Local Agriculture Research and Extension Centre LAREC
Society for Community Development in Cambodia SOFDEC
Khun Lean Hak
firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com
有助于对方法进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Society for Community Development in Cambodia (SOFDEC) - 柬埔寨
有助于对方法进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Local Agricultural Research and Extension Centre (LAREC) - 柬埔寨
A water user group, led by a committee staff, decides about the distribution of the water during the dry season to plant dry season rice.
Aims / objectives: During the Pol Pot regime, a dam was built to catch and store water from a temporary stream to irrigate rice during the dry season. The dam degraded over time, therefore it was repaired by a NGO to provide water for the cultivation of dry season rice. To manage it, a water user group was formed. The aim of this water user group is to have a fair distribution of the water hold by the dam among the farmers located downstream. The water user group is led by an elected committee staff of 5 members, who are the direct contact persons for the individual farmers and village chiefs, as well as for the provincial department of hydrology.
Methods: A former local NGO, PRASAC (now a microfinance institute), which repaired the dam and gates, organised a meeting with the three concerned villages to elect a committee responsible for the management of the water. The committee, consisting of a chief, a vice-chief, a secretary and an accounting, and two managers of the gates (each responsible for one gate) is responsible for the fair distribution of the water. The chief is the contact person for the village chiefs or the farmers themselves, who can request water. He is the contact person for the provincial department of hydrology as well.
Stages of implementation: The water user group was elected in 2002, when the dam was fixed. A short training was given to the committee which was then left on its own for the management. After tensions that occurred between farmers, the committee asked for advice in the provincial department of hydrology, which was passed off to CDRI (Cambodia Development Resource Institute), a local NGO. The CDRI conducted meetings and acted as a mediator, since then no tensions occurred anymore between water users as they introduced weekly schedules.
Role of stakeholders: The chief and vice chief are responsible for the distribution of the water. The two gate managers are controlling the gates.
A bit more than 100 ha are irrigated under this approach.
The Approach focused on SLM only
A fair distribution of water among the farmers, to produce rice during the dry season as well.
The SLM Approach addressed the following problems: The approach was designed to avoid conflicts on the use of water resources, and to allow rice production during the dry season.
The staff works on a voluntary basis.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: The gate managers catch fish at the gates while releasing water which provides an income. The chief records the water levels behind the dam for the provincial department of hydrology, which provides an income to him.
Conflicts between farmers about water use. The lower villages did not get enough water.
Treatment through the SLM Approach: A NGO, CDRI, acted as a mediator in the conflict. Since then no more tensions occurred as they introduced weekly schedules.
The existing land ownership, land use rights / water rights hindered a little the approach implementation Before there was open access to water, but no water was available since the dam was broken. Now there is water, but it is regulated.
Villagers and village chiefs
The operation of the water gates needs a strong physical condition. The literacy of women is lower than the one of men. Only male staff.
Poor people were also involved, and use the water.
PRASAC implemented the water user group.
Provincial department of hydrology
|实施||被动||The committee was elected, and acts until today.|
Organogram of the different stakeholders in the water user group in Toeuk Phos.
Stefan Graf (Centre for Development and Environment)
The former NGO, PRASAC, fixed the dam that was constructed during the Pol Pot regime. The farmers had to be persuaded to plant dry season rice.
Decisions on the method of implementing the SLM Technology were made by by SLM specialists alone (top-down). The NGO decided that the water user group should be managed that way, organised an election and the same staff works since then.
Growing of dry season rice. The Provincial Dept. of Agriculture rented 100 ha and planted dry season rice. Since then the farmers plant it by themselves.
The staff was trained to work alone managing the water gates.
In case the chief is confronted with a problem, he approaches the Provincial Department of Agriculture. The chief is then either redirected to a NGO or gets help by the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
Advisory service is inadequate to ensure the continuation of land conservation activities; The committee staff provides the water for free, the maintenance costs have to be financed by the provincial dept. of hydrology. PRASAC provided a financial reserve for the maintenance somewhere in the government, but neither the water user group chief nor the secretary/accountant know where this account is.
Bio-physical aspects were regular monitored by project staff through measurements; indicators: Water level is monitored daily by committee chief, data reported to provincial dept. of hydrology.
There were few changes in the Approach as a result of monitoring and evaluation: Weekly schedules were established to avoid conflicts between villages. CDRI was working as a mediator.
There were no changes in the Technology as a result of monitoring and evaluation
Approach costs were met by the following donors: national non-government (PRASAC): 100.0%; local community / land user(s) (Staff consists of volunteers )
|Dam and gates||充分融资|
the water user group staff works for free.
They are able to produce food during the whole year, with up to 3 rice harvests a year on the same fields.
Landless farmers have more work, as 3 rice harvests are produced per year.
According to the committee chief, no more tensions occur now.
Did other land users / projects adopt the Approach?
A fourth village joined the water user group.
Did the Approach lead to improved livelihoods / human well-being?
The technology (the dam with gates) helped. But it would not work without the approach. It improved the food production, thus food security, and the livelihoods of the farmers.
Did the Approach help to alleviate poverty?
It helped to alleviate poverty among the farmers owning land in the irrigated areas as they can produce more.
Three harvests instead of only one.
- well-being and livelihoods improvement
Three harvests instead of only one.
It is unclear what would happen if the dam needs maintenance but the provincial dept. of hydrology would not be willing to pay the maintenance costs.
Improved livelihoods, three times more rice production
and water vegetables as well as fish during the whole year.
|No pumps are needed.|
|Farmers help each other with the water. (How to sustain/ enhance this strength: Regular meetings. )|
|There is no money for maintenance activities.|
|Nobody wants to work as committee staff as they don’t get any salary for this work.|
No regular elections, nor bottom up improvements.
Everything comes from outside.