4/1 Baghramyan Street, 0019 Yerevan, Armenia
+374 94 839083 / +374 91 926092
ESAC NGO, Armenian National Agrarian Univercity
Yerevan, Davit Anhaght 23
E.C.O. Institute of Ecology
Lakeside B07b 9020 Klagenfurt
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的项目名称（如相关）Integrated Biodiversity Management, South Caucasus (IBiS)
有助于对技术进行记录/评估的机构名称（如相关）Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
Small horizontal wooden structures and terraces on eroded slopes built to mitigate sheet or rill erosion and slow down water run-off. The technology is easy to apply and efficient to mitigate erosion processes of the upper soil layer and to stop small rock falls.
In the provinces of Aragatsotn and Shirak in Armenia, the weather is cold and temperate with dry summer. Steep slopes, pastures and some autochthonous oak forests make up the area. Farmers make most of their income with grazing by manual labour. The carrying capacity of pastures in the vicinity is regularly exceeded, and they degrade more and more. In order to stabilize the steep eroded slopes, pile walls were established. Pile walls are horizontal constructions along a slope, functioning as erosion control measures by slowing down the superficial water runoff, retaining materials and supporting the rehabilitation of vegetation.
The major advantages are: It is not expensive since mostly locally available materials can be used, and a positive effect can already be observed within a year. Also, the pile walls can be established relatively easy without any need of heavy machinery or specific knowledge and, therefore, allow the involvement of the local population.
In the case of the implementation in Armenia, the exact location for the pilot measures was selected in such a way that grazing activities were almost not impaired. For temporary exclusion of livestock, electric fencing was used. Within the fenced area, pile walls were established in the washed-out rills along the slope to address the water erosion phenomena.
The technical requirements and workload for the construction of a pile wall are relatively low. The needed resources require iron piles, a hammer, wooden logs (or a bundle of branches) and tree cuttings. First, the wooden logs were cut in 1-2 m length to fit into the irregular rills of the slope. After identifying the locations of individual pile walls, the team fixed the logs with iron poles of about 70-100cm length. The distance between the pile walls varies between 1-3m, depending on the topography: the steeper the slope, the closer the distance. The space behind the logs was filled with soil, plant material and rocks to stabilize the construction and to reduce the risk of water washing out the soil and passing below the logs. As a last step, the terraces were covered with hay to provide protection against precipitation and to accelerate re-growth of grass through the seeds contained in the hay residuals.
Community members were surprised how easy and quick the pile walls could be established. A team of two workers established a pile wall within 30 min. Since these areas are usually intensively used and thus are of high importance for the community, even a temporary exclusion from use must be thoroughly discussed and agreed upon.
The measure slows down vertical water-run off and provides steps for cattle. Due to temporary fencing and the application of hay mulch vegetation is recovering on these parts.
ESAC Project Video
Aragatsotn and Shirak Marzes (Provinces)
Lusagyugyh, Hnaberd, Ghegadhzor, Saralandj, Mets Mantash
cattle (and sheep)
0.89-1.30 pasture load/ha
- < 0.1 平方千米（10 公顷）
Required materials for 1 pile wall:
- 2 iron poles (0.7-1m) and a hammer
- 1 wooden log (ca. 4 m, 20-25cm diameter)
- 10-20 shrub cuttings (e.g. Salix species)
Selection of appropriate sites for pile walls (where and how to put them):
The logs are being spread on the slope as indictated in the scheme of the figure. The steeper the slope the narrower the vertical spacing in between (max. 4m, min. 1-2 m). On uneven slopes, place the along the depressions as these are the areas where water-run off is strongest. Parts which show no erosion signs can be left out to not destroy existing vegetation cover. The location of the pile walls is determined by the slope and serves to stabilize the slope at superficial level (10-30 cm). It landslides occur that involve deeper soil layers, this technology is not efficient.
After placing the logs, those are fixed with two irons at the end (alternatively wooden posts can be used as well). After fixing the logs, the space behind needs to be filled (slight terracing of the slope). Additionally, either shrub seedlings or living cuttings from species such as willows (ca. 50cm long, 2-5cm diameter) should be integrated. Finally, the open soil should be covered by a layer of 2-5 cm of hay/grass containing seeds and eventually additional seeds (from local species) to promote the re-establishment of vegetation. This has also the benefit that this cover keep humidity in the soil, which is particularly important in (semi-)arid areas.
At least 20 cuttings per pile wall should be planted. Depending on the survival rates, it can be also more. Shrubs additionally stabilize the slope and are to some extent protected by the pile wall.
ca. 20 USD per worker and day (unskilled local workers), 120 USD per day (local expert)
|1.||Selection of eroded sites and size||管理||anytime|
|2.||Clarification of land user rights||管理||anytime|
|3.||Calculate amount of logs and irons needed||管理||anytime|
|4.||Materials check: Local materials and procurement of other materials||管理||anytime|
|5.||Place logs on the eroded slope (favor depressions where water flows are)||结构性的||anytime (best in spring and autumn)|
|6.||Fix logs with two iron poles at both sides of the log||结构性的||anytime (best in spring and autumn)|
|7.||Fill the space behind the log with soil, rocks and (willow) cuttings||结构性的||early spring or late autumn (willow cuttings without leaves)|
|8.||Flatten the area behind the log (small terracing)||结构性的||anytime (best in spring and autumn)|
|9.||Use additional hay/grass mulch to cover open soil and add additional seeds||植物性的||best in spring (alternatively in late autumn)|
|10.||If it is grazing area: Fence the area for at least 2-3 vegetation periods||管理||during grazing period|
|劳动力||Unskilled worker: Implementation of field measures||person days||30.0||21.0||630.0||10.0|
|劳动力||Skilled expert (Implementation supervision and project management||person days||14.0||120.0||1680.0|
|劳动力||Transportation costs (truck, experts)||rental days||12.0||54.0||648.0||10.0|
|设备||P3800 Fence energizer + Box and equipment||set||1.0||345.0||345.0|
|设备||Solar Panel for fence energizer||piece||1.0||233.0||233.0|
|设备||Battery and fence tester||piece||1.0||203.0||203.0|
|植物材料||Cuttings (20 per pile wall) (not used as it is being grazed)||pieces|
|植物材料||Hay/grass for mulch cover (Bales ca.20kg)||kg||800.0||0.08||64.0|
|施工材料||Wooden logs (3m, 20cm diameter)||pieces||50.0||17.0||850.0|
|施工材料||Iron poles (0.7-1m, 10 mm diameter)||pieces||150.0||2.1||315.0|
|施工材料||Electric Fence Polywire||m||1300.0||0.3||390.0|
|施工材料||Electric Fence Corner donut insulator||pieces||27.0||1.0||27.0|
|施工材料||Electric Fence Spring Gate Set||piece||1.0||42.0||42.0|
Initial costs were comparatively high as it is a pilot project. Thus, staff costs and the procurement of electric fence equipment made costs rather high. If materials can be obtained locally costs go down as far as 23 USD/pile wall (including material and work).
|1.||Regular check of fence||结构性的||Once per two weeks|
|2.||Installation and deinstallation of electric fence||结构性的||Once per year|
|3.||Changing the broken posts||结构性的||once per year|
|4.||Optional refill of stones and/or soil if washed out||结构性的||twice per year|
Almost all maintenance activity refer to the maintenance of the electric fence (which is being removed in winter) and needs to be re-established during the grazing period. The pile wall itself does not need maintenance measures.
|劳动力||Regular check of fence||workdays||8.0||21.0||168.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Installation and deinstallation of electric fence||workdays||8.0||21.0||168.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Changing the broken posts||workdays||1.0||21.0||21.0||100.0|
|劳动力||Optional refill of stones and/or soil if washed out||workdays||3.0||21.0||63.0||100.0|
Grazing (if fencing is needed it is the most costly part)
Wooden logs (if bought). This can be turned to zero by either using local wood (if permitted) or bundles of branches of specific species (e.g. willows).
- < 250毫米
- > 4,000毫米
In Aparan, the climate is cold and temperate. Aparan has a significant amount of rainfall during the year. This is true even for the driest month. Precipitation peaks are in May and June.
Aparan, Aragatsotn Marz, Armenia
According to Köppen and Geiger, the climate is classified as Dfb (Cold/continental, no dry season, warm summers). Annual mean temperature is 5.2. °C. The warmest month of the year is August, with an average temperature of 16.4 °C. January has the lowest average temperature of the year with -6.9 °C.
- 0-100 m a.s.l.
- 101-500 m a.s.l.
- 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
- 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
- 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
- 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
- 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
- 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
- > 4,000 m a.s.l.
The technology is applicable on hills and steep slopes with an inclination between 10° and 30 (40)°
- 非常深（> 120厘米）
There are substantial amounts of water (seasonally) from water from melted snow of Aragats mountain
The area is widely used as pasture and shows some degradation signs (e.g. inpalatable plants spreading, open soil, decreasing number of plant species, spreading of Astragalus). On some slopes, autochtonous oak forests (Quercus macranthera) still exist. The area consists of typical sub-alpine to alpine grasslands with medium species diversity.
The land owners are the communities in the target region on behalf of community mayors.
- < 0.5 公顷
- 0.5-1 公顷
- 1-2 公顷
- > 10,000公顷
The erosion control masures stopped top soil Erosion and Gully Erosion in the pasture land.
The workload for implementing the measures does not pay off within the first view years but is a long term investment in saving soil productivity.
The intervention raised awareness to soil erosion and new technologies have been trained to village stakeholders (pile walls, electric fencing)
Water run off is decreased and soil moister is increase by better infiltration of water into the soil.
The increase of vegetation leads to an increase of evaporation-transpiration.
Water run off is decreased by pile walls and better vegetation cover and soil moister is increase by better infiltration of water into the soil.
Decrease of water run off by pile walls and increased vegetation cover leads to decrease of soil loss.
Increase of vegetation leads to more root activity and humus increase by increase of litter.
The stop of grazing and trampling by the fence leads to fast increase of vegetation cover.
The stop of grazing leads to significant increase of above ground biomass.
On heavily eroded sites the measure lead to increase of plant species.
The increase of above soil biomass increase the risk of grass-fire in autumn during or after the dry season.
through increased vegetation cover and reduced speed of superficial water-runoff and increase of water capacity of the slope above the village.
partially improved through increased vegetation cover and less open soil
Seasonal raifall is different, but the annual rainfall has decreased. The impact of technology is minor, since the area is very small.
On the short term there is a significant increase of work load and needed resources to establish the pile walls and fencing the site. Recovery of vegetation, increase of soil carbon content and increase of productivity will need 2-5 years to be effective and give increase fodder yields of the site.
There are interested households who want to adopt the technology, but indeed there is nobody who implemeted the technology by himself/herself.
Due to unavailablity of local seeds, local hay/grass was used to provide mulching cover and add locally adapted seeds
On one site an additional drainage trench was prepared as the soil was very compacted and vegetation cover was completely destroyed. The trench was filled with rocks which are available in abundance.
|Improvement of road of animals, improvement of quality of pasture and vegetation cover, overcome of erosion, regulation of water flow, better view of the area, dissemination of seeds to other areas|
|Technology is easy to apply and works mostly with local materials and requires no specific knowledge. Materials can be adapted (e.g. if timber is scarce, bundles of willow branches can be used as alternative)|
|Technology is able to stabilize superficial erosion processes and support recovery of vegetation on steep slopes. It can also stop small rock falls.|
|Technology can also be adapted to fortify/stabilize paths and cattle paths on slopes (e.g. when a walking path is crossing a small gully section). Thus, it can also stop erosion processes caused by trampling or hikers|
|Limited availability of material such as electric fence, solar panels, etc in the local market||At the moment they can be imported|
|relatively high cost for material||Using cheap and local material|
|Limitation of cattle road||Use other alternative road for animals|
|If not installed properly, water flows on the sides of the pile walls and below and the barrier becomes ineffective||
Take care during construction that the space below the logs is filled appropriately.
Take care of appropriate re-establishment of a vegetation cover
|If area is being grazed, it is challenging to re-establish vegetation. Cuttings which further stabilize the slope are unlikely to succeed.||
Temporary fencing of the area or
permanent fencing and use of area for hay making
Handbook on Integrated Erosion Control A Practical Guide for Planning and Implementing Integrated Erosion Control Measures in Armenia, GIZ (ed.), 2018, ISBN 978-9939-1-0722-6
Project website of the GIZ program