Solar greenhouses [Tajikistan]

Гармхонаи офтоби (Garmkhonai oftobi)

technologies_1032 - Tajikistan

Completeness: 80%

1. General information

1.2 Contact details of resource persons and institutions involved in the assessment and documentation of the Technology

Key resource person(s)

SLM specialist:
Name of the institution(s) which facilitated the documentation/ evaluation of the Technology (if relevant)
Youth Ecological Center, Tajikistan (Youth Ecological Center, Tajikistan) - Tajikistan

1.3 Conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT

The compiler and key resource person(s) accept the conditions regarding the use of data documented through WOCAT:


2. Description of the SLM Technology

2.1 Short description of the Technology

Definition of the Technology:

Growing crops in solar greenhouses to support a year round crop yield.

2.2 Detailed description of the Technology


Solar greenhouses can be used all year round irrespective of weather conditions, especially in the winter period, when farmers are able to grow vegetables by using natural heat energy. The greenhouses provide a good growing environment as they are insulated and make use of passive solar energy.
This solar greenhouse has three walls which reflect the sun's rays and accumulate heat. The front wall is heat-insulated. Two walls are black and one is white.

Purpose of the Technology: Protect plants from spring and autumn cold spells, including frosts. Extending the natural growing season.

Establishment / maintenance activities and inputs: Selection of the structure of greenhouse, selection of crops, effective ventilation and watering, use of agrotechnology, pest and disease control. Soil control: regeneration, disinfection, mulching, biohumus and drip irrigation in greenhouses.

Natural / human environment: This type of greenhouse can be used for many years in extreme climate conditions, saline soils, unpredictable weather (frosts) and with lack of water resources.

2.3 Photos of the Technology

2.5 Country/ region/ locations where the Technology has been applied and which are covered by this assessment



Region/ State/ Province:


Further specification of location:

Khatlon District, Nosiri Husrav region

Specify the spread of the Technology:
  • evenly spread over an area
If precise area is not known, indicate approximate area covered:
  • < 0.1 km2 (10 ha)

2.6 Date of implementation

If precise year is not known, indicate approximate date:
  • less than 10 years ago (recently)

2.7 Introduction of the Technology

Specify how the Technology was introduced:
  • through land users' innovation
  • through projects/ external interventions
Comments (type of project, etc.):

The first experimental greenhouse was established in 2005 with the use of sketches downloaded from the Internet. Farmers have adapted the technology and introduced a series of innovations to this tehnology, including spray irrigation and a more effective design.

3. Classification of the SLM Technology

3.1 Main purpose(s) of the Technology

  • improve production

3.2 Current land use type(s) where the Technology is applied



  • Annual cropping
Number of growing seasons per year:
  • 2

Longest growing period in days: 150Longest growing period from month to month: December - AprilSecond longest growing period in days: 180Second longest growing period from month to month: March - August

Settlements, infrastructure

Settlements, infrastructure


Major land use problems (compiler’s opinion): Soil salinity, lack of water, climate change

Major land use problems (land users’ perception): Intensive land use type and getting early yield

Future (final) land use (after implementation of SLM Technology): Cropland: Ca: Annual cropping

Constraints of settlement / urban

3.3 Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?

Has land use changed due to the implementation of the Technology?
  • Yes (Please fill out the questions below with regard to the land use before implementation of the Technology)


  • Annual cropping
Settlements, infrastructure

Settlements, infrastructure

3.4 Water supply

Water supply for the land on which the Technology is applied:
  • mixed rainfed-irrigated

Water supply also, full irrigation

3.5 SLM group to which the Technology belongs

  • greenhouses

3.6 SLM measures comprising the Technology

agronomic measures

agronomic measures

  • A1: Vegetation/ soil cover
  • A2: Organic matter/ soil fertility
  • A3: Soil surface treatment
A3: Differentiate tillage systems:

A 3.1: No tillage

vegetative measures

vegetative measures

  • V5: Others
structural measures

structural measures

  • S6: Walls, barriers, palisades, fences
management measures

management measures

  • M2: Change of management/ intensity level

Main measures: structural measures

Secondary measures: agronomic measures, vegetative measures, management measures

Type of agronomic measures: early planting, relay cropping, mulching, manure / compost / residues, rotations / fallows, breaking compacted topsoil, non-inversion tillage

3.7 Main types of land degradation addressed by the Technology

soil erosion by wind

soil erosion by wind

  • Et: loss of topsoil
physical soil deterioration

physical soil deterioration

  • Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities
biological degradation

biological degradation

  • Bq: quantity/ biomass decline

Main type of degradation addressed: Pu: loss of bio-productive function due to other activities

Secondary types of degradation addressed: Et: loss of topsoil, Bq: quantity / biomass decline

Main causes of degradation: change in temperature (Adaptation to climate change), droughts (Water saving in case of droughts), poverty / wealth (Income from greenhouse), labour availability

Secondary causes of degradation: soil management

3.8 Prevention, reduction, or restoration of land degradation

Specify the goal of the Technology with regard to land degradation:
  • restore/ rehabilitate severely degraded land

Secondary goals: prevention of land degradation, mitigation / reduction of land degradation

4. Technical specifications, implementation activities, inputs, and costs

4.1 Technical drawing of the Technology

Technical specifications (related to technical drawing):

The drawing shows the scheme of the greenhouse. This greenhouse differs from other greenhouses as it has three specific walls. Each wall is directed towards the sun. The major heat-saving wall is black. Other walls are of white to reflect rays. The roof is covered with polyethylene film.

Location: South of Tajikistan. Nosiri Husrav region

Date: 2011.05.05

Technical knowledge required for field staff / advisors: moderate

Technical knowledge required for land users: moderate (Basic knowledge of agrotechnology is needed)

Main technical functions: Artificial soil conservation

Secondary technical functions: control of raindrop splash, improvement of ground cover, increase in organic matter, increase in nutrient availability (supply, recycling,…), water harvesting / increase water supply, increase of biomass (quantity)

Early planting
Remarks: almost all the year round

Relay cropping
Remarks: 3-4 times a year

Rotations / fallows
Remarks: once every 3 years

Aligned: -contour
Vegetative material: O : other
Vertical interval between rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.3
Spacing between rows / strips / blocks (m): 0.7

Change of land use type


Kalandarov R., Dushanbe, 3 Herzin street

4.2 General information regarding the calculation of inputs and costs

Specify currency used for cost calculations:
  • USD

4.3 Establishment activities

Activity Timing (season)
1. disease control
2. growing seedlings in flowerpots
3. planting seedlings
4. watering, agro-maintenance
5. disease control
6. vertical tying
7. Training for farmers periodically
8. борьба с заболеваниями
9. вертикальная подвязка
10. обучение фермеров периодически

4.4 Costs and inputs needed for establishment

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Growing of seedlings Persons/day 100.0 5.0 500.0 50.0
Labour Diseas control Greenhouses 10.0 20.0 200.0 50.0
Labour Training for farmers Trainings 1.0 100.0 100.0 50.0
Labour Planting/Watering/Building Greenhouse Greenhouses 10.0 130.0 1300.0
Plant material Seeds Greenhouses 10.0 50.0 500.0 50.0
Plant material Compost manure Greenhouses 10.0 20.0 200.0 50.0
Plant material Pesticides Greenhouses 10.0 20.0 200.0 50.0
Construction material Material Greenhouse 10.0 100.0 1000.0 50.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology 4000.0
Total costs for establishment of the Technology in USD 4000.0

4.5 Maintenance/ recurrent activities

Activity Timing/ frequency
1. Ventilation, watering, temperature regime constantly
2. Change of soil, improvement of soil fertility every 3 years
3. Disease control seasonal

4.6 Costs and inputs needed for maintenance/ recurrent activities (per year)

Specify input Unit Quantity Costs per Unit Total costs per input % of costs borne by land users
Labour Vetilation/Watering/change of Soil/disease control Greenhouses 10.0 200.0 2000.0 50.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology 2000.0
Total costs for maintenance of the Technology in USD 2000.0

Machinery/ tools: water collecting equipment, sprayers

4.7 Most important factors affecting the costs

Describe the most determinate factors affecting the costs:

Labour - voluntary contribution

5. Natural and human environment

5.1 Climate

Annual rainfall
  • < 250 mm
  • 251-500 mm
  • 501-750 mm
  • 751-1,000 mm
  • 1,001-1,500 mm
  • 1,501-2,000 mm
  • 2,001-3,000 mm
  • 3,001-4,000 mm
  • > 4,000 mm
Agro-climatic zone
  • arid

Thermal climate class: subtropics

5.2 Topography

Slopes on average:
  • flat (0-2%)
  • gentle (3-5%)
  • moderate (6-10%)
  • rolling (11-15%)
  • hilly (16-30%)
  • steep (31-60%)
  • very steep (>60%)
  • plateau/plains
  • ridges
  • mountain slopes
  • hill slopes
  • footslopes
  • valley floors
Altitudinal zone:
  • 0-100 m a.s.l.
  • 101-500 m a.s.l.
  • 501-1,000 m a.s.l.
  • 1,001-1,500 m a.s.l.
  • 1,501-2,000 m a.s.l.
  • 2,001-2,500 m a.s.l.
  • 2,501-3,000 m a.s.l.
  • 3,001-4,000 m a.s.l.
  • > 4,000 m a.s.l.

5.3 Soils

Soil depth on average:
  • very shallow (0-20 cm)
  • shallow (21-50 cm)
  • moderately deep (51-80 cm)
  • deep (81-120 cm)
  • very deep (> 120 cm)
Soil texture (topsoil):
  • medium (loamy, silty)
Topsoil organic matter:
  • low (<1%)
If available, attach full soil description or specify the available information, e.g. soil type, soil PH/ acidity, Cation Exchange Capacity, nitrogen, salinity etc.

Soil fertility is low-medium

Soil drainage / infiltration is good

Soil water storage capacity is low

5.4 Water availability and quality

Ground water table:

5-50 m

Availability of surface water:


Water quality (untreated):

poor drinking water (treatment required)

5.5 Biodiversity

Species diversity:
  • medium

5.6 Characteristics of land users applying the Technology

Market orientation of production system:
  • mixed (subsistence/ commercial)
Off-farm income:
  • 10-50% of all income
Relative level of wealth:
  • poor
  • average
Individuals or groups:
  • individual/ household
Level of mechanization:
  • manual work
  • women
Indicate other relevant characteristics of the land users:

Land users applying the Technology are mainly common / average land users

Population density: 50-100 persons/km2

Annual population growth: 2% - 3%

5.7 Average area of land used by land users applying the Technology

  • < 0.5 ha
  • 0.5-1 ha
  • 1-2 ha
  • 2-5 ha
  • 5-15 ha
  • 15-50 ha
  • 50-100 ha
  • 100-500 ha
  • 500-1,000 ha
  • 1,000-10,000 ha
  • > 10,000 ha
Is this considered small-, medium- or large-scale (referring to local context)?
  • small-scale

5.8 Land ownership, land use rights, and water use rights

Land ownership:
  • communal/ village
  • individual, not titled
Land use rights:
  • communal (organized)
  • leased

5.9 Access to services and infrastructure

  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
technical assistance:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
employment (e.g. off-farm):
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
roads and transport:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
drinking water and sanitation:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good
financial services:
  • poor
  • moderate
  • good

6. Impacts and concluding statements

6.1 On-site impacts the Technology has shown

Socio-economic impacts


crop production


risk of production failure


product diversity

Income and costs

farm income


diversity of income sources


Socio-cultural impacts

food security/ self-sufficiency


situation of socially and economically disadvantaged groups


Livelihood and human well-being


Ecological impacts

Water cycle/ runoff

harvesting/ collection of water




soil cover


nutrient cycling/ recharge


soil organic matter/ below ground C


6.3 Exposure and sensitivity of the Technology to gradual climate change and climate-related extremes/ disasters (as perceived by land users)

Gradual climate change

Gradual climate change
Season increase or decrease How does the Technology cope with it?
annual temperature increase not well

Climate-related extremes (disasters)

Meteorological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
local rainstorm not known
local windstorm not known
Climatological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
drought well
Hydrological disasters
How does the Technology cope with it?
general (river) flood not well

Other climate-related consequences

Other climate-related consequences
How does the Technology cope with it?
reduced growing period well
Temperature decrease well

6.4 Cost-benefit analysis

How do the benefits compare with the establishment costs (from land users’ perspective)?
Short-term returns:


Long-term returns:

very positive

How do the benefits compare with the maintenance/ recurrent costs (from land users' perspective)?
Short-term returns:

slightly positive

Long-term returns:


6.5 Adoption of the Technology

  • > 50%
If available, quantify (no. of households and/ or area covered):

15 households in an area of <10 ha

Of all those who have adopted the Technology, how many did so spontaneously, i.e. without receiving any material incentives/ payments?
  • 0-10%

100% семей землепользователей применяют эту технологию без дополнительной материальной поддержки

15 семей землепользователей применяют эту технологию без дополнительной материальной поддержки

6.7 Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities of the Technology

Strengths/ advantages/ opportunities in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view
Short-term positive effect, able to grow vegetables in winter in harsh weather conditions

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Have a lif span of for 5-10 years
Protection from climate change
Long-term technology for adaptation to climate change

How can they be sustained / enhanced? Can be used for production of vegetables despite lack of water resources, and changes in outside temperature

6.8 Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks of the Technology and ways of overcoming them

Weaknesses/ disadvantages/ risks in the compiler’s or other key resource person’s view How can they be overcome?
Cost intensive construction and materials Compromise between cost and effectiveness
Greenhouses are used for growing vegetables Another technology is being developed

7. References and links

7.1 Methods/ sources of information

7.2 References to available publications

Title, author, year, ISBN:

Links and modules

Expand all Collapse all