Keizer Jan Jacob
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) - Department of Environment and Planning-University of Aveiro
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care (EU-RECARE )
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Catastrophic shifts in drylands (EU-CASCADE)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）University of Aveiro (University of Aveiro) - Portugal
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - Portugal
In certain situations, the leaves from the burnt trees created a natural carpet that protect the soil from being eroded.
In the 2007 summer a wildfire affected the locality of Pessegueiro do Vouga, municipality of Sever do Vouga, north-central Portugal. The area was afforested with eucalypt and pine plantations. The research team of the University of Aveiro checked that in some burnt areas the crown damage was very small, despite the litter and underground vegetation were totally consumed by fire. The pine site presented a markedly lower fire severity, with the canopies only partially consumed by the fire, so it allow to study the effect of fire severity on soil erosion by comparison with adjacent slopes burned a high severity.
Purpose of the Technology: In a wildfire that affected a pine plantation in central Portugal in 2007, the research team of the University of Aveiro set up an experiment in order to test the effect of forest residue mulching as a soil erosion mitigation treatment. However, the low fire severity resulted in an elevated litter cover prior any technique was applied. The objective is to determine were “no action” in post-fire management will still result in low soil erosion values.
Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: The high litter cover will decrease post-fire soil erosion by reducing raindrop impact over the ashes and the bare soil, and decrease the runoff amount by increasing water surface storage, decrease of runoff velocity, and increase infiltration. As the needle litter cover was natural, no action was needed. After a simple assessment of the remaining ground cover in the burnt area, the "no intervention" option should be selected if the soil is covered by litter, leaves or needles. The benefits of this are not only the mitigation of soil erosion (and associated soil fertility losses) immediately after forest fires, but also the long-term conservation of the soil resources without additional costs.
Natural / human environment: The landscape reflects a long history of intense land management, with a mosaic of (semi-)natural and man-made agricultural and afforested lands. Since the 1980´s, however, wildfires have increased dramatically in frequency and extent, aided by a general warming and drying trend but driven primarily by socio-economic changes.
Sever do Vouga, Pessegueiro de Vouga
- < 0.1 平方千米（10 公顷）
Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 1.0E-5 m2.
Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Strong increases in runoff and erosion should be a main land management concern following wildfires, as they constitute a serious threat to land-use sustainability and downstream aquatic habitats and human infrastructures. The forest owners and managers need to establish target areas to apply cost-effective post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatments, included the “no action” option.
Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Loss of wood resources and productivity.
Plantation forestry: Pines logged every 30 years, after fire natural regeneration if possible, but mainly after fire there is a change to eucalypt plantations
Forest products and services: timber, fuelwood
Number of growing seasons per year: 3
Longest growing period in days: 270Longest growing period from month to month: September to May
Secondary measures: agronomic measures
Type of agronomic measures: mulching
Main type of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion
Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wo: offsite degradation effects, Pk: sealing and crusting
Main causes of degradation: soil management (Land use change has been associated to increasing fire frequency in the region), deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Pine plantations are prone to fire), population pressure (Since the 80´s land use had change to increase afforestation with flammable species (i.e. pine and eucalypts))
Main goals: prevention of land degradation, mitigation / reduction of land degradation
Secondary goals: rehabilitation / reclamation of denuded land
Natural mulch is often present in areas burnt at low severity or only partially burnt (3). This areas as well as planar areas (2) must be areas for no mitigation treatment or “no action” after forest fires.
Main technical functions: control of raindrop splash, control of dispersed runoff: retain / trap, control of concentrated runoff: retain / trap, improvement of ground cover, increase of surface roughness, increase of infiltration, sediment retention / trapping, sediment harvesting, increase of biomass (quantity)
Secondary technical functions: control of dispersed runoff: impede / retard, control of concentrated runoff: impede / retard, improvement of surface structure (crusting, sealing), improvement of topsoil structure (compaction), increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), increase / maintain water stored in soil
Material/ species: natural needle carpet
Remarks: Up to 50% litter cover
No cost are envisaged for this technology. Visual assessment of the soil cover can be susceptible for costs, for example consulting, but we think it is not eligible.
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
Thermal climate class: subtropics
Thermal climate class: temperate
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
Topsoil organic matter is high (forest soil)
Soil fertilits is medium
Soil drainage/infiltration is medium - poor (fire reduce soil infiltration capacity. Also, soil water repellency is present).
Soil water storage capacity is low
Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: 50-100 persons/km2
40% of the land users are average wealthy and own 30% of the land.
60% of the land users are poor and own 70% of the land.
Market orientation of production system: subsistence (self-supply), mixed (subsistence/ commercial, commercial/ market
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: 2-5 ha, 5-15 ha, 15-50 ha
Some reduced wood production can be associated to the technique by carrying out selective felling.
Public awareness of the technology is very limited. It is necessary to show it to landowners and stakeholders and increase dissemination.
Improved livelihoods and human well-being
As natural mulching has no cost, any benefit is always very positive
Comments on spontaneous adoption: The land users are not aware about the advantages of natural mulching, but in fact they apply it when they have not economic resources.
There is a moderate trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology
Comments on adoption trend: Some times logging after fire reduces the natural mulching capacity to prevent post-fire erosion
It is a technology with no associated cost and with low failure possibilities and a strong soil erosion control.
How can they be sustained / enhanced? Inform land owners and forest managers to avoid post-fire logging in areas with natural mulching and therefore avoid the decrease in the technology effeciency. Some times logging after fire reduces the natural mulching capacity to prevent post-fire erosion.
|No possible to harvest the logs during the first period after the fire||Assume the cost of selective felling|
|Some people argue that can increase fire risk||Fire risk will not be probably increase as the surrounded areas were frequently also burned|
Prats SA, MacDonald LH, Monteiro M, Ferreira AJD, Coelho COA, KeizerJJ. 2012. Effectiveness of forest residue mulching in reducing post-firerunoff and erosion in a pine and a eucalypt plantation in north-centralPortugal. Geoderma 191: 115–124.
Shakesby RA, Boakes JD, Coelho COA, Bento-Gonçalves JA, Walsh RPD.1996. Limiting the soil degradational impacts of wildfire in pine and eucalyptusforests in Portugal. Applied Geography 16: 337–355.
RECARE project: Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe trhough Land Care. http://www.recare-project.eu/