有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）The Transboundary Agro-ecosystem Management Project for the Kagera River Basin (GEF-FAO / Kagera TAMP )
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Missenyi District Council (Missenyi District Council) - Tanzania, United Republic of
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Bukoba district council (Bukoba district council) - Tanzania, United Republic of
Is a cross slope berier characterised with 2m widith by 2m depth furrow, farm yard manures and grass mulch in banana production.
The level ditches combined with farm trushlines, farm yard manure, and grass mulch technology in banana production is the digging of a furrow measured 2m wide by 2m deep along the contour in the banana plantation. The technology is applied on a perennial cropland by combining structural, vegetative and agronomic measures. The climatic zone is sub humid in a gentle to moderate slope with medium to deep loam clay soils. The hand cultivation is done manual using hand hoes in a mixed production system. The establishment procedures contour demarcation using a local made A-frame, digging a furrow along the contour, digging the banana holes spaced at 3.6m by 3.6m between the structures, mixing farm yard manure with top soils and planting banana suckers after restng the mixture for not less than 60 days. The maintenance procedures requires, weeding the field, desuckering, detrushing, planting beans, topical manure application, grass mulch application and filling the contour furrow with farm trushlines. The land ownership is individual not titled. This technology was introduced in 2012 by Kagera TAMP using the FFS methodology. In case of sensitive climatic extremities
Purpose of the Technology: The major purpose for technology application is reduced moisture stress, increased soil water retention, reduced soil erosion to increase crop productivity in a sustainable land management.
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The establishment activities included; first to clear the field and demarcate the contour line using a local made A-frame done at the end of short rains. Second is to plough and harrow the field done in the early dry season. Third is to space and dig holes for planting banana suckers done in mid of dry season. Fourth is mixing farm yard manures with top soils and cover the hole for not less than sity days before planting, this is done in mid of dry spell. Fourth is to plant certified banana suckers done in late dry season. Fifth is to dig the contour ditch done in at the onset of long rainfall. The maintenance activities includes; first to weed the entire field done twice before the onset of rainfalls. Second is to apply farm yard manures concurrently with grass mulch done once in the late dry period. Third is to desucker and detrush banana plants done twice before planting beans. Fourth is to plant beans done once before the onset of long rainfalls.
Natural / human environment: The natural environment in the location is 750-1000 mm rainfalls, foots lopes valley floors landform, gentle slope, shallow to meium soil depth (50-80)cm and (80-120)cm characterised with two growing periods. The social economic persisting are small scale land users farming on( 0.5 to 2)ha per house hold. The land ownership is individual not titled while the water use rights is open access. The importance of off-farm incomes is less than 10% and the market orientation is mixed while soil cultivation is manual and livestock are not fed on farm residues.
Karagwe District Council
- < 0.1 平方千米（10 公顷）
Three host farmers of FFS allocated a total of 1.5 acres (three different sites) as a leaning sites. While 22 group members implimented the technology with modifications in their farms with average of 0.5ha X22 =1.1ha
Introduced by TAMP -Kagera, Tanzania in 2012 using FFS methodology.
年作 - 具体指明作物:
- 谷物类 - 玉米
- 豆科牧草和豆类 - 豆子
- 根/块茎作物 - 红薯、山药、芋头/椰子，其他
多年生（非木质）作物 - 指定作物:
乔木和灌木种植 - 指定作物:
Longest growing period in days: 90; Longest growing period from month to month: October to December; Second longest growing period in days: 60; Second longest growing period from month to month: March to May
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): The major land use problem related to soil and vegetation in the area were soil erosion, soil moisture stress and fertility decline and reduced organic matter content.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): moisture stresss and soil erosion.
Specification of other vegetative measures: lemon grass
Type of agronomic measures: better crop cover, mulching, temporary trashlines, manure / compost / residues
Type of vegetative measures: aligned: -contour, scattered / dispersed
Main causes of degradation: soil management (cultivating along the slopes), crop management (annual, perennial, tree/shrub) (continous banana production without soil fertilization.), change of seasonal rainfall (dry spell prolonged), droughts (the area experienced a six months dry period.), population pressure (High population growth rates had forced to cultivate slope lands to feed the population.), poverty / wealth (community cant afford to invest in soil conservation.), education, access to knowledge and support services (inadequate staffing reduces extension services rendered to farmes.), governance / institutional (Agriculture policy had a narrow focus on environmental issues.)
Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: low (Basic agronomy principles, farm structures and vegetation management are taught at colleges.)
Technical knowledge required for land users: low (most of material required to implement the technology are common to them.)
Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, improvement of ground cover, stabilisation of soil (eg by tree roots against land slides), increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase of infiltration, increase / maintain water stored in soil, increase of biomass (quantity)
Better crop cover
Material/ species: Pumpukins and water melon
Remarks: spaced at 3m in the space between the contour bunds.
Material/ species: hyperhamia spps
Quantity/ density: 1500
Remarks: spread across the slope with 15cm thick covering the soil surfaces where banana and coffee are plant
Material/ species: banana dry leaves and psodstems.
Manure / compost / residues
Material/ species: farm yard manures
Quantity/ density: 48979
Remarks: 60kg per plant during planting and 36kg for maintenance.
Vegetative material: G : grass
Number of plants per (ha): 1666
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 18
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.6
Width within rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.3
Scattered / dispersed
Vegetative material: O : other
Number of plants per (ha): 778
Structural measure: contour bund
Spacing between structures (m): 18
Depth of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.6
Width of ditches/pits/dams (m): 0.6
Length of ditches/pits/dams (m): 100
Height of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.3
Width of bunds/banks/others (m): 0.6
Length of bunds/banks/others (m): 100
Construction material (earth): soils excavated from the furrow.
|1.||To plant lemon grass||March|
|2.||To plant water melon||april|
|3.||To gape fill lemon grasse||september|
|4.||Dermacating the contour lines using simple made tool (A-frame)||June|
|5.||To dig a furrow and excavating the soils to be placed on either lower side or upper side of the furrow.||August|
|肥料和杀菌剂||Compost / manure||ha||1.0||756.3||756.3|
Duration of establishment phase: 12 month(s)
|1.||Weeding in the space where coffee and banana are planted.||january and June|
|2.||desuckering||February and August|
|3.||Detrushing||February and August|
|5.||Spreading mulch grasses||September|
|6.||Harvesting banana and coffee.||routeenly|
|7.||To harvest lemon grass||routeenly|
|8.||To remove soil sedments from the furrow and place them along the contour lines.||june and January.|
|肥料和杀菌剂||Compost / manure||ha||1.0||252.1||252.1||100.0|
Labour calculated per ha of land protected, Farm yard manure calculated per plants applied, mulch grass calculated per ha of land protected, seedling and seeds calculated per ha of land protected.
The most determinate factor affecting the cost is labour
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Thermal climate class: tropics
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Soil fertility is medium
Soil drainage / infiltration is medium
Soil water storage capacity is medium
Availability of surface water: Excess during short rainfals and medium because two permanent river tributaries (misheke and Charuhanga) flows throughout the year.
Water quality (untreated): Good drinking water when gravity water supply from Kasunkuni river tributar and poor when over-flooded Mwisa river during short rains.
Mchwa, sisimizi, vipepeo and earth worms
Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
Annual population growth: < 0.5%
99% of the land users are average wealthy and own 100% of the land.
1% of the land users are poor.
Off-farm income specification: Land users who applied the technolgy can meet hie/her cost of living (mainly food) from farm income while land users who have not applied the technology can not the household cost of living from the farm.
Market orientation of production system: Coffee are for sale while banana only excess is for sale.
Level of mechanization: Hand hoes use during farm establishment, but late local made tool (vihosho) are used for weeding and desuckering purpoes.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
< 0.5 and 0.5-1 ha: 75 % of landusers
2-5 ha: 25 percent of landusers
Not yet harvested the first yield
Mulch grass have reduced moisture stresses
Farm yard manures, mulch grasses, lemon seedlings, certified banana suckers and water melon seed
Lemon grasses and pumpukins sales
Additional activies should demamnd more labours
Increased food production should ensure availability, while sale of coffee should ensure accebility to balance the diet
FFS group members
Out-soucing of activities to TCRA
Udelt learning using FFS methodology
Three group members have no land, male and female have equal chances in the group
Mulch grasses and contour bung
Mulch grass and pumpukins
Lemon grasse planted along the contour bunds
Farm yard manures application
Mulch grass and trushlines
Use of certicefid banana suckers
Attention for grasses collection before fire seting on has increased
Water run-off reduction
No longer concentrated run-off
The technology can be modified of metre drain and the collected water to be used for small scale irrigation.
In the short term returns banana harvested should equate the establishment costs, while in the long term retuns there will be no further establishment, therefore returns are very positive.
in the short term retuns negative compared to maintenance because all returns equate establishment costs, while in the longterm returns should be positive due to complimentary effects of protected land to improve productivity.
- > 50%
70 households in an area of 10 ha
35 land user families have adopted the Technology with external material support
Comments on acceptance with external material support: Three host farmers were provided with farm yard manures and mulch grasses.
35 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support
Comments on spontaneous adoption: The FFS started late due to inadequate council staffing.
There is no trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: Still early to give any comments (actual implimentation started September 2013.
|The technology is easy to learn and simple to implement.|
|Production results are of short gestation period when considering test crop (banana) for land users to make the decisions.|
|The technology increased the farm input (farm yard manures and grass mulch) costs of which average land users (peasants) can not afford from his farm income on top of meeting his daily cost of living.||Introduce zero grazing to provide farm yard manures and quick income generating activities.|
|Big land area is require to realise the ecological benefits.||Sensitize political will to stimulate and support technology up scaling through multiplier effects.|