技术

Primary strip network system for fuel management [葡萄牙]

Primary strip network system for fuel management

technologies_1361 - 葡萄牙

完整性: 78%

1. 一般信息

1.2 参与该技术评估和文件编制的资源人员和机构的联系方式

关键资源人

SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:
SLM专业人员:

Louro António

Aflomação - Forest Association of Mação

葡萄牙

SLM专业人员:

Ventinhas Marta

Aflomação - Forest Association of Mação

葡萄牙

SLM专业人员:

Bragança Nuno

Aflomação - Forest Association of Mação

SLM专业人员:

Mariano Inês

Aflomação - Forest Association of Mação

葡萄牙

有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称(如相关)
DESIRE (EU-DES!RE)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
University of Aveiro (University of Aveiro) - 葡萄牙
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称(如相关)
Aflomação - Forest Association of Mação - 葡萄牙

1.3 关于使用通过WOCAT记录的数据的条件

编制者和关键资源人员接受有关使用通过WOCAT记录数据的条件。:

1.5 参考关于SLM方法(使用WOCAT记录的SLM方法)的调查问卷

Forest Intervention Area (ZIF)
approaches

Forest Intervention Area (ZIF) [葡萄牙]

Forest Intervention Area (ZIF) is a territorial unit, where the main land use is forestry. This approach assembles and organizes small forest holders and defines a joint intervention for forest management and protection. Defined by law in 2005, and revised in 2009, each ZIF of private forest has to include ...

  • 编制者: Celeste Coelho

2. SLM技术的说明

2.1 技术简介

技术定义:

Linear strips are strategically located in areas where total or partial removal of the forest biomass is possible. This technology contributes towards preventing the occurrence and spread of large forest fires and reducing their consequences for the environment, people, infrastructures, etc.

2.2 技术的详细说明

说明:

There are three types of strip for fuel management in forest areas: primary, secondary and tertiary, defined by the Law 17/2009. The most important differences between them are in terms of size (primary being the widest and the tertiary the narrowest) and scale (primary referring to the district level, secondary to the municipal level and tertiary to the parish level). The primary strip network system for fuel management (RPFGC) is integrated in the National System to Prevent and Protect Forest against Fires and it is defined by the National Forest Authority (AFN).

Purpose of the Technology: The RPFGC aims to re-arrange landscape elements, through the establishment of discontinuities in the vegetation cover, in forest areas and in the rural landscape (for example using water bodies, agricultural land, pasture, rocky outcrops, shrubland and valuable forest stands). Land tenure is private in most of the areas covered by the RPFGC. The main objectives of this technology are: to decrease the area affected by large fires; to enable direct access by fire fighters; to reduce fire effects and protect roads, infrastructures and social equipment, urban areas and forest areas of special value; and to isolate potential fire ignition sources.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: These primary strips are ≥ 125 metres wide and preferably between 500 and 10,000 ha in area. The tree cover should be less than 50% of the area and the base of the tree canopy should not be lower than 3 metres. The RPFGC concept should include the adoption of a maintenance programme. The implementation and maintenance operations can be performed through different agro-forest technologies, such as clearance of bushes and trees, pruning, prescribed fire, harrowing and cultivation of the ground beneath the trees. Timber products can be sold and the removed litter can be used in a biomass power plant or applied to the fields to improve soil fertility, using mulching technology.

Natural / human environment: This SWC Technology needs considerable financial resources in terms of labour and equipment at the implementation phase. Costs, however, undergo considerable reduction thereafter. The implementation of this infrastructure to prevent and protect the land from forest fire is entirely funded by the government and implemented by the forest municipal services.

2.3 技术照片

2.5 已应用该技术的、本评估所涵盖的国家/地区/地点

国家:

葡萄牙

区域/州/省:

Portugal

有关地点的进一步说明:

Santarém / Mação

具体说明该技术的分布:
  • 均匀地分布在一个区域
如果技术均匀分布在一个区域,则指定覆盖的区域(单位为平方千米):

400.0

注释:

Total area covered by the SLM Technology is 400 km2.

There has been some work carried out to develop the secondary system of linear strips for fuel management. These will provide the basis for the implementation of the primary system. The PROF | PIS - Plano Regional de Ordenamento Florestal do Pinhal Interior Sul (Regional Plan for Forestry Management and Planning of the Pinhal Interior Sul) has designated an area of 1752 ha with a total length of 141 km as the contribution to the primary system of fire prevention by the Mação municipality.

2.6 实施日期

如果不知道确切的年份,请说明大概的日期:
  • 不到10年前(最近)

2.7 技术介绍

详细说明该技术是如何引入的:
  • 通过项目/外部干预

3. SLM技术的分类

3.2 应用该技术的当前土地利用类型

同一土地单元内混合使用的土地::

具体说明混合土地使用(作物/放牧/树木):
  • 林牧业

牧场

牧场

动物类型:
  • 山羊
  • 绵羊
森林/林地

森林/林地

  • (半天然)天然森林/林地
(半天然)天然森林/林地:具体说明管理类型:
  • 选伐
  • 皆伐
树木类型:
  • 桉树树种
  • 松属物种(松)
产品和服务:
  • 木材
  • 薪材
注释:

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Forest fires increase due to rural depopulation and to land management abandonment.
Other grazingland: silvo-pastoralism: Goats and sheep.
Selective felling of (semi-) natural forests: Pine.
Clear felling of (semi-)natural forests: Eucalyptus.
Other type of forest: clear felling of (semi-)natural forests: Eucalyptus.
Forest products and services: timber, fuelwood
Constraints of settlement / urban: Proximity of forest to urban areas.
Constraints of infrastructure network (roads, railways, pipe lines, power lines): Ignition sources.

Number of growing seasons per year: 2
Longest growing period in days: 1Longest growing period from month to month: 1 per year
Livestock density: 1-10 LU /km2

3.4 供水

注释:

Water supply: rainfed, rainfed

3.5 该技术所属的SLM组

  • 天然和半天然森林管理
  • 减少基于生态系统的灾害风险

3.6 包含该技术的可持续土地管理措施

结构措施

结构措施

  • S11:其它
注释:

Main measures: structural measures

3.7 该技术强调的主要土地退化类型

生物性退化

生物性退化

  • Bf:火灾的有害影响
注释:

Main type of degradation addressed: Bf: detrimental effects of fires

Main causes of degradation: deforestation / removal of natural vegetation (incl. forest fires) (Forest fire frequency and intensity.), Property size (Small pieces of land (< 0.5 ha).)

Secondary causes of degradation: Population density (Ageing population structure and depopulation.)

3.8 防止、减少或恢复土地退化

具体数量名该技术与土地退化有关的目标:
  • 防止土地退化
注释:

Main goals: prevention of land degradation

4. 技术规范、实施活动、投入和成本

4.1 该技术的技术图纸

技术规范(与技术图纸相关):

This technical drawing indicates the technical specifications, dimensions and spacing for the Primary Strip Network System for Fuel Management. The figure shows a road as the axis of the RPFGC, but it can also be a river or a ridge, amongst other breaks in the forest cover.

Location: Portugal. Santarém / Mação

Date: 16/01/2009

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: high

Technical knowledge required for land users: low

Main technical functions: control of fires

Secondary technical functions: reduction of dry material (fuel for wildfires), spatial arrangement and diversification of land use

作者:

João Soares, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810 - 193 Aveiro, Portugal

4.2 有关投入和成本计算的一般信息

其它/国家货币(具体说明):

Euro

如相关,注明美元与当地货币的汇率(例如1美元=79.9巴西雷亚尔):1美元=:

0.76

注明雇用劳工的每日平均工资成本:

18.75

4.3 技术建立活动

活动 时间(季度)
1. Primary System design n. a.
2. Shrubs cleaning + Thinning (reduction of fuel load) + Pruning Dry season
3. Removing the cut waste material
4. Litter Shredding
5. Transport to the Biomass Plant

4.4 技术建立所需要的费用和投入

对投入进行具体说明 单位 数量 单位成本 每项投入的总成本 土地使用者承担的成本%
劳动力 Labour ha 1.0 1076.0 1076.0
设备 Machine use ha 1.0 568.0 568.0
设备 Transport ha 1.0 100.0 100.0
技术建立所需总成本 1744.0
技术建立总成本,美元 2294.74

4.6 维护/经常性活动所需要的费用和投入(每年)

注释:

The costs calculation was made for the implementation of the first section of the RPFGC. The implementation phase lasted for 2 or 3 months during the dry season. This section included 28 ha and 4 teams of forest sappers were involved.

4.7 影响成本的最重要因素

描述影响成本的最决定性因素:

The costs include the activities to ensure the vertical and horizontal discontinuity of the fuel load and also the activities needed to manage the waste produced from the shrubs cleaning and thinning.

5. 自然和人文环境

5.1 气候

年降雨量
  • < 250毫米
  • 251-500毫米
  • 501-750毫米
  • 751-1,000毫米
  • 1,001-1,500毫米
  • 1,501-2,000毫米
  • 2,001-3,000毫米
  • 3,001-4,000毫米
  • > 4,000毫米
有关降雨的规范/注释:

The rainfall ranges from 1000 mm in the North to less than 600 mm per year in the South of the municipality.

农业气候带
  • 半湿润

Thermal climate class: temperate

5.2 地形

平均坡度:
  • 水平(0-2%)
  • 缓降(3-5%)
  • 平缓(6-10%)
  • 滚坡(11-15%)
  • 崎岖(16-30%)
  • 陡峭(31-60%)
  • 非常陡峭(>60%)
地形:
  • 高原/平原
  • 山脊
  • 山坡
  • 山地斜坡
  • 麓坡
  • 谷底
垂直分布带:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
说明该技术是否专门应用于:
  • 凹陷情况

5.3 土壤

平均土层深度:
  • 非常浅(0-20厘米)
  • 浅(21-50厘米)
  • 中等深度(51-80厘米)
  • 深(81-120厘米)
  • 非常深(> 120厘米)
土壤质地(表土):
  • 中粒(壤土、粉土)
表土有机质:
  • 低(<1%)
如有可能,附上完整的土壤描述或具体说明可用的信息,例如土壤类型、土壤酸碱度、阳离子交换能力、氮、盐度等。:

Soil depth on average is very shallow: Thin and stony terrains
Soil fertility is low
Soil drainage/infiltration is poor
Soil water storage capacity is low

5.4 水资源可用性和质量

地下水位表:

5-50米

地表水的可用性:

中等

水质(未处理):

良好饮用水

5.5 生物多样性

物种多样性:
  • 中等

5.6 应用该技术的土地使用者的特征

生产系统的市场定位:
  • 混合(生计/商业)
非农收入:
  • > 收入的50%
相对财富水平:
  • 贫瘠
  • 平均水平
个人或集体:
  • 团体/社区
机械化水平:
  • 手工作业
  • 畜力牵引
性别:
  • 女人
  • 男人
说明土地使用者的其他有关特征:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users
Population density: 10-50 persons/km2
Annual population growth: negative; 2%
50% of the land users are average wealthy and own 50% of the land.
50% of the land users are poor and own 50% of the land.
Level of mechanization is manual labour or animal traction (Small machines are used)
market orientation is mixed (more subsistence than commercial).

5.7 应用该技术的土地使用者使用的平均土地面积

  • < 0.5 公顷
  • 0.5-1 公顷
  • 1-2 公顷
  • 2-5公顷
  • 5-15公顷
  • 15-50公顷
  • 50-100公顷
  • 100-500公顷
  • 500-1,000公顷
  • 1,000-10,000公顷
  • > 10,000公顷
这被认为是小规模、中规模还是大规模的(参照当地实际情况)?:
  • 小规模的
注释:

Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology: < 0.5 ha, < 0.5 ha, 2-5 ha
Size of forest/ woodland area per hosuehold: 25 plots.

5.8 土地所有权、土地使用权和水使用权

土地所有权:
  • 个人,未命名
  • 个人,有命名
土地使用权:
  • 个人
用水权:
  • 自由进入(无组织)
注释:

Individual, not titled: Usually, legal documents for the property are missing.

5.9 进入服务和基础设施的通道

健康:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
教育:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
技术援助:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
就业(例如非农):
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
市场:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
能源:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
道路和交通:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
饮用水和卫生设施:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
金融服务:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的
telecommunications:
  • 贫瘠
  • 适度的

6. 影响和结论性说明

6.1 该技术的现场影响

社会经济效应

生产

饲料生产

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Vegetation removal, either by machinery or prescribed fire, produces fresh growth for grazing.

饲料质量

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The new growth provides more diverse and nutritious fodder.

畜牧生产

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The low fuel load can be maintained through grazing.

木材生产

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Most of the primary system will be implemented in zones of low productivity. However, in some areas tree thinning can cause a decrease in wood production.

产品多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Increase of by-products from grazing.

生产区域

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The use of wood as a fuel for a power station and the use of vegetation to feed the cattle can promote the development of new crops and land uses.
In some areas, the implementation of the primary system can occupy productive land. The main aim of this technology is always to provide protection from forest fires instead of creating productive land.

能源生产

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

After cutting the shrubs, biomass is taken to a plant to energy production.
The cleared ground, on mountain summits, of the primary system is used for wind farms. Cleared vegetation could be used as fuel for a power station.

收入和成本

收入来源的多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

The strips will mainly occupy areas of low productivity. The vegetation removed can be used as fuel for a power station. The maintenance of the primary system through grazing will create opportunities in terms of cattle grazing and all the resulting by-pr

其它社会经济效应

Costs of implementation

low
high
注释/具体说明:

The implementation of the primary system is very costly.

Maintenance costs

decreased
increased

社会文化影响

健康状况

恶化
改良
注释/具体说明:

Improved air quality by reducing forest fires risk.

文化机会

减少
改良

娱乐机会

减少
改良

社区机构

削弱
加强

国家机构

削弱
加强

SLM/土地退化知识

减少
改良

冲突缓解

恶化
改良
注释/具体说明:

Some forest owners can have some difficulties in accepting the loss of their land to this technology. This can be even more difficult if they have some wood production on such land, so that it represents an income reduction.

Improved livelihoods and human well-being

decreased
increased
注释/具体说明:

reduced risk of wildfire

生态影响

水循环/径流

水的回收/收集

减少
改良

地表径流

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

Associated with the vegetation removal.

多余水的排放

减少
改良

蒸发

增加
降低
土壤

土壤水分

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Associated with the vegetation removal.

土壤覆盖层

减少
改良
注释/具体说明:

Vegetation removal, either by machinery or prescribed fire, enhances the diversity of the new vegetation cover. In some cases thinning the trees will have a positive effect by reducing the competition for water, sunlight and nutrients and (...)

土壤流失

增加
降低

土壤结壳/密封

增加
减少

土壤压实

增加
减少

养分循环/补给

降低
增加

土壤有机物/地下C

降低
增加
生物多样性:植被、动物

生物量/地上C

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Sometimes a loss which is associated with the immediate effects of vegetation removal.

植物多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Vegetation removal, either by machinery or prescribed fire, enhances the appearance of new plants.

外来入侵物种

增加
减少
注释/具体说明:

The fuel load management in the primary system, involving the implementation of good forest practices, including the removal and control of invasive species.

动物多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

Vegetation removal, either by machinery or prescribed fire, enhances the appearance of new plants and consequently of new associated animals. The installation of fodder on the strips will promote grazing activities, increasing the number of goats, (...)

有益物种

降低
增加

栖息地多样性

降低
增加
注释/具体说明:

But also increased habitat fragmention

减少气候和灾害风险

碳和温室气体的排放

增加
降低

火灾风险

增加
降低

风速

增加
降低
注释/具体说明:

In some cases, where there is a total removal or a huge reduction in vegetation cover.

其它生态影响

Risk towards adverse events

improved
reduced
注释/具体说明:

This technology is an impediment to forest fire propagation and therefore reduces fire risk.

Soil erosion

increased
decreased
注释/具体说明:

Usually, the soil in the areas designated for the implementation of the primary system is thin and poor. The use of machinery and vegetation removal can accelerate the soil erosion processes.

6.2 该技术的场外影响已经显现

对邻近农田的破坏

增加
减少
注释/具体说明:

Forest area.

对公共/私人基础设施的破坏

增加
减少
注释/具体说明:

The technology aims to reduce forest fire frequency and intensity, and the associated damage.

6.3 技术对渐变气候以及与气候相关的极端情况/灾害的暴露和敏感性(土地使用者认为的极端情况/灾害)

渐变气候

渐变气候
季节 增加或减少 该技术是如何应对的?
年温度 增加

气候有关的极端情况(灾害)

气象灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
局地暴雨 不好
局地风暴 不好
气候灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
干旱 不好
水文灾害
该技术是如何应对的?
比较和缓的(河道)洪水 不好

其他气候相关的后果

其他气候相关的后果
该技术是如何应对的?
缩短生长期

6.4 成本效益分析

技术收益与技术建立成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

中性/平衡

长期回报:

积极

技术收益与技术维护成本/经常性成本相比如何(从土地使用者的角度看)?
短期回报:

中性/平衡

长期回报:

积极

注释:

The maintenance will only start 2 or 3 years after the technology implementation, so no returns are expected at short-term.

6.5 技术采用

注释:

Comments on acceptance with external material support: 100% of the technology was implement by local administration, with support from the government.

There is a strong trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: After the implementation period there was a high local acceptance of the technology. It is also expected that grazing activities contribute to the technology maintenance

6.7 该技术的优点/长处/机会

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的长处/优势/机会
Fuel load reduction

How can they be sustained / enhanced? This will be achieved using prescribed fire and specialised machinery. The efficacy of prescribed fire depends on the collaboration of technicians and forest sapper teams. To guarantee the effectiveness of RPFGC implementation, long-term maintenance has to be ensured.
Reinforcement of the forest path system

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Clearing the strips of the RPFGC can enhance the forest track network.
Forest fire prevention and fighting

How can they be sustained / enhanced? The know-how of the local stakeholders and communities will contribute to the design of the RPFGC . This information should be integrated into the Municipal Plans to Prevent and Protect Forest Against Fires (PMDFCI). Any further information should be provided to the Civil Protection Agencies and to the Forest Technical Office and also to the local fire-brigade team.
Increase in landscape resilience

How can they be sustained / enhanced? This will only be effective if the RPFGC is continuous and without gaps. The acceptance of the RPFGC by the landowners is fundamental to widespread the use of this technology. Information and awareness about the need to change vegetation cover is also very important, in order to avoid extensive areas of monoculture.

6.8 技术的弱点/缺点/风险及其克服方法

编制者或其他关键资源人员认为的弱点/缺点/风险 如何克服它们?
Soil erosion increase Forestry good practices should be used in the RPFGC implementation, especially concerning the use of machinery and avoiding disturbance of soil at depth. Soil cover after the removal of the existing vegetation should be promoted (by seeding, mulching or creating a low intensity pasture).
Soil cover reduction Soil cover after the removal of the existing vegetation should be promoted (by seeding, mulching or creating a low intensity pasture).
Runoff increase Soil cover after the removal of the existing vegetation should be promoted (by seeding, mulching or creating a low intensity pasture). Excessive vegetation removal should be avoid, especially near water courses where the removal should be nil or minimum.
Budget for implementation and maintenance European and national funds. Collaboration of the local government providing equipment and labour force. Information and awareness to the landowners about the importance of this technology. Campaigns of national awareness and definition of this technology as ‘public use’ to overcome some potential social conflicts concerning the land rights.

7. 参考和链接

7.1 信息的方法/来源

7.2 参考可用出版物

标题、作者、年份、ISBN:

Decree-Law n. 124/2006, 28 June. Official Gazette n. 123 – I series: 4586-4599; Decree-Law n. 17/2009, 14 January. Official Gazette n. 9 – I series: 273-295.

模块