有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）The Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project for the Kagera River Basin (GEF-FAO / Kagera TAMP )
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO Food and Agriculture Organization) - 意大利
Ficus natalensis based agroforestry system protects crops on windy hill slopes facing Lake Victoria and reduce runoff towards the meandering Kagera River Valley.
Ficus natalensis is traditionally scattered in crop fields as a land management practice in central and south-western Uganda. The improved technology designed through community participation involves planting lines of Ficus natalensis along the contour at an interval that enables the tree to provide shade to young crops without depriving them of sunshine. When planted together with coffee trees or in banana plantations, the tall Ficus tree forms the top storey that protects the crop from the hot sun.
Purpose of the Technology: The main purpose of Ficus based agroforestry is to protect the soil from erosion. Within 3 to 5 years the Ficus tree forms a deep root system that stabilizes the soil. In addition, it drops leaves which quickly decay to provide both soil cover and manure thereby increasing the fertility of the soil. The trees provide firewood, fodder for livestock and bark cloth which can be used domestically or sold to supplement household income. They also act as wind breaks.
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Ficus Natalensis is propagated using cuttings from young branches which are planted vertically 6 m apart along a contour. Propagation material is readily available and cheap, making the technology inexpensive to establish. Any annual or perennial crop can be inter-cropped with Ficus spp. provided the tree canopy is managed well. The tree is quite robust and can attain heights of over 20m, with a very extensive canopy if left to grow. Pruning raises its canopy to the desired height above the ground. In its early stages, fencing is required to protect the tree from damage by livestock. Within 12 to 18 months, however, the tree is established enough to withstand browsing. Only simple tools like hoes and garden forks for digging holes/pits are essential for establishment of the technology. The implementation of the technology on steep slopes (> 50%) is not possible without other supportive SLM interventions, in Rakai these include construction of stone lines and mulch application.
Natural / human environment: The pruned branches of Ficus natalensis are used as fuel wood when dry. Therefore scarcity of fuel wood may lead to over-harvesting of branches and destroying the canopy. Nonetheless, the tree regenerates quickly with the coming of the rains. Ficus tree can live for a hundred years.
Rakai District (Kijonjo Parish)
Boundary points of the Technology area: -0.96681 31.69066; -0.96706 31.69111; -0.96717 31.69033; -0.96757 31.69038; -0.96774 31.69073
Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 0.06 km2.
The technology is becoming dominant in Kijonjo parish and other parts of Rakai district especially due to climatic changes that have led to shorter rainy seasons. However, farmers also recognize its potential for soil conservation.
Agroforestry is a traditional practice but was reintroduced in a better structured, systematic form by organizations like VI-Agroforestry and Kagera TAMP.
年作 - 具体指明作物:
- 谷物类 - 玉米
- 豆科牧草和豆类 - 豆子
多年生（非木质）作物 - 指定作物:
乔木和灌木种植 - 指定作物:
- Ficus Spp.
Longest growing period in days: 120 Longest growing period from month to month: February to May Second longest growing period in days: 120 Second longest growing period from month to month: September to December
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Severe deforestation as trees were cut down for firewood, charcoal, timber and for agricultural use;
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Prolonged dry weather, destructive rainstorms and declining soil fertility
Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Agro-forestry is used in combination with banana and coffee growing.
Main measures: vegetative measures
Specification of other agronomic measures: mulching (supp.
Specification of other structural measures: stone lines (supp.
Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -contour
Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion, Bc: reduction of vegetation cover, Bq: quantity / biomass decline
Main causes of degradation: soil management (Lack of conservation measures), crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (Over cultivation), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Cutting trees for timber and opening up more agricultural land), over-exploitation of vegetation for domestic use (Cutting trees for fuel wood and charcoal), poverty / wealth, education, access to knowledge and support services
Secondary causes of degradation: other natural causes (avalanches, volcanic eruptions, mud flows, highly susceptible natural resources, extreme topography, etc.) specify (Steep and very steep slopes)
A diagram showing Ficus spp. trees planted to provide shade to coffee trees.
Location: Kijonjo B. village. Rakai
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate (Knowledge of which trees will do well with the crops to be cultivated)
Technical knowledge required for land users: low (Land user dedication and a little guidance is enough for the implementation of the technology.)
Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, improvement of ground cover, stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), reduction in wind speed, spatial arrangement and diversification of land use
Secondary technical functions: increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, sediment retention / trapping, sediment harvesting, increase of biomass (quantity)
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs
Number of plants per (ha): 250
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 20m
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 2m
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 2m
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 20m
Trees/ shrubs species: Ficus natalensis (also serves as perennial fodder), planted in the field using stem cuttings
Perennial crops species: Robusta coffee planted using seedlings bought from specialized nurseries
Slope (which determines the spacing indicated above): 35%
Byonabye Proscovia, Kagera TAMP, Kabale
|1.||Sourcing planting materials||Beginning of rains|
|2.||Making pits||Beginning of rains|
|3.||Planting cuttings||Wet season|
|4.||Spot weeding||Wet season|
|劳动力||Sourcing planting materials||ha||1.0||30.0||30.0||100.0|
|植物材料||Cuttings (500 stern cuttings)||ha||1.0||30.0||30.0|
Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)
|1.||Spot weeding||twice a year|
|3.||Removing and processing the bark into bark cloth||Once in 2 years|
|劳动力||Removing and processing the bark into bark cloth||ha||1.0||14.0||14.0|
Machinery/ tools: The technology only requires simple tools like hoes and pangas.
The costs were calculated for wind breaks and optimum canopy after establishment. Calculations were done in December 2013, considering activities of the previous (September-November) wet season.
The most important factor affecting cost is labor to transport the bulky stem cuttings to the site. However, Ficus Natalensis is easy to establish and is durable (over 100 years) depending on management. It is extremely hardy and when it grows to 50cm to 100cm stem diameter it can be used for timber or to make dugout canoes. Establishment costs are easily recovered.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
The area receives two rainy seasons (March-May & September-December)
Thermal climate class: tropics. The area lies at the equator.
The area has a dry and a wet season, but other factors influencing its weather include proximity to Lake Victoria and the Kagera River.
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Altitudinal zone: 1001-1500 m a.s.l (1269-1310m a.s.l.)
Slopes on average: Steep (ranked 1, while technology is good for all kind of slope, the description given here is for a steep slope) and hilly (ranked 2)
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil depth on average: Shallow (ranked 1) and very shallow (ranked 2). The technology has also adopted to moderate to deep soils to support root development of trees.
Soil texture: Coarse/light (ranked 1, 70% of the soil in the area is sandy) and medium (ranked 2, 20% of the soil is loamy)
Soil fertility: Medium
Topsoil organic matter: Medium (the organic matter is medium but has improved with agroforestry)
Soil drainage/infiltration: Good (soils are manly sandy)
Soil water storage capacity: Low (soils are predominantly sandy)
Ground water table: 5-50 m (The technology does best in soils with ground table of 5-50m to enable root developement)
Availability of surface water: Poor/none (ranked 1, there is no surface water in dry season) and medium (ranked 2, some, in the wet season)
Water quality (untreated): Poor drinking water (treatement required, from unprotected source in swamps)
While the surrounding valleys below are swampy and very rich in biodiversity, only a fraction remains at the slopes due to destruction of habitats.
Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Difference in the involvement of women and men: n/a
Population density: 100-200 persons/km2
Annual population growth: 1% - 2%
21% of the land users are rich and own 57% of the land (Business men.).
63% of the land users are average wealthy and own 34% of the land (Teachers).
16% of the land users are poor and own 9% of the land (orphans and widows.).
Off-farm income specification: There is a difference in income levels between those who have implemented the technology and those who have not.
Level of mechanization: Manual work (only manual labour is used-casual labourers)
Market orientation: Subsistence (ranked 1, most produce is for home consumption only surplus is sold) and mixed (ranked 2)
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology:
Ranked 1: 0.5-1 ha. For most average income families.
Ranked 2: <0.5-1ha. For the poor.
Ranekd 3: 1-2 ha. For the rich households.
Most land users have access to untittled land and have open access to water.
coffee and bananas
For wood fuel (firewood & charcoal). there was almost nothing before.
conservation of moisture, improved soil fertility
Agricultural land on which Ficus is planted
respondents reported increses in income but not documented.
Realization of the benefits has led many farmers to need more help therefore raising the cost of labour
incresed agricultural produce.
backcloth is used for cultural functions .eg. burying the dead.
Improved livelihoods and human well-being
The technology has improved availability of both food and fuel wood. Some products from trees used in agroforestry such as backcloth (Embugo - Luganda) are sold, diversifying household income.
dried tree leaves add humus and organic matter in the soil.
various tree species are used for agroforestry.
Prevention of predisposition towards landslides
windbreaks reduced wind velocity.
Risk of lightening strikes
The costs for both establishment and maintenance are a small fraction of the benefits accruing from the technology.
100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
8 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
Comments on spontaneous adoption: There is spontaneous adoption of the technology as it builds on traditional farming practices in the area.
There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: High demand for shade-grown coffee and bananas in addition to the highly valued bark cloth used in art and crafts has increased farmer appreciation.
Ficus is used to provide backcloth that is sold for the making of Art and crafts and for cultural functions.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Management to accelerate healing of the bark within a shorter period should be investigated
Trees shield crops from dangerous storms /rains and intense sunshine.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage the spread of the canopy
Ficus is good and attractive to birds and insects
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Provision of material support in form of seedlings, farm tools for accelerated multiplication
Ficus natalensis leaves are cut and fed to livestock like goats.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage indeginous trees and growing fodder crops such as calliandra and nappier grass
Demand for wood fuel is high
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Local bye laws should be enacted to control deforestation and encourage tree growing
It improves soil fertility-Ficus natalensis sheds leaves once every year, adding to soil humus.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? More guidance should be given to the farmers for sustained spontaneous adoption of the technology
It checks the speed of wind thereby protecting crops.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Other agricultural, ecological and social benefits could be explored in this scenic area facing the Kagera River where it enters Lake Victoria
Stakes made from the Ficus branches can be used to grow climbing plants eg. passion fruits, yams as well as climbing beans
How can they be sustained / enhanced? More tree planting should be encouraged
Prevents soil erosion by checking raindrop splash, speed and amount of surface runoff and stabilizes the soil.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Because the ficus tree takes time to establish, other technologies such as trenches and grass strips could be used to reinforce it
|The trees can hinder crops from light if canopy is dense||Prune periodically to enable other crops access to light|
|Some trees can fall especially during heavy and stormy rains, damaging plants and animals.||cutting excessive branches to reduce the load borne by trees.|
|Trees can attract lightening ,which destroys plants and animals.||Avoid putting animals under tall trees.|
|Some tree species especially with short roots , compete with crops for nutrients.||Planting tree species with deep roots to avoid competition for nutrients.|
|It is a home for weaver birds and caterpillars.||Use scarecrows and biological control.|
Kagera TAMP project website