Technologies

Disability inclusive, flood resilient cluster village [Bangladesh]

"Protibandhita Bandhob Bonna Sohisnu Gucca Gram"

technologies_2005 - Bangladesh

Completeness: 92%

1. معلومات عامة

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
Name of project which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Book project: where people and their land are safer - A Compendium of Good Practices in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) (where people and their land are safer)
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Christoffel Blindenmission (CBM) - Switzerland

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

When were the data compiled (in the field)?

09/11/2016

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:

نعم

1.4 Declaration on sustainability of the described Technology

Is the Technology described here problematic with regard to land degradation, so that it cannot be declared a sustainable land management technology?

لا

Comments:

Not problematic with regard land degradation. It provides efficient and sustainable use of available land resources.

1.5 Reference to Questionnaire(s) on SLM Approaches

Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction
approaches

Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction [Bangladesh]

The disability inclusive approach is centered around the meaningful contribution and leadership of persons with disabilties during the entire project management cycle, from the planning stage to the evaluation of the impact of a project. It contributes to empowering them to overcome social exclusion and recognizes their needs and priorities ...

  • Compiler: Subir Saha

2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

The inclusive, flood-resilient cluster village provides safe housing, food security and income generation for multiple families, including persons with disabilities, in a highly flood prone area of Gaibandha District in northern Bangladesh. The land was raised above flood level and is protected by deep rooted fruit trees to prevent soil erosion and provide income for the land users.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology

Description:

The inclusive, flood-resilient cluster village was introduced in a rural area with a high risk of recurring monsoon floods. The purpose of the technology is to provide safe housing, safe shelter for livestock, food security and income generation for ten families, including persons with disabilities.

The main components of the technology are:

1) The raising of a piece of land by seven feet (213cm), to three feet (91cm) above expected highest flood levels. Solid soil was banked up to encircle a 30'000 square feet (roughly 50x57m) piece of land and then the space within was filled up with sand collected from a nearby river bank. A one-foot layer of solid soil was added to cover the entire area.

2) The protection of the raised land from soil erosion during floods by planting a combination of deep-rooted fruit- and medicine trees around the border of the raised land. The trees include a number of different types of deep-rooted and light-rooted fruit trees and one type of medicine tree, Azadirachta Indica, locally known as "Neem". In addition, the slope of the border area was covered by grass turf to protect the soil from being washed out by rain. Two types of deep-rooted and flood resistant grasses were used. A drainage system was installed to facilitate water runoff.

3) The planting of a 150 square feet (14m2) commonly used homestead vegetable garden at the center of the cluster village. The cultivated vegetables include red spinach, jute leaf, basella leaf, spinach, radish, cabbage, okra, bottle-guts, cucumber and beans, allowing for a summer and a winter harvest. Together with the fruit trees, the vegetable garden provides food security during prolonged flooding. They also provide improved nutrition and income generating opportunities through selling of a part of the harvest in the market.

4) Making the village accessible for persons with disabilities through different accessibility measures, including the construction of a ramp, connecting the cluster village entrance with the road, and of accessible common Water-, Sanitation- and Hygiene (WASH) facilities, including a latrine, deep bore hole water source and water storage tank.

5) Installation of a solar panel to ensure uninterrupted, flood-resilient power supply. The level of power supply is sufficient to ensure coverage of electricity needs during flood season, when regular supply is around 15% below annual average.

The Cluster village was constructed as part of a disaster risk reduction project by CDD (Center for Disability in Development) from Bangladesh, with the support of CBM (Christoffel Blindenmission), an international development organization and funded by a donor from Germany. The main cost for inputs were provided to the land users by the project, including rent of construction machinery, paid labor, soil and construction material for the ramp and WASH facilities. The land users contributed labor and seedlings for the planning of the border trees and the homestead vegetable garden.

The main benefits of the technology from the perspective of land users are the protection it provides for houses and livestock, which would otherwise be in danger of loss during floods. The availability of food, water and electricity allows land users to remain in their homes during floods and avoid evacuation and the risk associated with it, including for example protection risks or the risk of theft. The flood protected vegetable gardens and fruit trees provide a year-round, sustainable source of food and income, providing food security and improved nutrition. The Neem tree provides medical and hygiene uses of the branches and leaves.

The cluster village is used as a safe space for the land users and other members of the community and their livestock during floods. Land users who are persons with disabilities or elderly benefit from the accessible infrastructure. With multiple families sharing land, the cluster villages provides optimal utilization of land resources. An additional benefit mentioned by land users is that the joint use by multiple families led to a more progressive social culture.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

General remarks regarding photos:

2.4 Videos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment

بلد:

Bangladesh

Region/ State/ Province:

Gaibandha District

Further specification of location:

Horipur Union, Sundargonj Sub district,

Comments:

Kani Charitabari, Horipur Union, Sundargonj sub district, Gaibandha District.

2.6 Date of implementation

Indicate year of implementation:

2016

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The technology was introduced as part of a disaster risk reduction project, implemented the Center for Disability in Development (CDD) with the support of Christoffel Blindemission (CBM) and with participation and leadership of the local community. The project was financially supported a group of donors from Germany.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • reduce risk of disasters
  • adapt to climate change/ extremes and its impacts
  • create beneficial economic impact
  • create beneficial social impact

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied

Settlements, infrastructure

Settlements, infrastructure

  • Settlements, buildings

3.3 Further information about land use

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • mixed rainfed-irrigated
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2
Specify:

Summer and winter

Livestock density (if relevant):

Livestock are available in every household.

3.4 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • improved ground/ vegetation cover
  • cross-slope measure
  • home gardens

3.5 Spread of the Technology

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • applied at specific points/ concentrated on a small area

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V1: Tree and shrub cover
  • V2: Grasses and perennial herbaceous plants
structural measures

structural measures

  • S7: Water harvesting/ supply/ irrigation equipment
  • S8: Sanitation/ waste water structures
  • S9: Shelters for plants and animals
  • S10: Energy saving measures
management measures

management measures

  • M1: Change of land use type
  • M2: Change of management/ intensity level
  • M6: Waste management (recycling, re-use or reduce)

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by water

soil erosion by water

  • Wt: loss of topsoil/ surface erosion
  • Wr: riverbank erosion

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • prevent land degradation
  • reduce land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Author:

Shahidul Islam

Date:

09/11/2016

4.2 Technical specifications/ explanations of technical drawing

The drawing shows the layout of the disability inclusive, flood resilient Cluster village. The components of the technology are:

Raised land/plinth: 1) Purchase of land of a total area of 18'000 square feet (ca. 40x40m). Land ownership transferred to joint ownership of 10 families. 2) Collect 15'000 cubic feet (425m3) of solid soil from different pieces of land in the community. The soil was donated by members of the community, who were either related to the land users of the cluster village or donated in support of the construction of a safe space which can be used by the community during floods. 3) Banking up of 3 feet (91cm) of solid soil along the borders of the land. 4) Filling of area with 140'000 cubic feet (3965m3) of sand, extracted from a nearby riverbank with a rented sand extraction machine, raising the land to 6 feet (183cm). 5) Covering the entire area with one additional foot of solid soil, rasing the land to 7 feet (213cm), which means 3 feet (91cm) above the maximum expected flood levels.

Soil protected through deep-rooted trees: 1) Planting of deep-rooted and light-rooted fruit trees, surrounding the entire border of the raised land. The trees include deep rooted fruit trees like mango, black berry, jack-fruit, guava, coconut and areca nut, light-rooted fruit trees like banana and Papaya, a deep-rooted medicine tree, locally called "Neem" and the light-rooted Dhol Kalmi tree (pink morning glory). The number of deep-rooted threes was 100, with a spacing of around 5 feet in between each. They were planted to cover the entire perimeter of the raised land. In between the deep-rooted trees, 60 light-rooted trees were planted. In front of the deep-rooted trees, 60 bamboo bushes were planted to provide additional protection from wind and rain. 2) Turfing of the entire slope surrounding the cluster village with two flood resistant grasses: Durva (Cynodon dactylon) and Catkin grass. 3) Installation of a central drainage system with 15 plastic pipes ensuring water runoff from the wastewater pond.

Road access through ramp: The connecting ramp of the cluster village is 90 feet length, 6 feet width. There are five landing point of this ramp with smooth slopping. The construction material includes class one brick, brick stone, cement, sand, polythene and red oxide color for color contrast, which is appropriate for low vision and visually impaired persons. There is a 5 inch border on both sides of the ramp for safe movement of a wheel chair user.

Accessible household water and sanitation facilities: Latrine and wash-room are constructed for every house in the cluster village, following universal design standards. Latrines are connected to the wash room and the main house through ramps. There is a railing on both sides of the latrine and the entrance is wider for access of a wheel chair users. Water system for the latrine and wash room is provided from a water tank on three pillars behind the latrine, which is also connected to the main house for provision of drinking water. The tank is filled by hand pump ('magic pump') which functions with minimal hand pressure. The WASH facilities are accessible and usable by everyone including persons with disabilities, pregnant women or aged persons.

Home vegetable gardens: Every household has an individual homestead vegetable gardens where land users cultivate seasonal vegetables year-round. Gardens vary in size between averaging about 1.5 decimal (60m2) in size and are surrounded by bamboo fencing. The land owners are using organic fertilizer/compost for the vegetable production of their choice. By using cow's manure and wastage they are producing the compost in the behind of their houses in a ditch.

Solar system: A mini solar system is installed on the roof for each house by using a small panel with a 12-volt battery . Each system has the capacity of providing power for light for 8 hours. An introduction to system maintenance was given to the land users by the provider of the solar system.




4.3 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify how costs and inputs were calculated:
  • per Technology unit
Specify unit:

Cluster village

Specify volume, length, etc. (if relevant):

18'000 square feet piece of land

other/ national currency (specify):

Bangladeshi Taka

Indicate exchange rate from USD to local currency (if relevant): 1 USD =:

80,0

Indicate average wage cost of hired labour per day:

300

4.4 Establishment activities

Activity Type of measure Timing
1. Selecting the place for cluster village construction Management During rainy season in 2015
2. Establish collaboration with 10 families who will become land users Management December 2015
3. Land Raising & Ramp construction Structural December 2015 to March 2016
4. Reconstruction the existing houses of the land users on the raised land Structural April 2016, before onset of rainy season 2016
5. Planting of deep- and light-rooted fruits trees, bamboo bushes and grass turfing along the boundery Agronomic February 2016 to March 2016
6. Install accessible water & sanitation system Structural April-June 2016
7. Establish home garden in front of each house Vegetative June-July 2016
8. Install mini solar system for each house Other measures Aug-sep 2016
9. Prepare livestock shed for each house Structural October 2016

4.5 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

If possible, break down the costs of establishment according to the following table, specifying inputs and costs per input. If you are unable to break down the costs, give an estimation of the total costs of establishing the Technology:

1777380,0

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Land raising, tree planting and turfing on slope person days 290,0 300,0 87000,0 10,0
Labour Ramp construction person days 115,0 350,0 40250,0 10,0
Labour House reconstruction and WASH facilities person days 200,0 400,0 80000,0 10,0
Labour Solar system installation person days 10,0 300,0 3000,0 10,0
Equipment WASH equipment (latrine, magic pump, water tank, pipes, switch, pillars and other) pieces 10,0 46658,0 466580,0
Equipment Solar system pieces 10,0 6300,0 63000,0
Plant material Deep rooted trees pieces 100,0 40,0 4000,0 100,0
Plant material Seed for vegetable KG 5,0 1000,0 5000,0 100,0
Plant material Sapling purchase pieces 100,0 50,0 5000,0 100,0
Plant material Light rooted tree pieces 60,0 30,0 1800,0
Fertilizers and biocides Organic fertilizer (compost) KG 600,0 10,0 6000,0 100,0
Construction material Rent for shallow machine for sand extraction Daily rent 10,0 28800,0 288000,0
Construction material Grass turfing square feet 15000,0 10,0 150000,0
Construction material Allowance for house reconstruction material House 10,0 2000,0 20000,0
Construction material Ramp construction Piece 1,0 125750,0 125750,0
Other Project management (monitoring and support) persons-days 180,0 2400,0 432000,0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 1777380,0
If land user bore less than 100% of costs, indicate who covered the remaining costs:

The project, human resource supported by CBM, CDD and a funded by private donor.

Comments:

Labor for tree plantation, home stead gardening & house reconstruction was contributed by the land users.

4.6 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Type of measure Timing/ frequency
1. Turfing: Repair leakages, replace grass etc. Structural before onset of rains
2. Tree maintenance: Cutting branches, manure of roots etc. Agronomic Rainy season
3. Vegetable gardening Vegetative Summer & Winter season
4. Housing repairs Structural After harvesting season/ once in a year
5. Water and Sanitation system servicing and repairs Management After harvesting season/once in a year
6. Solar system maintenance Management Winter season/once in ayear
7. Village group meeting for decision making and conflict resolution Management Once in a month
8. Organic composting/fertilizer production Other measures Continuous

4.7 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

If possible, break down the costs of maintenance according to the following table, specifying inputs and costs per input. If you are unable to break down the costs, give an estimation of the total costs of maintaining the Technology:

85000,0

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour House repairs person days 10,0 300,0 3000,0 100,0
Labour Ramp repairs person days 10,0 300,0 3000,0 100,0
Labour Plingth raising and plantation person days 30,0 300,0 9000,0 100,0
Labour Solar system servicing by technical experts piece 10,0 500,0 5000,0 100,0
Plant material Seed for vegetable gardening KG 5,0 1000,0 5000,0
Construction material Soil for slope maintenance square feet 5000,0 10,0 50000,0
Construction material Sand for slope maintenance KG 5000,0 2,0 10000,0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 85000,0
Comments:

Land users are agreed to contribute 100% maintenance cost

4.8 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Market fluctuation and scarcity of goods in the flood season.

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Specifications/ comments on rainfall:

Heavy rainfalls are one of the causes for flooding

Agro-climatic zone
  • humid

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
Landforms:
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.
Indicate if the Technology is specifically applied in:
  • not relevant

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (> 20 cm below surface):
  • coarse/ light (sandy)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • high (>3%)

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

> 50 m

Availability of surface water:

medium

Water quality (untreated):

good drinking water

Is water salinity a problem?

لا

Is flooding of the area occurring?

نعم

Regularity:

frequently

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • low
Habitat diversity:
  • low

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Sedentary or nomadic:
  • Sedentary
Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial
Off-farm income:
  • > 50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
  • groups/ community
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • animal traction
Gender:
  • women
  • men
Age of land users:
  • youth
  • middle-aged
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Age of land users includes children, youth, middle-aged as well as elderly.

5.7 Average area of land owned or leased by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale
Comments:

Land users jointly own the land of the cluster village. They do not own any additional agricultural land and work as daily laborers and sharecropers.

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • group
Land use rights:
  • individual
Water use rights:
  • individual
Comments:

Land users own the land of the cluster village jointly, including a proportional share of land- and water use rights.

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

health:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
education:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
markets:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
energy:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts

Production

crop production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Fruit and vegetable production increased after introduction of the cluster village. Because of decreased loss of home and property during floods, labor is freed for crop production which increased overall crop production in the wider area.

crop quality

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Fruit and vegetable quality is improved because of availability of Irrigation.

animal production

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Livestock mortality rate is reduced because of safe space in Cluster village.

risk of production failure

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Homestead vegetable garden and fruit tree plantation above flood level has a significantly reduced risk of production failure.

product diversity

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

The flood-protected homestead vegetable garden allows for higher product diversity.

production area

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Increased availabilty of flood protected land for vegetable gardening.

energy generation

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Energy supply was not available before installation of solar panel.

Water availability and quality

drinking water availability

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Installation of deep tube well water source.

drinking water quality

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Significantly higher water quality during flood, because of flood protected water source in cluster village.

water availability for livestock

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Installation of deep tube well water source.

water quality for livestock

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Significantly higher water quality during flood, because of flood protected water source in cluster village.

irrigation water availability

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Irrigation available to land users after installation of deep tube well.

demand for irrigation water

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Demand for irrigation water increased because of vegetable garden.

Income and costs

farm income

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Increase of farm income through selling of fruit and vegetables.

diversity of income sources

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Additional income source through selling of fruit and vegetables.

economic disparities

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Decreased income disparities between the land users of the cluster village due to fruit and vegetable production available to all land users, Decrease income disparities between land users of the cluster village and other members of the communty because of the reduction of loss from flood damage.

workload

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Somewhat increased workload for maintenance of technology but decreased because of avoidance of damaged from floods.

Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

Increased food security through flood prodected homestead garden and tree plantation.

health situation

worsened
improved
Comments/ specify:

Higher attendance of health workers because the cluster village offer suitable group meeting rooms and accomodation. Cluster village was constructed in vicinity of community clinic. Better hygiene through WASH facilities.

cultural opportunities

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

The cluster village is a suitable meeting point for the entire community, for social gatherings or festivals.

recreational opportunities

reduced
improved
Comments/ specify:

Cluster village offers common space for children and other land users for Joint recreational activities.

situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups

worsened
improved
Comments/ specify:

Much improved situation for persons with disabiltiies who are part of the land users. All persons with disabiltiies in the wider community use the cluster village as a safe space during floods. Improved situation for all land users who are from marginalized parts of society (daily laborers and share croppers).

Ecological impacts

Soil

soil loss

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Soil erosion during floods decreased because of deep- and light-rooted border tree plantation.

Climate and disaster risk reduction

flood impacts

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Raised land as safe space above flood level.

drought impacts

increased
decreased
Comments/ specify:

Drought impact in summer season decreased because of Irrigation.

6.2 Off-site impacts the Technology has shown

available shelter and safe space

decreased
increased
Comments/ specify:

Cluster village provides additional safe space/shelter for the wider community.

6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood very well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:

positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:

very positive

6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • 10-50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

Around 10-15% of households which equals roughly 70 households.

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many have did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%
Comments:

The technology is replicated by households who receive assistance from local government for families at risk of flood damage.

6.6 Adaptation

Has the Technology been modified recently to adapt to changing conditions?

نعم

If yes, indicate to which changing conditions it was adapted:
  • changing markets
Specify adaptation of the Technology (design, material/ species, etc.):

Peoples of cluster villages are selling vegetables and fruits in the local market and some of them are carrying the fruits in the distance market. They are becoming more interested to plant more fruit trees in the cluster village. If it is continue in future it would be a fruits and vegetable market in the cluster village. At the same time they started selling cows milk in the local market and its demand is increasing day to day.

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the land user’s view
Ownership of the land user's are there. Its a community driven initiative & disability inclusive in all respect. They are happy to give shelter to the other villagers during flood season. There is an opportunity to create an example of a model village in this area.
Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Its an innovative program. Peoples participation and their contribution is the main asset. Universal accessibility of the cluster village communicating benefit to other villagers during rainy as well as flood season. This pilot program can be replicated to other riverine areas in Bangladesh.

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the land user’s view How can they be overcome?
The intensity of floods is difficult to predict. With average flood levels rising, land users still have to live with the risk of flood levels going beyond the level of their rised land. More research on changing weather/climatic patterns and scientific measurement of expected flood levels.
Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Government and Non government organizations extension services are not available in this area. Livelihood of the cluster village peoples depending on seasonal agriculture. Income raising multiple activity need to be introduces. A small scale disability inclusive comprehensive project could be implemented here.

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

  • field visits, field surveys

7

  • interviews with land users

10

  • interviews with SLM specialists/ experts

1

  • compilation from reports and other existing documentation

4

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