Technologies

Planting poplar forest in the flood plains of high mountain river areas [Tajikistan]

Буньедкардани чакалакзор дар сохили даръехои баландкух (tajik)

technologies_1515 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 82%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
local community:

Jonbekov Ikbol

Tajikistan

Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU_EHS) - Germany
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
UNEP (UNEP) - Kenya
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
UNDP/GEF Project Uzbekistan (UNDP/GEF Uzbekistan) - Uzbekistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Tajik Soil Insitute (Tajik Soil Institute) - Tajikistan
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences) - Tajikistan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

Yes

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

The afforestation of the low productivity sandy lands in the river valley areas of arid highlands with fast growing poplar trees, provides the population with firewood as well as timber and also provides conservation benefits.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

In the Jamoat Vankala area of the Shugnan district in GBAO, low temperatures make it very difficult to grow fruit or trees other than poplar (Populus pamirico) or Salix Schugnanica Coerz.
The natural forest consists mainly of the latter and this grows very slowly. It is very cold for 6-7 months of the year in this region, so the demand for cheap firewood to heat homes is extremely high.
In the 1980s, the sovhoz decided to transform 10ha of a low productivity pasture land into more productive irrigated forest land. After the collapse of the Soviet system, the Jamoat rented this forest land to a farmer, who still remains in charge of this piece of land.

Purpose of the Technology: The creation of a poplar forest on the river shore in this treeless desert alpine zone can go someway towards meeting the local's demand for firewood. It can provide cheap timber and environmental benefits as well as a pleasant environment.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The process of establishing this poplar forest began with the creation of irrigation canals and the planting of seedlings. In the first few years, the seedlings had to be watered frequently due to the thirsty sandy soils.
Other factors that needed to be considered were protecting the area from grazing cattle, watering areas around the forest away from the the river bank, the selective felling of some poplars, the additional planting of trees on barren soil, as well as the protection of the forest from predatory deforestation by the locals (which has increased during the economic crisis). Thanks to natural regeneration processes, farmers can now prepare firewood for the winter and do not have to bring the timber from far away.

Natural / human environment: 88% of the Pamir region is covered by glaciers, snow, and rocks, and is thus completely devoid of soil. Consequently, the area of arable and orchard lands in the GBAO region is only about 2%, with a forest area of 0.4%. Two-thirds of all the Pamir natural forests are located along the river banks of the Vanch, Gunt, Tokuzbulak, and others, at an altitude of 3200m.
In the narrow V-shaped valleys of the Western Pamirs, the lowest points are at an altitude of 1,200m,extending up to the highest points at 7,400m. This explains the climatic differences within the region, because the lower parts in the valleys enjoy a warmer climate than the higher parts. Overall, the annual average air temperature in the region is 9°C, and most rainfall occurs between the winter and spring periods with an average precipitation of 191-227mm.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

Country:

Tajikistan

Region/ State/ Province:

Tajikistan / GBAO

Further specification of location:

Shugnan / Vankala

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • 10-50 years ago

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
Comments (type of project, etc.):

During the 1980s much of the low productivity sandy land was converted to poplar forest. This was initiated by a local group who put in many voluntary hours. From 1993 onwards, this forest was part of the local jamoat "Vankala" lands. The local administration rented it to a local farmer- (Jonbekov Ikbol).

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • mitigate climate change and its impacts
  • create beneficial economic impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Grazing land

Grazing land

Animal type:
  • cattle - dairy
Species:

cattle - dairy

Count:

2

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

  • (Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands
  • Tree plantation, afforestation
(Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands: Specify management type:
  • Selective felling
Tree plantation, afforestation: Specify origin and composition of species:
  • Monoculture local variety
  • Populus pamirico, Salix Schugnanica Coerz, dog rose
Products and services:
  • Timber
  • Fuelwood
  • Grazing/ browsing
  • Nature conservation/ protection
  • Recreation/ tourism
  • Protection against natural hazards
Comments:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The main problems include; Low soil productivity, a short growing season, desertification, low temperatures and a sharp drop in average daily temperatures and an early night frost. Very sparse vegetation of drought-tolerant grass and little shrubs

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): water shortages, low soil fertility, low yields

Selective felling of (semi-) natural forests: Every autumn

Plantation forestry: Every year they plant new seedlings to assist with afforestation

Forest products and services: timber, fuelwood, grazing / browsing, nature conservation / protection, recreation / tourism, protection against natural hazards

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Forests / woodlands: Fp: Plantations, afforestations

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: The farmer owns 1-2 of his own cows which graze in the forest over the smmer. They use these cows for milk. The cows are not allowed to roam free, they are tied up. Someimes the children try to sell milk and dairy products on the roadside, but there is not much passing trade.

Livestock is grazing on crop residues

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Grazing land

Grazing land

Forest/ woodlands

Forest/ woodlands

  • (Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands
  • Tree plantation, afforestation
(Semi-)natural forests/ woodlands: Specify management type:
  • Selective felling

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • full irrigation
Comments:

Water supply: Also mixed rainfed

Longest growing period in days: 120 longest growing period from month to month: May- September

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • improved ground/ vegetation cover
  • ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
structural measures

structural measures

  • S3: Graded ditches, channels, waterways
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type
Comments:

Main measures: vegetative measures, management measures

Secondary measures: structural measures

Type of vegetative measures: in blocks

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
chemical soil deterioration

chemical soil deterioration

  • Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content (not caused by erosion)
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bc: reduction of vegetation cover
  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline
Comments:

Main type of degradation addressed: Cn: fertility decline and reduced organic matter content, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bq: quantity / biomass decline

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (24hr electricity has been available only for the last 2 years. Over the last 16 years the local population have cut down all the surrounding trees.), over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (All the trees were cut down for use as animal feed and fire wood.), overgrazing (Livestock were grazed in the areas around the village all year round.), change in temperature (The summeres have become colder in recent years, the summer became more colder, most of crops ripen at low temperatures), poverty / wealth (most of the population are poor, thus placing high pressure on the natural reasources as they are forced to use these for fuel and food.)

Secondary causes of degradation: droughts (Low levels of rain fall, strong сold winds, high insolaton, low soil moisture), war and conflicts (During the civil war the area had high rates of food insecurity.)

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • reduce land degradation
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land
Comments:

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (Needs to use chainsaws so some extra technical knowledge required.)

Main technical functions: improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase of biomass (quantity), spatial arrangement and diversification of land use

Secondary technical functions: improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), improvement of subsoil structure (hardpan), stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase / maintain water stored in soil, reduction in wind speed, promotion of vegetation species and varieties (quality, eg palatable fodder)

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Aligned: -graded strips
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 400
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 5
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 5

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Vegetative measure: Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs

Trees/ shrubs species: Populus pamirico, Salix Schugnanica Coerz, dog rose

Grass species: different natural grasses

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 5.00%

Structural measure: main irrigation canal along the plot upper border
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.5
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.8
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 2000

Structural measure: irrigation networks inside the forest
Vertical interval between structures (m): 5
Spacing between structures (m): 5
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.2
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.3
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 200000

Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 5%

If the original slope has changed as a result of the Technology, the slope today is: 5%

Change of land use type: low-productivity grasslands have changed to a high productive poplar forest

Change of land use practices / intensity level: Changed from an area of open access to locals, to having controlled access (pasture land, forest land)

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

other/ national currency (specify):

Somoni

If relevant, indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (e.g. 1 USD = 79.9 Brazilian Real): 1 USD =:

4.53

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

30

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Growing seedlings in a nursery one year (5 month irrigation)
2. Digging holes 50x60cm on 1 ha - 400 on 10 hectares - 4000 holes During Spring
3. Manure (dung) in Spring
4. Delivering of manure to plot by tractor and truck in Spring
5. Prepare a mixture of soil and dung for filling planting holes on 10 ha in Spring
6. Planting poplar seedlings and watering them in Spring
7. Planting trees along the irrigation canal along the road to Jelondi and the upper boundaries of the site (10m on 1day) before tree planting in spring
8. Establishment of irrigation networks from the canal in the garden(7x 1000м per day) before tree planting in spring
9. Collection of sea buck thorn stems and branches before tree planting
10. Load sea buck thorn stems and branches into the car and unloadthem before tree planting
11. Delivering stems and branches using a car before tree planting
12. Fencing the area before trees planting

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Growing seedlings in a nursery (irrigation and nursering) Persons/day 25.0 30.0 750.0 100.0
Labour Digging holes Persons/day 100.0 30.0 3000.0 100.0
Labour Prepare a mixture of soil and dung Persons/day 40.0 30.0 1200.0 100.0
Labour Planting poplar seedlings and watering them Persons/day 40.0 30.0 1200.0 100.0
Equipment Tractor for delivering manure hours 8.0 75.0 600.0 100.0
Equipment Labour: Planting trees along the irrigation canal Persons/day 200.0 30.0 6000.0 100.0
Equipment Labour: Establishment of irrigation networks from the canal in the garden Persons/day 30.0 30.0 900.0 100.0
Equipment Car for transporting branches Trucks/day 20.0 100.0 2000.0 100.0
Fertilizers and biocides Manure (dung) tons 40.0 50.0 2000.0 100.0
Other Labour: Collection of sea buck thorn stems and branches Persons/day 20.0 30.0 600.0 100.0
Other Labour: Load sea buck thorn stems and branches into the car and unload them Persons/day 10.0 30.0 300.0 100.0
Other Labour: Fencing the area Persons/day 100.0 30.0 3000.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 21550.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 4757.17

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Watering seedlings 2 times per week first year (40 pers days on 1 month - 10 ha) 5 months per year
2. Watering seedlings once per week per year (20 pers days -1 month- 10 ha) 5 months per year
3. Protection, avoidance of grazing(5 hour per day) 5 months per year
4. Annual harvest of firewood every year/autumn
5. Selective felling of trees(Ø=40-50см) After 10 years / October
6. Annual haymaking of natural grass every year/summer
7. Repairs and cleaning of the main irrigation canal to clear sediment and debris Before the irrigation season/in spring
8. Repairs and cleaning of the irrigation network to clear sediment and brancheson 10 ha Before the irrigation season in spring
9. Repairing fences if needed

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Watering seedlings (First year and followin year) Persons/day 300.0 30.0 9000.0 100.0
Labour Protection, avoidance of grazing Persons/day 87.0 30.0 2610.0 100.0
Labour Annual harvest of firewood Persons/day 10.0 30.0 300.0 100.0
Labour Selective felling of trees (after 10 years Persons/day 15.0 30.0 450.0
Other Labour: Annual haymaking of natural grass Persons/day 40.0 30.0 1200.0
Other Labour: Repairs and cleaning of the main irrigation canal abd irrigation network Persons/day 15.0 30.0 450.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 14010.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 3092.72
Comments:

Machinery/ tools: shovel

The costs were calculated for the whole plantation area of 10 ha

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour is the most determinate factor affecting the costs, however, in this situation, most of it was provided by the land users themselves. Costs reported are those for additional labour that would need to be paid for.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

200-230 mm average rainfall. Main season is during winter to spring period.

Agro-climatic zone
  • arid

Thermal climate class: boreal
In general, the Pamirs are is characterised by dry air and low precipitation

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • concave situations
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zone: 3200 m a.s.l.

Slopes on average: It is a narrow river valley

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil depth on average: The soil is sandy-loam, shallow, with low productivity

Soil texture: Sandy-loamy soil

These soils have low natural fertility, and irrigation increases the productivity of this soil

Topsoil organic matter: After irrigation and changing the land use type, organic matter increases

Soil drainage / infiltration is good because this soil is sandy-loam

Soil water storage capacity is low because this soil is sandy-loam

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:

good

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Comments and further specifications on water quality and quantity:

Ground water table: 2/3 of the forest is close to the river and the ground water level is 2-3m

Availability of surface water: The River Tokuzbulak is in close proximity (somtimes also just medium)

Water quality (untreated): The river can provide clean drinking water

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • high
Comments and further specifications on biodiversity:

Poplar trees provide a favourable microclimate for growing many bushes and herbaceous plants beneath, and also provides a good natural habitat for birds and some wild animals.

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • > 50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • rich
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly Leaders / privileged

Population density: < 10 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%

10% of the land users are rich (He has a car, big forest plot, 5 yaks, 2 cows, 20 sheep).

Off-farm income specification: The farmer owns a car, sometimes he works as a tour gide, he sells the timber and firewood, and in autumn he buys meat in Murgab to resell in Khatlon.

Market orientation of production system: subsistence (self-supply), mixed (subsistence/ commercial, mixed (subsistence/ commercial

Market orientation of production system: In the first 7 years subsistence and after 7-10 years some of the trees had reached maturity, the rest he sold (20-30m3). ( In the autumn haymaking and firewood (10m3) for himself and 3 cars (30m3) firewood for sale)


Level of mechanization: Watering, pruning of poplars, haymaking is all manual

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • medium-scale
Comments:

At 1-2 ha: The area of crop land in the Western Pamirs is very small.

At 2-5 ha: This farmer has 3 ha of crop land because there is a small population in this village.

At 0.5-1 ha the population is more dense.

Also 5-15 ha, but it is rare that one individual farmer is rented such a large area of forest.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • state
Land use rights:
  • leased
Water use rights:
  • open access (unorganized)
Comments:

before 1992-93 it was the Sovhoz forest land, after 1993 the forest was in the Vankala Jamoat. The farmer rents this land.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

fodder production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

natural grass under the trees

fodder quality

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

More grasses and edible plants grow under the shadow of the trees.

animal production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

more furaj more animals

wood production

decreased
increased
Quantity before SLM:

10%

Quantity after SLM:

100%

energy generation

decreased
increased
Quantity after SLM:

100%

Income and costs

farm income

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

More animals and firewood that he can sell.

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

He can sell firewood, meat, dairy products, and can be a touris guide.

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved

recreational opportunities

reduced
improved
Quantity before SLM:

5%

Quantity after SLM:

100%

Comments/ specify:

The environmnt looks much more pleasant with more green areas.

SLM/ land degradation knowledge

reduced
improved

conflict mitigation

worsened
improved
Comments/ specify:

The area is too big for one farmer

Livelihood and human well-being

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

The extra money earned from the sale of timber, firewood and livestock can be spent on health and education for the family

Ecological impacts

Soil

soil moisture

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Reduces evaporation from the soil surface

soil cover

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

good vegetation cover helps improve the soil cover

soil loss

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

The trees and grass roots stabilise the soil

nutrient cycling/ recharge

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Matter and roots of the herbaceous plants, improves structure and fertility of the soil

soil organic matter/ below ground C

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

SOM is increased underneath the poplar forest

Biodiversity: vegetation, animals

biomass/ above ground C

decreased
increased

plant diversity

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

The diversity of plants is higher than in the surrounding areas

animal diversity

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Provides a habitat for more wild animals.

beneficial species

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Good microclimate and protection for them

habitat diversity

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Good microclimate and protection for them

Climate and disaster risk reduction

emission of carbon and greenhouse gases

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

carbon sis stored within the high amounts of biomass

wind velocity

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

tall trees provide wind barrier

Other ecological impacts

Bio energy generation

reduced
improved

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

downstream flooding

increased
reduced

damage on neighbours' fields

increased
reduced

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase not well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm well
local windstorm not well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought not well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period well
Comments:

The use of irrigation has made the technology more sustainable and more tolerant to temperature changes and to droughts.

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

negative

Long-term returns:

very positive

Comments:

In the short term the farmer doesn' have a lot of available firewood, timber or grass.

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

80 household in an area of 1 km^2

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 91-100%
Comments:

100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

80 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Many other farmers planted trees on plots surrounding their own homes, these included poplar and willow trees. This saves a lot of time and money in collecting firewood from far away, and increases the asethics of their home environment.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
It gives the land user wood, grass, money, and a beautiful place for rest
The land user can graze his cows by rotation in this forest and has dairy production all year.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
The micro climate created by the forest increased plant and animal biodiversity.
This technology also provides a provides increased economic benefits, such as firewood, timber, fodder grass, medicinal herbs etc.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? It will be good to plant some perennial fodder grasses
Poplar and willow are the only trees which can grow in such extreme conditions in these highlands areas. They do need a good water supply hich can be provided by the rivers or by irrigation systems when planted next to houses.
The soil became more productive. Carbon sequestration is much higher when compared to the surrounding arid desert landscape.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
No money available for fencing If the forest is protected by fencing this will mean less work for the farmers in protecting the area of land from grazing and tree cutting.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
No fencing in situ, maybe the farmer is not sure of the length of the land rental period. If the forest is protected by fencing this will mean less work for the farmers in protecting the area of land from grazing and tree cutting.
The farmer could use stones to construct a fence which are plentiful in this area.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

1. Справочник по климату СССР, вып. 31, Таджикская ССР, частьII. гидрометеорологическое издательство, Ленинград, 1966,228с.

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in libraries

Title, author, year, ISBN:

2. Справочник по климату СССР, вып. 31, Таджикская ССР, частьIV, гидрометеорологическое, Ленинград, 1966, 212с.

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