Mango and paw-paw fruit tree growing [Uganda]

Okuliima emiyembe ahamwe namapapali

technologies_3302 - Uganda

Completeness: 92%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

land user:

Yusufu Rev Tinkasimire



Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Scaling-up SLM practices by smallholder farmers (IFAD)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) - Uganda

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?


The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Fruit growing is one of the important and high paying branches of horticulture that involves planting of improved mango (mangifera indica) and paw paw (carica papaya)varieties in rows, with pawpaws(carica papaya) planted in between the mango(mangifera) trees with the aim of obtaining fruits for sale for income and environmental conservation.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Mangoes (mangifera indica) integrated with pawpaw (carica papaya) on farm is a sustainable land management practice promoted by farmers in Kyeggwa District with the aim of producing for commercial purposes and soil fertility improvement. It is normally established on a one acre piece of land individually owned by the farmer. The varieties grown are mainly high breed grafted tree in nature that were supplied to the farmer by the area local government project aimed at scaling up fruit farming and eradication of poverty among the farming community.

The fruit tree farm is normally established on a gentle sloping area. In this area, due to over-cultivation, the soils where previously exposed to both wind and water erosion and degradation by heavy sunshine especially during the dry season. To address this, the farmer allowed weeds to grow under the trees which he slashed and left them to work as mulch material that protected the soils from erosion, moisture loss and fertility boost. Establishment of the plantation started with designation and enclosure of the area with a barbed wire to protect the establishments from free grazing goats and cattle, playing children and thieves. This was followed by clearing of shrubs and grasses, making of planting basins of dimensions 2×2 feet and application of manure a month prior to the planting of seedlings. The basin is made at a spacing of 8×8 meters from each other and on planting an alternating mango to pawpaw tree pattern is established in the garden. Shrub sticks are then used to build an enclosure around the fruit seedlings to further protect it from intruders that may pass through the barbed wire fence. Maintenance activities are quite laborious and recurrent, they include; daily irrigation of the seedlings in the dry season until they are a meter plus, spraying of insecticides and fungi on a weekly basis, pruning, harvesting and weeding. The activities are recurrent and require the farmer to employ two men to aid on the farm. The farmer faces challenges of snakes, rodents and birds that eat the fruits and therefore he needs to be always on alert when harvesting fruits.

Establishment costs per acre of the orchard is relatively expensive, one hundred sixty (160) mangoes and pawpaw tree seedlings valued at USD 123.2 where supplied to the farmer by local government for planting. The following activities were done to set up the technology:

- 4 men for the to fencing work,
- Clearing the land
- Preparing planting basins
- Planting the seedling which took them 5 days,
- Purchasing manure 20 sacks all those costed USD 304.3.

The maintenance activities, done at the farm include applying insecticides and fungicides on a weekly basis plus ring weeding.

The farm is maintained at average cost of USD 410.9 up to the fruiting stage, beyond which a well grown mango tree plant on harvest produces averagely between sixty (60) and eighty (80) mango fruits whereas for the pawpaw it produces between 20 and 30 respectively. This earns the farmer close to USD 1183 each harvest of the two seasons in the year which is significantly worth the farmer’s efforts.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.4 Videos of the Technology

Comments, short description:

Mangoes (mangifera indica) and paw-paws (carica papaya) field.




Kyegegwa District

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Western Region

Further specification of location:

Kyegegwa town

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:


2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The farmer owning this fruit tree farm acquired both the knowledge and fruit tree seedlings from District local gorvernment that was working in partnership with National Agriculture Advisory Services (NAADS)

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • create beneficial economic impact
  • create beneficial social impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Mixed (crops/ grazing/ trees), incl. agroforestry

Mixed (crops/ grazing/ trees), incl. agroforestry

  • Horticulture

3.3 Further information about land use

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2

3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • minimal soil disturbance
  • improved plant varieties/ animal breeds

3.5 Spread of the Technology

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • applied at specific points/ concentrated on a small area

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • not applicable

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology


Prossy Kaheru



4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing

1 acre of fruit trees planted.
The field area is 80*50M
Spacing between the trees is 8*8 meters
Tree plant basin size is 2*2 feet.
The fruit farm is on a gentle slope

4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology unit
Specify unit:

1 acre

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • US Dollars
Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD =:


Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.4 Establishment activities

Activity Type of measure Timing
1. Clearing the land Management Once
2. Digging plant basins Other measures Once
3. Apply manure in the established plant basins Other measures Once
4. Plant the seedlings Management Once

4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Clearing the land Man acre 5.0 60000.0 300000.0 100.0
Labour Digging plant basins and planting Man acre 5.0 90000.0 450000.0 100.0
Plant material Fruit tree seedlings Seedlings 160.0 2000.0 320000.0
Fertilizers and biocides Organic manure application Sacks 20.0 18000.0 360000.0 100.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 1430000.0

4.6 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Type of measure Timing/ frequency
1. Weeding Management Monthly
2. Spraying Management After two weeks
3. Prunning Management After three months
4. Fertilizer and manure application Management Monthly

4.7 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

If possible, break down the costs of maintenance according to the following table, specifying inputs and costs per input. If you are unable to break down the costs, give an estimation of the total costs of maintaining the Technology:


If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

A public organisation known as National Agriculture Advisory Services (NAADS) provided the farmer with fruit tree seedlings


Maintenance activities cost estimated on a yearly basis

4.8 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

The equipment's and materials needed for establishment plus maintenance are relatively expensive

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

< 5 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?


Is flooding of the area occurring?


5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium
Habitat diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
Age of land users:
  • elderly

5.7 Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • individual, not titled
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • individual

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Income and costs

farm income

Comments/ specify:

With this practice the farmer reported getting income of 6 millions from the two harvest seasons in a year which is high compared to the 2 million he uses to raise from growing beans and maize annually

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

Comments/ specify:

Farmer earns income from selling fruits from his garden. Therefore he does not sell his crop produce, saves it for food.

health situation

Comments/ specify:

Farmer says he harvest and consumes a fruit on daily basis hence improving his and family's health status.

Ecological impacts

Climate and disaster risk reduction

drought impacts

Comments/ specify:

Underneath the trees is a permanent soil cover which maintains soil moisture enabling trees to resist drought.

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

downstream siltation


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season Type of climatic change/ extreme How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature decrease moderately
seasonal temperature wet/ rainy season decrease moderately
annual rainfall increase moderately
seasonal rainfall wet/ rainy season increase moderately

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local hailstorm very well
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Biological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
insect/ worm infestation moderately

Beneath the trees is a permanent cover of grass which enhances soil moisture retention enabling the trees to survive drought. The trees have a huge canopy which acts as a soil cover improving soil moisture retention.

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

slightly positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:


6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 1-10%
Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?


6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Serves as an employment opportunity for this farmer
Provide Income after sell of fruits to invest in sustainable land management practices
Can easily be replicated in other areas
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Provide a large yield of fruit year after year for decades, requiring little human input when compared to the growing, planting, weeding, watering, pest control involved in annual vegetables. As a deep-rooted, long-lived perennial, the tree has time to adapt to local conditions and be more resilient.
Fruit tree orchards provide vital green spaces in our cities and towns, where people are encouraged to interact with nature either through becoming custodians of the trees or by simply being around them and enjoying their shade, beauty and fruit.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Relatively expensive to establish Getting an organisation that can provide necessary equipment
Relatively expensive inputs for maintenance District production office taking initiative to provide maintenance inputs like spraying pesticides at an affordable price
Ready fruits are bought cheaply sometime Having an association for fruit growers that way fair prices can be set that favors all the farmers
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Relatively expensive to maintain; requires much capital to buy seedlings and pesticides Access credit and pay after harvest
Much labor force required for establishment and maintaining Form fruit growing groups and use group labour
It is very harmful to the environment – Intensive fruit farming usually involves the use of highly concentrated liquid fertilizers and a lot of deadly chemicals. These often find their way into the surrounding environment through rainwater runoff, where they wreak havoc on sensitive plants and animals Promote use of organic fertiliser which is cheap and locally obtained

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • interviews with land users


7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Li, Zongyu, "Perception of Risk and Risk Management in Fruit and Vegetable Marketing in Tennessee: The Case of Product Liability Risk. " Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee, 2014

Available from where? Costs?

Research Gate

7.3 Links to relevant information which is available online

Title/ description:

Benefits of orchards and fruit growing


Title/ description:

Production risks


Title/ description:

Risk Management


Agricultural, Food and the Environment

Links and modules

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