,5 ha
  • 0,5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1.000 ha
  • 1.000-10.000 ha
  • > 10.000 ha
É considerado pequena, média ou grande escala (referente ao contexto local)?
  • Média escala
Comentários:

At 1-2 ha: The area of crop land in the Western Pamirs is very small.

At 2-5 ha: This farmer has 3 ha of crop land because there is a small population in this village.

At 0.5-1 ha the population is more dense.

Also 5-15 ha, but it is rare that one individual farmer is rented such a large area of forest.

5.8 Propriedade de terra, direitos de uso da terra e de uso da água

Propriedade da terra:
  • Estado
Direitos do uso da terra:
  • Arrendado
Direitos do uso da água:
  • Acesso livre (não organizado)
Comentários:

before 1992-93 it was the Sovhoz forest land, after 1993 the forest was in the Vankala Jamoat. The farmer rents this land.

5.9 Acesso a serviços e infraestrutura

Saúde:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Educação:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Assistência técnica:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Emprego (p. ex. não agrícola):
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Mercados:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Energia:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Vias e transporte:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Água potável e saneamento:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom
Serviços finais:
  • Pobre
  • Moderado
  • Bom

6. Impactos e declarações finais

6.1 Impactos no local mostrados pela tecnologia

Impactos socioeconômicos

Produção

Produção de forragens

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

natural grass under the trees

Qualidade da forragem

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

More grasses and edible plants grow under the shadow of the trees.

Produção animal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

more furaj more animals

Produção de madeira

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

10%

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

100%

Geração de energia

Diminuído
Elevado
Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

100%

Renda e custos

Rendimento agrícola

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

More animals and firewood that he can sell.

Diversidade de fontes de rendimento

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

He can sell firewood, meat, dairy products, and can be a touris guide.

Impactos socioculturais

Segurança alimentar/auto-suficiência

Reduzido
Melhorado

Oportunidades de lazer

Reduzido
Melhorado
Quantidade anterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

5%

Quantidade posterior à gestão sustentável da terra:

100%

Comentários/especificar:

The environmnt looks much more pleasant with more green areas.

Conhecimento de gestão sustentável da terra/degradação da terra

Reduzido
Melhorado

Atenuação de conflitos

Agravado
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

The area is too big for one farmer

Livelihood and human well-being

reduced
improved
Comentários/especificar:

The extra money earned from the sale of timber, firewood and livestock can be spent on health and education for the family

Impactos ecológicos

Solo

Umidade do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Reduces evaporation from the soil surface

Cobertura do solo

Reduzido
Melhorado
Comentários/especificar:

good vegetation cover helps improve the soil cover

Perda de solo

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

The trees and grass roots stabilise the soil

Ciclo e recarga de nutrientes

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Matter and roots of the herbaceous plants, improves structure and fertility of the soil

Matéria orgânica do solo/carbono abaixo do solo

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

SOM is increased underneath the poplar forest

Biodiversidade: vegetação, animais

Biomassa/carbono acima do solo

Diminuído
Elevado

Diversidade vegetal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

The diversity of plants is higher than in the surrounding areas

Diversidade animal

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Provides a habitat for more wild animals.

Espécies benéficas

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Good microclimate and protection for them

Diversidade de habitat

Diminuído
Elevado
Comentários/especificar:

Good microclimate and protection for them

Clima e redução de riscos de desastre

Emissão de carbono e gases de efeito estufa

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

carbon sis stored within the high amounts of biomass

Velocidade do vento

Elevado
Diminuído
Comentários/especificar:

tall trees provide wind barrier

Outros impactos ecológicos

Bio energy generation

reduced
improved

6.2 Impactos externos mostrados pela tecnologia

Cheias de jusante

Elevado
Reduzido

Danos em áreas vizinhas

Elevado
Reduzido

6.3 Exposição e sensibilidade da tecnologia às mudanças climáticas graduais e extremos/desastres relacionados ao clima (conforme o ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)

Mudança climática gradual

Mudança climática gradual
Estação do ano increase or decrease Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temperatura anual increase não bem

Extremos (desastres) relacionados ao clima

Desastres meteorológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Temporal local bem
Tempestade de vento local não bem
Desastres climatológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Seca não bem
Desastres hidrológicos
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Inundação geral (rio) bem

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima

Outras consequências relacionadas ao clima
Como a tecnologia lida com isso?
Período de crescimento reduzido bem
Comentários:

The use of irrigation has made the technology more sustainable and more tolerant to temperature changes and to droughts.

6.4 Análise do custo-benefício

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos de implantação (do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

ligeiramente negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Como os benefícios se comparam aos custos recorrentes/de manutenção(do ponto de vista dos usuários da terra)?
Retornos a curto prazo:

negativo

Retornos a longo prazo:

muito positivo

Comentários:

In the short term the farmer doesn' have a lot of available firewood, timber or grass.

6.5 Adoção da tecnologia

  • > 50%
Se disponível, determine a quantidade (número de unidades familiares e/ou área abordada):

80 household in an area of 1 km^2

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%
Comentários:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

80 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Many other farmers planted trees on plots surrounding their own homes, these included poplar and willow trees. This saves a lot of time and money in collecting firewood from far away, and increases the asethics of their home environment.

6.7 Pontos fortes/vantagens/oportunidades da tecnologia

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
It gives the land user wood, grass, money, and a beautiful place for rest
The land user can graze his cows by rotation in this forest and has dairy production all year.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The micro climate created by the forest increased plant and animal biodiversity.
This technology also provides a provides increased economic benefits, such as firewood, timber, fodder grass, medicinal herbs etc.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? It will be good to plant some perennial fodder grasses
Poplar and willow are the only trees which can grow in such extreme conditions in these highlands areas. They do need a good water supply hich can be provided by the rivers or by irrigation systems when planted next to houses.
The soil became more productive. Carbon sequestration is much higher when compared to the surrounding arid desert landscape.

6.8 Pontos fracos, desvantagens/riscos da tecnologia e formas de superá-los

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
No money available for fencing If the forest is protected by fencing this will mean less work for the farmers in protecting the area of land from grazing and tree cutting.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
No fencing in situ, maybe the farmer is not sure of the length of the land rental period. If the forest is protected by fencing this will mean less work for the farmers in protecting the area of land from grazing and tree cutting.
The farmer could use stones to construct a fence which are plentiful in this area.

7. Referências e links

7.1 Métodos/fontes de informação

7.2 Referências às publicações disponíveis

Title, author, year, ISBN:

1. Справочник по климату СССР, вып. 31, Таджикская ССР, частьII. гидрометеорологическое издательство, Ленинград, 1966,228с.

Available from where? Costs?

in libraries

Title, author, year, ISBN:

2. Справочник по климату СССР, вып. 31, Таджикская ССР, частьIV, гидрометеорологическое, Ленинград, 1966, 212с.

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