Sali Usmanu Mallam
Hammadu Bawuro Abubakar
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）In Search of Common Ground
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Book project: Guidelines to Rangeland Management in Sub-Saharan Africa (Rangeland Management)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) - 喀麦隆
Alliance farming refers to collaboration between crop farmers and pastoralists, who agree to use the same land and related resources (crop residues as fodder for pastoralists; dung as fertilizer for crop farmers) for their mutual benefit.
Alliance farming is partnership between pastoralists and subsistence farmers to share resources. They agree to use the same land and related resources sequentially: growing crops during the rains, and grazing cattle in the dry season. It is a further development of the conflict mediation process under which cattle are allowed to graze on cropland after harvest. The cattle consume crop residues and weeds (including some grass) on the farm and they produce dung and urine in turn, which increases nitrogen content and organic matter in the soil. This enhances its fertility and makes it more productive for the next round of crop cultivation. The crops grown are mainly annuals including maize, beans, soybeans and groundnuts. The livestock are mainly zebu cattle for beef (Bos indicus). There exists several variants (or components) of this arrangement: 1) The farmer constructs a night paddock (a corral) in farmland and invites pastoralists to kraal their animals in the paddock overnight; 2) The farmer arranges with the pastoralist to farm on areas where animals have been held overnight, in grazing land – and constructs a fence to protect the crops; 3) In communities where transhumance is common, the farmer allows a pastoralist to graze his cattle on crop residues remaining after harvest; 4) Pastoralists allow farmers to collect dung and apply it in their farms. Contracts for the most part are verbal and non-written, and each party counts on the good conscience and honesty of the other.
4 different photos showing pastoralists and farmers who are benefiting from this technology have been provided.
There are two videos of this technology available but each is about 125 MB and just too heavy to be uploaded on to this site.
North West Region
This approach has been piloted in 23 communities in the North West Region.
Presently common in pilot villages/communities.
- 作为传统系统的一部分（> 50 年）
Some aspects of this technology were already in practise in the region over the decades but due the facilitation of Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (MBOSCUDA) this technology is being adopted now by many locals
年作 - 具体指明作物:
- 谷物类 - 玉米
- 豆科牧草和豆类 - 豆子
- 豆科牧草和豆类 - 大豆
- 油料作物 - 花生
Usually one growing season.
- zebu cattle
Main animal species and products: Zebu cattle under extensive production which produce dung and urine.
Main products/ services: Annuals such as maize, beans, soybeans and groundnuts, while livestock kept under extensive system of production produce dung and urine to enrich the soil.
Land use is changing due to the use of this technology but this change is principally driven by the increasing demographics. Through the use of this technology, much more rangelands is being cultivated for crop production
This is a very low-input land use.
Some degraded land is being rehabilitated as pastoralists do invite farmers to come farm in the rangelands which have been invaded by braken fern. By tilling of the soil and removing the rhizomes in them, the spread of the invasive species is being put to check.
• Alliance farming is an advanced outcome of the conflict mediation process whereby cattle are allowed to graze on crop lands after harvest.
• Livestock consume crop residues and weeds (including grass).
• When the land is used to paddock cattle, their manure and urine fertilize the soil making it more productive when the crop farmers return to cultivate.
• Crops are planted on the plot of land once the cattle are taken away.
MBOSCUDA North West Region Cameroon
|1.||Farmer harvests annual crop e.g. maize, beans||At the end of growing season which is usually in October|
|2.||Farmer invites pastoralist to bring herd to graze off crop residues||After harvest of crops in Octorber|
|3.||Cattle graze on crop residues and weeds on farm||During grazing in the dry season from mid-November onwards|
|4.||Dung and faeces passed out by animal increases N content of soil||During grazing, mostly in the dry season mid-November to mid-March.|
|5.||Pastoralist takes animals away from farm||At the beginning of the rains in mid-March.|
|6.||Farmer then returns to till soil and plant annual crops in the field||At the beginning of the growing season by mid-March.|
This is actually a low input technology.
Land users bore all of the costs
A low input technology.
There are no maintenance costs.
The only costs pertain to herding the animal to farmer's farm which is done by pastoralist or his a herder he has paid
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
It is a uni-modal in nature with rains coming in by mid March and going by mid October.
Institute of Agricultural Research for Development
Sub-humid climate with mainly sudan savana characterized by undulating hills and short grass species interspersed with shrubs.
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
The land users are predominantly resource poor livestock and crop farmers.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
Improved soil fertility from dung and urine leads to increase crop production.
Improved crop quality as little or no pesticides are used.
increase fodder production from crop residues such as maize stover, legume haulms and sweet potato vines.
Farmers do not use chemicals on the crops so quality of resulting crop residues is also good.
The greater access that the livestock have to crop residues has led to increased animal production.
The risk of production failure has decreased since farmers have increased the effective sizes of their farm holdings.
Production area has also increased as farmers have increase land area under cultivation mostly when they are invited to come farm in rangelands in order to till the soil and break the cycle of spread of invasive species
Better land management now with the same land put to multiple uses and more productive than previously i.e. when the two land uses were separated.
Farm income has increased from improved production and productivity of crops and animals.
Income sources have been diversified. With increased income from farms, farmers most especially are going for other off- farm enterprises such as petty trading.
Economic disparities are being bridged because of the increased income from either livestock production or crop farming.
Workload is also being eased as farmers and pastoralists are witnessing improved crop and livestock productivity. Farmers, especially, do not have to bring much more new land under cultivation.
Food self-sufficiency of alliance farming practising families has improved from the increase in production.
From the improved income as a result of increased production and productivity, alliance practitioners have more disposal income to take care of medical bills.
Land use rights especially of pastoralists has improved since farmers now acknowledge that pastoralists do own land. Pastoralists, due to their late arrival in the region, are looked upon as 'strangers' by their farming neighbours. However this perception is changing because of the positive engagement between the these two main land users.
Increase cross-cultural dialogue within the community: pastoralists are predominantly Moslems while crop farmers are mainly Christians.
Community institutions like the Dialogue Platforms have been strengthened, as they have grown in recognition among community members as a low- stake solution to resource use conflicts.
Agro-Pastoral Commissions, which are the statutory bodies adjudicating conflicts between farmers and pastoralists, have come to see effectiveness of the Dialogue Platforms and are incorporating the Alternative Conflict Management practices in their modus operandi.
There has been a great decrease in the number, frequency and intensity of the conflicts as the two sets of land users have seen good reason to collaborate instead of antagonize each other.
The self-esteem of the Mbororos who make up the majority of pastoralists community has been improved through this positive engagement with farmers.
Nutrient cycling has improved as dung and urine are returned to improve soil fertility and help subsequent crops.
Soil organic matter has also being improved from the increase crop residues which animals do not eat all.
Increase soil fertility has meant increase crop cover
Increase crop yields also mean increase crop biomass
Plant diversity has been somewhat increased due to fertile soils make it possible for different plant species to grow
The spread of alien species such as bracken fern on rangelands is being controlled since farmers are being invited by pastoralists to come and cultivate crops on rangelands. The tilling of the soil is a good mechanical method of controlling the spread of these invasive species.
Growth of the crops most especially will be affected by climate change events such as droughts or too much rainfall. The crops are C4 crops and so will get very little benefits predicted rise in temperatures associated with climate change.
More than 800 alliance farming pairs have been facilitated by this process.
Farmers have not received any incentives from project in order to adopt this.
|Technology leads to increased crop yields because of the improved soil fertility.|
|Technology leads to improved crop quality because of the use of organic manure and less chemicals fertilizers. The use of chemical fertilizers can lead to leaching of inorganic nutrients into ground water, and also eutrophication of water bodies.|
|It has led to stronger social relationships between farmers and pastoralists.|
|Invasive species such as Pteridium aquilinium (bracken fern) that has invaded rangelands is being controlled. Tilling of the farms is a mechanical method of stopping its growth and spread.|
|More productive use of land than when two land uses were separate.|
|More environmentally friendly since organic manure is being used.|
|The ratio of pastoralists to farmers is really low (about 1:6) meaning that there are not many pastoralists to form Alliance Farming pairs with willing farmers.||Increasing herd sizes to ensure more production of manure could alleviate this problem.|
|Agreements are verbal.||Formalizing the contracts.|
|Some variants of the technology, for example that in which pastoralists allow farmers to collect dung to go to farm in another area may lead to nutrient export. The dung does not contribute to improve the fertility of the soil where it was collected but does so at a different site where farming will take place. There is no net loss of nutrients out of the whole system though.||Transportation of dung to different sites should be discouraged. Farming should take place as much as possible on the farm that supplied crop residues to feed the animals.|
4 field visits were done.
About 30 people were contacted during focus group discussions and key informant interviews.
4 SLM specialists were contacted.
Secondary data sources were consulted.
MBOSCUDA Searchlight Magazine Vols 1, 2,3. 2014, 2015, 2016
Blasius Azuhnwi and Fiona Flintan (2017)- Making Rangelands Secure, Issue Paper 8, Rangelands Series
From ILC Rome for free