WINDBREAKS [Philippines]

technologies_1421 - Philippines

Completeness: 59%

1. معلومات عامة

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

retired governement official:

Mananghaya Florencio


SLM specialist:

Rondal Jose

Bureau of Soils and Water Management


Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Bureau of Soils and Water Management (Bureau of Soils and Water Management) - Philippines

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Planting of herbaceous plants or trees along property boundaries to serve as windbreaks and as sources of fodder and fuel

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


The main characteristic of the technology is the planting of herbaceous crops, grasses or trees along property boundaries. The grasses and herbs are occassionally cut and served as fodder or fuel. The trees are allowed to grow up to maturity which will then be felled for timber (construction) or for boat making. With time, especially when trees are used for boudary planting, individual fields look like boxes from the air. The choice of plants between two adjacent farms is agreed upon by the two landowner.

Purpose of the Technology: The boundary planting serves as windbreak to protect agricultural crops from wind damage. Other uses are fodder and fuelwood. The planting especially when done along the contours also trapped eroded soil from the upper portions of the field.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Planting is done once. The herbs and grasses are regularly cut to serve as animal feed. Trees are allowed to grow to maturity. Dead branches are gathered to be used as fuel.

Natural / human environment: The area where the technology is applied is frequently visited by typhoons. The climate is maritime and even at times when there are no typhoons, wind speed is still strong enough to cause damage to crops. Susceptibility to wind damage is further agravated by the nature of the terrain which is mostly hilly.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:

Batanes, Philippines

Further specification of location:


Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • 10-100 km2

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

الأراضي الزراعية

الأراضي الزراعية

  • Annual cropping
Annual cropping - Specify crops:
  • cereals - maize
  • vegetables - root vegetables (carrots, onions, beet, other)

Longest growing period in days: 180Longest growing period from month to month: May - Dec


Major cash crop: None indicated; major food crop: corn, garlic; other crops; rootcrops

Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Crop damage due to frequent typhoons and strong winds.

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Low crop yield due to wind damage, poor crop quality and lack of market.

Type of cropping system and major crops comments: Corn, garlic or root crops are grown in separate fields. Corn is planted in December; garlic in September and rootcrops in July.

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • rainfed

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • windbreak/ shelterbelt

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil

Main type of degradation addressed: Et: loss of topsoil

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Wt: loss of topsoil / surface erosion

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate

Main technical functions: reduction in wind speed

Secondary technical functions: reduction of slope length, improvement of ground cover

In blocks
Vegetative material: T : trees / shrubs, C : perennial crops, G : grass
Vertical interval within rows / strips / blocks (m): 3, 5, 0.5

Trees/ shrubs species: Mahogany, native shrubs

Perennial crops species: Coconut

Grass species: Napier

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:


4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. Seedling/planting beginning of rainy season

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment


Duration of establishment phase: 2 month(s)

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Removal of dead branches (trees) /twice a year
2. Cutting (grass) /every two months

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Perimeter length (m) of area to be treated/planted.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • sub-humid

Thermal climate class: tropics
rainy season lasts for 5 to 6 months

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Comments and further specifications on topography:

Altitudinal zones: 0-100m a.s.l. (hills range from 70 to 270 meters altitude)
Landforms: hill slopes (slopes are gentle and gradual )

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • medium (1-3%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is medium: (1 to 2 years fallow period improves soil fertility)
Topsoil organic matter: 1-3% (Average O.M. content is 2 .0 percent)
Soil drainage is good to medium: (Medium only in depressions)
Soil water sotrage is medium: (soil is deep)

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • subsistence (self-supply)
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • less than 10% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • average
  • rich
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Population density: 10-50 persons/km2

10% of the land users are very rich and own 5% of the land.
20% of the land users are rich and own 5% of the land.
5% of the land users are average wealthy and own 8% of the land.
60% of the land users are poor and own 80% of the land.

Off-farm income specification: Fishing

Level of mechanization: animal traction: Plowing, harrowing, furrowing

Market orientation: Market is practically non-existent

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha

Average farm size is 1,200 sq.m.

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production


fodder production

Comments/ specify:

fodder source --> medium 20-50%

fodder quality


wood production


production area

Income and costs

farm income


Socio-cultural impacts

community institutions


national institutions


SLM/ land degradation knowledge

Comments/ specify:

conservation / erosion knowledge medium (20-50%)

conflict mitigation

Comments/ specify:

socio cultural conflicts - little (5-20%) - conflicts between two adjacent farms possible

Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

surface runoff

Quantity before SLM:


Quantity after SLM:


excess water drainage


soil moisture


soil cover


soil loss

Quantity before SLM:


Quantity after SLM:


Climate and disaster risk reduction

wind velocity

Other ecological impacts

increase in soil fertility

Comments/ specify:

medium 20-50%

biodiversity enhancement

Comments/ specify:

medium 20-50%

Fuelwood source

Comments/ specify:

high 50-100% - dead branches, twigs

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

downstream siltation


wind transported sediments


6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology


100% of land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

200 land user families have adopted the Technology without any external material support

Comments on spontaneous adoption: estimates

There is a little trend towards spontaneous adoption of the Technology

Comments on adoption trend: Almost all the agricultural areas have adopted the technology

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Low maintenance cost

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Frequent removal of unnecessary foliage
Protect crops from wind damage

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Maintenance of canopy and foliage
Improves soil fertility

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Use vegetative parts as mulch.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Easy to establish and maintain

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Encourage adoption for other land users
Provides other benefits such as fodder and fuelwood.

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Frequent cutting in the case of reeds/grasses to stimulate new growth.
Provides residue for organic matter build-up

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Frequent cutting and spreading of vegetative parts
Trap for eroded soil

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Close-spacing of trees and grass
Good for eco-tourism

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Aggressive promotion and marketing

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
Competition with crops for space Use narrower strips for hedgerows
Shading effect of trees Planting of "taro" in shaded area. Frequent cutting of branches
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Loss of space for crops Use narrower strips for windbreaks
Possible sanctuary for pests Practice integrated pest management
Shading effect in the case of tree windbreaks Use of shade tolerant crops. Trees should be pruned regularly.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

Links and modules

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